Mindfulness focus on the present and being aware of one’s own thoughts and feelings. ∙ Improves mental and physical health ∙ Promotes wellbeing and happiness Compare and contrast the three different training models currently used by clinical psychology graduate programs. Boulder Model (Scientistpractitioner moWe also discuss several other topics like anth 420 study guide
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del) ∙ Equal emphasis on both research and practice ∙ Aka middle of the road model Vail Model (Practitionerscholar model) ∙ Emphasis on practice over research ∙ PsyD degrees Clinical Scientist Model ∙ Emphasis on research over practice ∙ Richard McFall McFall’s Manifesto: → the clinical scientist model is the only legit form of clinical psychology (Cardinal Principle); psychological services should not be administered to the public except under “strict experimental control”. ∙ Empirically based services ∙ PhD degrees ∙ Insider’s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology o Ranks programs on a 7point scale from practicebased to researchbased. Describe the main professional activity of clinical psychologists, the types of clients they see, and at least two other responsibilities of clinical psychologists ∙ Main functions are psychotherapy, diagnosis and assessment. They also supervise, research, teach, consult, administer etc. ∙ The types of clients depends on the location at which the clinical psychologist is working. They could see clients as a “life coach” (someone to help work through situations and plan to fix them) in a private practice, or students if they are working at a school or university. Basically they can see everyone. Rank, according to popularity, the top three employment sites of clinical psychologists ∙ Private Practice is most common (3041%) ∙ University psychology department (~19%) ∙ “Other” 15%: government agencies, public schools, substance abuse centers, corporations, university counseling center Describe the distinction between counseling and clinical psychology. ∙ Counseling: o less diagnosis o nonmedical orientation o emphasizes insightoriented theoretical approach o Can see clients that may not have a mental disorder, but just need help dealing/getting thru a situation in their life (ex. Marriage counseling) ∙ Clinical: o more diagnosis o medical orientation o emphasizes behavioral theoretical approach. o Work with patients who have a definable mental disorder Identify the differences between psychiatric and clinical psychology approaches to treatment. ∙ MD vs PhD/PsyD ∙ Medical treatment vs assessment and psychotherapy; although it is said that psychiatrists only have the ability to prescribe medicine, but in some states, psychologists are also allowed to prescribe certain medications (limited) if they take a course in psychopharmacology. ∙ Stronger sense of biology and neurosciencepsychiatrists may focus more on the chemical imbalance of the brain vs psychologyfocus more on your behavior; psychologists would keep track of your sleep, eating habits, and negative thought patterns so as to find the source/contributing to the illness. (psychiatrists go thru a process of diagnosis of exclusion which includes the analysis of other parts of the body such as looking for a certain vitamin deficiency or at the thyroid before they diagnose someone as depressed. Describe the work of the moral treatment pioneers (Tuke, Pinel, Todd, and Dix) and how they revolutionized the treatment of mental illness. ∙ William Tuke: o Europeborn into a quaker family o Devoted life to improve asylum conditions (asylum pioneer) o When his friend died in an asylum in 1790 due to the inhumane conditions of the place, he decided to raise funds that would allow him to open his own asylum called the York Retreat that focused primarily on the well being of the patients and improving the lives of the mentally ill.>led to the concept of “moral treatment” which was founded by PHILIPPE PINEL. o Opened the York Retreat (1796initially specialized for Quakers), a residential treatment center where mentally ill would be cared with kindness. o Methods were adopted by other institutions ∙ Philippe Pinel: o Francewhen he moved to Paris, he first became a medical journalist and then an unlicensed doctor in an asylum. Shortly after the guard of the Paris medical profession lost power after the French revolution, some of Pinel’s friends were appointed as the new advisors to the government, which they then made him PhysicianinChief at the men and women’s public asylum health centerworked for a long time to transform the system in which the mentally ill