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UA / Psychology / PY 358 / Is there a genetic basis for depression?

Is there a genetic basis for depression?

Is there a genetic basis for depression?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Andrea glenn
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PY 358 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Psychology study guide
Uploaded: 02/24/2017
4 Pages 112 Views 15 Unlocks
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EXAM 2 GUIDE


Is there a genetic basis to depression?



Tuesday, February 28th, 2:00

1. Mood Disorders

a. Depression

i. Anxiety, loss of interest in activities, abnormal sleep patterns, feeling  irritable, sad, social isolation, lack of concentration, thoughts of suicide,  weight gain/loss, poor appetite

ii. Major Depressive Disorder: persistently depressed mood or loss of  interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life. Persistent  Depressive Disorder: experiences symptoms of major or mild depression  for at least 2 years. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: a diagnosis given  to women who repeatedly experience clinically significant depressive  symptoms during week before menstration


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iii. More common in women

iv. There is a genetic basis to depression.

v. Neurotransmitters associated with depression: serotonin – involved in  emotion regulation; may regulate norepinephrine. And norepinephrine.  Hormones: cortisol, melatonin – hormone involved in the sleep­wake 

cycle, prepares body for sleep. Other neurochemicals: brain­derived  

neurotrophic factor (BDNF) – promotes the growth and survival of new  neurons; it is good

vi. The behavioral theory of depression: stressor leads to reduction in  reinforcersperson withdrawalsreinforcers further reducemore 

withdrawal and depression


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1. Treatment based of behavioral theory: when rewards increase, 

depression decreases

vii. The cognitive theory of depression was developed by Aaron Beck. The  person has negative thoughts about the self, the future, and the world 1. Learned helplessness is when a person suffers from feeling  If you want to learn more check out What is a level 5 leadership?

powerless in whatever they do and can’t escape

2. Attributional styles: internal vs. external, global vs. specific, stable  vs. unstable. Depressed people demonstrate the attribution styles: We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate the accounting rate of return?
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internal, global, stable

3. Cognitive therapy works because it helps patients learn to change  their negative thoughts into positive

viii. Interpersonal therapy focuses on 4 interpersonal problems such as: loss  (someone passed away), role dispute (teen/parent control), role transition (divorce/becoming a parent), and deficits (being shy)

ix. Electroconvulsive therapy is a treatment that involves applying brief  electric current to the brainIf you want to learn more check out Name the different properties of life.

x. different types of antidepressant drugs are: MAOI’s, Tricyclics, and  SSRI’s

1. They target the neurotransmitters in the brain.

2. 60­80% improve that were diagnosed with severe depression.

b. Peripartum Depression

i. The criteria for postpartum depression is the same as major depression,  but it occurs during pregnancy or within 4 weeks of giving birth

ii. Potential causes are: changes in body from pregnancy and delivery,  changes in work and social relationships, less time and freedom for  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the advantages and disadvantages of using electronic medical records?

yourself, lack of sleep, and worries about ability to be a good mother.

iii. Postpartum psychosis occurs in less that .01% in women.

c. Bipolar Disorders

i. Symptoms of mania: inflated self­esteem, decreased need for sleep,  increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, distractibility, increase in goal  directed activity, excessive involvement in activities with high potential for  painful consequences

ii. Manic episode: for 1 week or more, person displays a continually 

abnormal, inflated, unrestrained, or irritable mood and heightened activity  or energy for most of the day, nearly every day (Bipolar 1). Hypomanic  episode: not as severe as manic (Bipolar 2). Mixed episode: one week of  both manic and major depressive symptoms with rapidly alternating 

moods.

iii. No gender differences in bipolar disorder.

iv. There is Bipolar 1, Bipolar 2, and Cyclothymic disorder We also discuss several other topics like How to read force notations?

v. Bipolar is treated by medications.

1. The different medications are lithium and newer mood stabilizers.  They help with mania more than depression. Lithium has more 

side effects.

2. Schizophrenia

a. Psychosis: a state of being profoundly out of touch with reality 

b. The term schizophrenia means “split mind”.

c. Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia is one month or more period of  hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, frequent incoherence, loss of  motivation, lack of speech, flat affect

d. Three different types of symptoms: positive, negative, and psychomotor e. Delusions: false beliefs

i. Bizarre: believing you were abducted by aliens

ii. Non­bizarre: person on TV is talking about you

iii. Delusions of persecution: someone is out to get you

iv. Delusions of grandeur: you are the messiah

v. Delusions of reference: actions mean something related to you

vi. Delusions of control: someone is controlling your thoughts and behaviors  f. Hallucinations: something happening that is not really happening i. Auditory: sounds or voices that seem to come from outside head ii. Visual: seeing something that does not exist or sees something  incorrectly

iii. Olfactory: smelling odors that do not exist

iv. Gustatory: tasting something that is not present

v. Somatic: false perception or sensation of touch or something happening  in or on the body

vi. Tactile: senses that they are being touched when they are not 1. Broca’s area is more active during hallucinations

g. Types of disorganized thought/speech

i. Loose association: one idea to another; incomplete thoughts

ii. Neologisms: making up words that only have meaning to them iii. Preservation: repeating words over and over

iv. Clang association: using rhyme “well, hell, it’s well to tell”

v. Echolalia: repeating what others say

vi. Echopraxia: mimicking another person’s movement

vii. Word salad: whole sentence is scrambled

h. The 4 negative symptoms:

i. Avolition: inability to initiate and persist in activities

ii. Alogia: relative absence of speech

iii. Anhedonia: lack of pleasure

iv. Affective flattening: don’t show emotions, stare vacantly, flat tone in  speech

i. Psychomotor symptoms of schizophrenia: 

i. Catatonia: motor dysfunction ranging from wild agitation to immobility ii. Waxy flexibility

iii. Moves fingers/arms in stereotypical way

j. 3 Phases in Life

i. Prodromal 

ii. Active

iii. Residual

k. Signs in childhood:

i. Abnormal emotional expressions

ii. Abnormal movement

iii. Less responsive

iv. Less eye contact

v. Less positive, more negative emotional expression

vi. Poorer motor coordination

vii. Reaching developmental milestones later 

l. Genetics

i. There is a genetic component

ii. Synaptic pruning: getting rid of excess neurons to strengthen existing  connections

m. Neurotransmitters

i. The neurotransmitter commonly associated with schizophrenia: dopamine (too much)

1. Antipsychotic drugs that reduce hallucinations and delusions 2. Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease cause schizophrenia­like  symptoms in some people

3. Amphetamines activate dopamine. When patients with 

schizophrenia use them it makes their symptoms worse

n. Brain

i. What parts of the brain are abnormal in size in schizophrenia?  ii. What do enlarged ventricles reflect?

o. Environmental factors

i. Prenatal factors associated with increased risk: exposure to flu virus  ii. Trimester in pregnancy that contributes: 2nd 

iii. Parenting style does not contribute

p. Treatment

i. Antipsychotics are used to treat it.

ii. Side effects:

1. Parkinson’s­like tremors

2. Tardive dyskinesia

iii. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: noninvasive procedure that uses  magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in brain

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