were taken care under and worked to make sure that they were treated like actual human beings rather than animals. o Moved mentally ill out of dungeons o Created institutions similar to the York RetreatWilliam Tuke influenced him o Told staff to maintain case history, ongoing treatment notes, illness classification system. ∙ Eli Todd: o America (Connecticut) o A pioneer in the treatment of the mentally ill and believer in humane care of the mentally ill in order for improvement. o Todd’s interest in psychology emerged when his sister committed suicide which he believed to be the result of a mental illness and could have been prevented if there were proper treatments available. o Moral therapy is designed so that humane care would further promote a patient’s return to reason. o Opened The Hartford Retreat for the Insane where patients were treated humanely. o Patients had input on treatment ∙ Dorothea Dix: o Helped establish 30+ state institutions for mentally ill > better treatment Identify the key contributions of Lightner Witmer to the field of clinical psychology. ∙ 1st to operate a psychological clinic; said that clinical psychologists’ work with others involves aspects of treatment, education and interpersonal issues. ∙ 1st time psychology was applied to people’s problems ∙ Founded first psychology scholarly journal: The Psychological Clinic o Defined clinical psychology as related to medicine, education, and social work that require a specially trained professional. Identify the types of clients Lightner Witmer treated in the psychological clinic he founded. ∙ Worked with children who had behavioral or educational problems Describe two ways in which war has influenced clinical psychology 1.) Increase in psychotherapy and psychodynamic approach o Demand created by psychological consequences of WW2 on US soldiers. PTSD, etc. 2.) Army Alpha and Beta IQ test precursor to modern IQ tests → 3.) Nazi presence in Germany displaced many psychologists (Freud) and helped spread their ideas 4.) Hippocratic oath was instituted do no harm. Introduction to PsychotherapyDescribe the Dodo Bird verdict ∙ Dodo Bird Verdict No one model/method of therapy works across all cases and situations. Describe the three common factors across therapies ∙ Therapeutic Alliance: Most important factor o Goals The target o Task How to reach goals o Bonds Collaboration, support, mutual trust ∙ Hope: Optimism that things will improve ∙ Attention: Acknowledging problem and focusing on it to help client feel better. Which of the following is not a common factor across therapies? a) attention b) despair c) hope d) therapeutic alliance answer: B Describe the three stage sequential modeling ∙ Support Factors: o Strong therapistclient relationship o Therapist warmth and acceptance o Trust ∙ Learning Factors: o Changing expectations about oneself o Changing thought patterns o New insights ∙ Action Factors: o Taking risks o Facing fears o Practicing and mastering new behaviors and working through problems Describe one chapter from the Gift of Therapy readings ∙ Chapter 3: Therapist and Patients as “Fellow Travelers” o Everyone experiences life and darkness o No one is immune to depression, anxiety, etc. o Abolishes distinction between therapist and patient stronger relationship → ∙ Avoid diagnosing a patient because this can cause you to see them through a narrow vision. ∙ Let the patient change who you are and matter to you What is something that therapists may want to avoid when treating a less severely impaired patient? a) being friendly with the patientb) diagnosing the patient c) making decisions for the patient d) letting the patient matter to them e) B & C Answer: E Describe one lesson learned from the videos of therapists (posted in the powerpoint) ∙ Windy Dryden: Flexibility as therapist speak client’s language (dialect, manner → of speaking, etc) helps be more relatable to client → ∙ Soth: therapy is not about symptom reduction; might get worse before you get better; therapy is a “character transformation”; therapist might become the inuring object ∙ Lisa Wake: importance of genuineness and authenticity; don’t try to be something you’re not ∙ Mason: be open to influence by your clients ∙ Schlapobersky: injury and pain expressed through language Clinical Interviewing Describe the difference between rapport and technique ∙ Rapport: the overall sense of relationship and comfort between therapist and client, nonverbal cues and interpersonal skills are relevant o Ex: respect, genuineness, verbal tracking, humor ∙ Technique: specific actions engaged in by the therapist, primarily the direct verbalizations offered by therapist o Ex: what questions? What kind of questions? How much detail do you require? How structured are those questions? In response to a vignette, be able to: ∙ Write a brief paraphrase (consisting of a sentence stem, the paraphrase itself, and a checkout) o Sentence stem (names help personalize it), key words used by client and essence of what client has said in briefer and clearer form, checkout for accuracy (“does this sound right?”) Example: Arun, it sounds like….. ∙ Write an openended question ∙ A call for elaboration on a topic ∙ concrete specifics (tell me more) ∙ “How did that make you feel”, “Can you tell me more about that?”, “What do you mean.” ∙ Write a closeended question ∙ Discrete answer, yes/no, etc ∙ Reflect feeling ∙ It’s just like what emotion are they feeling, happy sad etc ∙ Ex. “It seems to me that you feel sad about this situation.” Describe one tool that can be used by clients to identify their emotions∙ Emotion wheel > identify specific emotions Describe the “blues” study and its relevance to emotions ∙ Participants were native Russian speakers vs. native English speakers, they were asked to identify which square correctly matched the color of the top square. Russian makes a distinction between light and dark blue that English does not make. Russian speakers more accurately and quickly discriminated between the light and dark blues than English speakers. ∙ Relevant to emotions because the language you speak can affect how you view the world. Describe two nonverbal attending behaviors ∙ Maintaining eye contact with the client while they speak ∙ Keeping good posture, don't cross your arms and look bored looking attentive → Ethics Distinguish between APA ethics general principles and APA ethical standards o APA ethics general principles aspirational but not enforceable ∙ Beneficence and nonmaleficence ∙ Fidelity and responsibility ∙ Integrity ∙ Justice ∙ Respect for people’s rights and dignity o APA ethical standards enforceable ∙ Resolving ethical issues guidelines on how to report ethical violations ∙ Competence knowing the bounds of your capabilities ∙ Human relations multiple relationships ∙ Privacy and confidentiality maintaining confidentiality unless someone is in immediate danger of hurting themselves or others. ∙ Advertising and other public statements statement by others ∙ Record keeping and fees barter with clients/patients guidelines ∙ Education and training student disclosure of personal information ∙ Research and publication informed consent ∙ Assessment test security ∙ Therapy terminating therapy guidelines, do not have sexual relations with clients. Jaffee vs Redmond: ∙ Psychotherapistpatient privilege o People who are involved in a crime in some form should be able to seek treatment o Godfather scene: confess to murder but therapist can't tell anyone Describe at least one of the five ethical principles ∙ Beneficence and nonmaleficence o Benefit clientso Do not harm ∙ Fidelity and responsibility o Trust ∙ Integrity o Accuracy, honesty, truth ∙ Justice o Fairness ∙ Respect for people’s rights and dignity o Privacy, selfdetermination, confidentiality Apply the standards of multiple relationships, sexual intimacies, competence, and confidentiality to case examples. ∙ Multiple relationships: interacting with someone professionally and in another way (romantic, friendship, business, etc.) o Could be an ethical concern if you know someone as a client and outside of the workplace, it might impair your judgement or cause you to treat them unprofessionally ∙ Unethical when: o Psychologist’s objectivity, competence or judgement can be impaired o Exploitation or harm Power differentials ∙ Foreseeable vs. unforeseeable Might not intend to fall for your client, etc. Identify the consequences of violating ethical standards ∙ Can potentially lose your clinical license ∙ Could face trial / a court case Describe the importance and outcome of the Tarasoff case (Duty/Permission to Warn) ∙ Student from India went to UC Berkeley and met a girl, she broke up with him and he got incredibly depressed and started seeing a therapist. He told the therapist about a detailed plan he had to kill her. Therapist did not tell anyone because there was not a mandate for her to tell anyone at that point in time. The man ended up fulfilling his plan and killing the girl. ∙ Important because led to the duty to warn (when a therapist determines that his patient presents a serious danger of violence to another, he incurs an obligation to use reasonable care to protect the intended victim against such danger.) ∙ Increases burden on psychologists in states covered by Tarasoff to prevent harm Multiculturalism Describe at least one reason that multiculturalism is important ∙ Cultural diversity is a key feature of US population and it’s important for us to understand. ∙ Microaggressions can occur if you have no knowledge of another's culture. Describe the three components of cultural competence ∙ Cultural Selfawareness o Understanding your viewpoint and culture o Acknowledge differences o Ongoing process of learning about our client's cultural experiences and our own cultural identity/values/privileges etc. ∙ Knowledge o Ask client to educate you o Educate yourself o ∙ Skills o Insight or behavioraloriented therapy? o 50 minutes in an office building? o How involved should family be? o Type of therapy what type of treatment you go forward with and skills used. Certain cultures may have certain guidelines to follow (don’t look an elder in the eye, don’t use first name, etc.). These need to be incorporated into therapy. Identify the difference between etic and emic perspectives ∙ Etic: cultural universality o Emphasizes similarities between all people o Doesn’t attach importance to differences between cultural groups ∙ Emic: cultural specificity o Recognizes and emphasizes culturespecific norms Name the three levels of the tripartite model of personal identity, and at least two examples of each level ∙ Universal Level Homo Sapiens Most general o Selfawareness o Commonlife experiences o Biological/physical similarities ∙ Group Level Similarities and Differences often overlooked o Race o Gender o Age o Culture/religion o Sexual Orientation ∙ Individual Level Uniqueness Most specific o Genetics o Nonshared experience Identify the definition of a microaggression ∙ Microaggression Comments and action made in a crosscultural context that convey prejudicial, negative, or stereotypical beliefs and may suggest dominance or superiority of one group over another Name and describe the three forms of microaggressions, and apply them to vignettes ∙ Microassault explicit racial derogation characterized by a verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through namecalling, avoidance, or discrimination. o Often conscious and deliberate o Minority inferiority ∙ Microinsult characterized by communication that convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity. o Often unconscious o “How did you get this job” to an African American employee ∙ Microinvalidation characterized by communications that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color. o Often unconscious o “I don’t see color.” ∙ Microaggression has higher levels of anxiety and depression than normal racism. o Did that really just happen? o Was that racism? Apply the concept of colorblindness to a vignette ∙ Colorblindness: o When people act like they don’t see color, they actually minimize the individual’s own experiences and makes the person come off as racist (irony). o It healthy to acknowledge race o Different races/cultural backgrounds have different ways of doing things and understanding how race and culture plays a role in this can help better understand an individual and their perspective. Someone may come off a rude and loud but that may be how people in their culture express themselves. Dismissing race and treating everyone equally can cause more problems and can block understanding. Inclass vignette of teacher adopting ColorBlind paradigm. Distinguish between explicit and implicit racism ∙ IMPLICIT RACISM Implicit racism, broadly defined, refers to an individual’s utilization of unconscious biases when making judgments about people from different racial and ethnic groups. According to a number of observers, implicit racism is an automatic negative reaction to someone of a different race or ethnicity than one’s own. Underlying and unconscious racist attitudes are brought forth when a person is faced with racerelated triggers, including preconceived phenotypic differences or assumed cultural or environmental associations. ∙ EXPLICIT RACISM Explicit racism is overt and often intentional, for it is practiced by individuals and institutions that openly embrace racial discrimination and hold prejudicial attitudes toward racially defined groups, which they assume to be scientifically identified through genetics. Describe the implications of automatic associations ∙ We think in categories ∙ Comes to mind involuntary ∙ Can shape thoughts and actions Suggest at least one way to reduce implicit biases ∙ Interact with others and gain a better understanding of other people and cultures. Introduction to CBT Understand that every type of negative feeling results from a specific type of negative thought, and describe the thoughts associated with the following feelings (Burns reading) ∙ Sadness or depression thoughts of loss ∙ Guilt or shame thoughts of doing something bad ∙ Anger, irritation, annoyance, or resentment feelings of unfairness ∙ Frustration unfulfilled expectations ∙ Anxiety, worry, fear, nervousness, or panic thoughts of panic/danger ∙ Inferiority or inadequacy thoughts of not being good enough/being inadequate ∙ Loneliness thoughts of being alone and not getting enough love and attention ∙ Hopelessness or discouragement feel that problems will go on forever and things will never improve ∙ Most negative thoughts are distorted and unrealistic Describe the CBT model we reviewed in class (Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviors) and apply them to an example. ∙ By changing your thoughts, you change your behaviors and eventually change how you feel. ∙ Change how you think/perceive things by focusing on hereandnow ∙ Learn to accept feelings and cope with realistic negative situations is as important as learning how to rid yourself of distorted thoughts and feelings When provided with a vignette, identify at least twothree different types of cognitive distortions that apply. 1. All or nothing thinking You look at things in absolute, black and white categories; total success or total failure. 2. Overgeneralization You view a negative event as a neverending pattern of defeat (“always/never”).3. Mental Filter You dwell on the negatives and ignore the positives. 4. Discounting the positives You insist that your accomplishments or positive qualities “don’t count”. 5. Jumping to Conclusions: 1. Mind reading you assume that people are reacting negatively to you when there is no evidence for this. 2. Fortune Telling you predict things will turn out bad without any evidence for this. b. Magnification/Minimization You blow things way out of proportion or you shrink their importance inappropriately. c. Emotional Reasoning You reason from how you feel: “I feel like an idiot, so I must really be one.” d. Should Statements You criticize yourself or other people with “Shoulds”, “Shouldn’ts” or “Musts”. e. Labeling You identify yourself with your shortcomings. “I’m a loser, fool, etc.” f. Personalization and Blame You blame yourself for something you weren’t responsible for, or you blame others for your own attitudes and problems. Describe the sorts of questions you may ask to start restructuring thoughts. Provide examples of restructured thoughts after identifying cognitive distortions. You do not have to know every single cognitive distortion – memorize a few. Be able to apply them to both positive and negative thoughts. ∙ ENCOURAGE REALISTIC THOUGHTS ∙ ‘What evidence supports this idea? And what evidence is against its being true?’ ∙ ‘What might be another explanation or viewpoint of the situation? Why else did it happen?’ ∙ ‘What are worst, best, bearable and most realistic outcomes?’ ∙ ‘What’s the effect of thinking or believing this? What could be the effect of thinking differently and no longer holding onto this belief? ∙ ‘Imagine a specific friend/family member in the same situation or if they viewed the situation this way, what would I tell them? Describe how you may use the techniques below to a vignette: ∙ Feelings wheel o Pinpoint a specific feeling/emotion and form a plan to change it ∙ Thought records: o Helps patients evaluate automatic thoughts when distressed o Organizes thinking and responses Behavioral Activation Explain the rationale behind behavioral activation ∙ Productive and enjoyable behaviors leads to positive feelings which is motivation to keep doing the positive behavior Describe responsecontingent positive reinforcement and how it applies to behavioral activationo RCPR: Positive or pleasurable outcomes that follow an individual’s behaviors within his or her environment and increase the likelihood of those behaviors Positive reinforcement for a behavior (compliment) more likely → to repeat action (consciously or unconsciously) Explain factors that may lead to a low RCPR o Decreased number of reinforcing events o Decreased availability of potential reinforcers in the environment o Inability to experience a sense of reward o Increased exposure to aversive stimuli (punishment) in the form of distressing, upsetting, or unpleasant events o A combination of: Reinforcement for depressed behavior Lack of reinforcement, or even punishment, for nondepressed behavior (Low RCPR) ∙ Depression from behavioral approach Depression is due to low RCPR Trying actions but not getting positive reinforcement Explain two reasons why increasing activity levels is important ∙ It can help you think more clearly mind takes a different focus and may become clearer ∙ Makes you less tired depressed sleeping can make you more tired Distinguish between activities that involve fun/enjoyment and mastery/importance, and explain why both are important ∙ Mastery/achievement/importance activities: getting stuff done that is important in order to live a stable life o Homework, cleaning, studying ∙ Pleasure/fun/enjoyment activities: things you do that don’t serve a purpose of achieving a goal ∙ You need a healthy combination of the two, if you are only doing things that are fun, you may fall behind in schoolwork, cleanliness, etc. If you are only doing things you have to do, you might never have fun or do things that are enjoyable. Explain how you may use a behavioral monitoring form ∙ Circle the day, write down the activities you engaged in during each time slot and rank/describe the importance and enjoyment you felt Describe the components of the LAVA model ∙ Life Area: What is most important to you? ∙ Value: Why is it important? ∙ Activity: How can you get closer to your value? ∙ Once life areas and values are identified, we can tailor the client’s therapy to their specific likes and individual needs. Describe the purpose of a contract ∙ To hold someone accountable for actions to promote to use as motivation to → achieve their goal Apply all of the above to an example case Behavioral Activation and Antidepressant medication are both more effective than cognitive therapy. (Behavioral Activation is the best (76% improve) ∙ Behavioral Activation also works well for treating drug addiction. Yun Chen Guest Lecture – Behavioral Activation in China & Taiwan Describe the overall purpose of Yun’s Master’s Thesis ∙ Explore the potential impacts of behavioral activation on chinese people and the people of Taiwan. limited access to therapists ∙ Depression in china and taiwan is associated with suicide risk, increased physical and cognitive impairments, burden on the national health systems. ∙ Both regions have limited access to evidencebased psychotherapy for depression (CBT), therapist to population ratio in china is 2.4 per 1 mil (3000 per 1 mil in US), lack of well trained mental health providers ∙ Aims: examine item level difference in functioning between BADS and CBADS using DIF analysis ∙ In the East, there is a stigma against mental illness ∙ Geographic separation and cultural norms differences in behaviors → Describe the two primary hypotheses, and explain why he chose to look at both Taiwan and China ∙ Hypothesis: o Some BADS items would exhibit DIF in both the China vs. US and Taiwan vs US o Magnitudes of DIF would be smaller in Taiwan vs US comparison, compared to that of China vs US comparison ∙ They do not have much access to therapists and many people there suffer from depression. He is also from China really, I couldn't tell that's an ← ← example of microaggression Arun would be proud ← Summarize the key findings of Yun’s study ∙ Individual items still function differently across the Chinese and US cultures o Items in the activation factor have the smallest magnitude of DIF and number of DIF items, compared to items in the remaining factors ∙ Magnitude of DIF differences was less in Taiwan vs US than China vs US comparison ∙ DIF differential item functioning text o Helps understand certain groups interpreted different by each group →o It’s typically used to compare standardized tests (SAT, GRE) to make sure that the question is fair among all groups Case Conceptualization (Perceived Racism; Black Superwoman Syndrome) Identify (broadly) the purpose of a metaanalysis ∙ To identify and describe multiple studies and their results Describe at least two consequences of perceived racism ∙ Experiences of and perception of racism can exact a significant psychological toll on people. High correlation between perceived racism and selfreported depression and anxiety (Racism metaanalysis) ∙ Higher rates of hypertension (associated with stress and depression) ∙ Also associated with increased noncompliance with medical care. Provide one example of a microaggression, as measured by the Harrell Everyday Racism Scale? ∙ Your ideas or opinions being minimized, ignored or devalued ∙ Being ignored, overlooked or not given service (in a restaurant, store, etc.) Distinguish between the effects of bother vs. frequency of perceived racism ∙ Bother How much it affects you ∙ Frequency How often it occurs Distinguish between examples of “blatant” vs. “subtle” racism ∙ Blatant: being insulted, called a name, harassed, made fun of ∙ Subtle: being ignored, overlooked or not given service, treated as if you were stupid or talked down to. Distinguish between “racism” vs. “discrimination” ∙ Racism: an ideology of racial superiority followed by discriminatory and prejudicial behavior in three domains: individual, institutional and cultural o “The transformation of racial prejudice into individual racism through the use of power directed against racial group(s) and their members, who are defined as inferior by individuals, institutional members and leaders, and which is reflected in policy and procedures with the intentional and unintentional support and participation of the entire race and dominant culture.” (metaanalysis) o Thinking superiority; beliefs that one is inferior to you ∙ Discrimination: the negative actions and behaviors that are directed at a person or group because of their marginal social status o Might not always be based on race Describe the features and consequences of the Black Superwoman Syndrome ∙ Black women are often the primary breadwinners in their family and juggle multiple roles. They are expected to:o Manifest strength, suppress emotion (“selfsilencing”), resistance to being vulnerable or dependent, determination to succeed despite limited resources, obligations to help others, etc. o Often leads to being overworked ∙ Consequences: hypertension, lupus, obesity, adverse birth outcomes, untreated depression, stressrelated health behaviors, age quicker, heart disease ∙ Public bias often adds to misconception ∙ Race related trauma should be taken into account when treating African Americans ∙ Black women between 4555 years old are biologically 7.5 years older than white women of the same age (telomere differences in DNA) Apply the above concepts to a case example Suicide on College Campuses Describe the “Duck Syndrome” and social comparison theory, and how they might contribute to suicidal ideation in college students ∙ Duck Syndrome A duck looks like it is gliding peacefully on the water, but underneath the water they are working hard to paddle. Like college students they may look fine on the outside but not in the inside. ∙ Social comparison theory comparing yourself to others and viewing yourself as inferior or inadequate. “I am not as good as them and never will be.” or “I’m not doing enough.” Describe the three risk factors for suicide, as proposed by Joiner’s Interpersonal Model ∙ Thwarted Belongingness increased loneliness and decreased reciprocal care (not having meaningful social connections) → “I am alone” ∙ Perceived Burdensomeness increased liability (selfblame for interactions with others and the emotional toll your feelings and depression might have on someone else), increased selfhate “I am a burden.” → ∙ Capability for Suicide decreased fear of death (lessened fear), increased physical pain tolerance “I am not afraid to die.” → Describe some potential interventions for suicide on college campuses ∙ Group mixers and therapy (CAPS) ∙ Club availability, more social events and chances for joining clubs available ∙ Support groups and open communication access Gender & Sexual Orientation Identify the progression of our understanding of homosexuality in the DSM ∙ 1952: Sociopathic Personality Disturbance ∙ 1968: Sexual Deviation ∙ 1980: Egodystonic Homosexuality ∙ 1986: EDH removed∙ 1988: APA labeled discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation irrational ∙ 1998: APA opposed any treatments to change sexual orientation Understand and describe the different facets of The Genderbread Person V 2.0 ∙ Distinctions between identity, attraction (sexual), expression, and sex (biological) ∙ Understanding that woman/manness, masculinity/femininity, etc. are two separate spectrums rather than on opposite ends of a spectrum (usually works together) ∙ Understand that these are continuous rather than discrete variables ∙ Gender is not binary (there is a wide range) ∙ Different spectrum of things that go into identity. ∙ Very broad ∙ Gender identity (internal; how you view yourself) vs gender expression (external; how you showcase yourself to others) Apply the above concepts to a case example. Kinsey Scale: ∙ Different scales of homosexuality or heterosexuality ∙ Stats came from prison populations and male prostitutes so it may not be all accurate Conscience Clauses o Conscience clause: “legal clauses attached to laws in some parts of the US and other countries which permit pharmacists, physicians, and/or other providers of health care not to provide certain medical services for reasons of religion or conscience.”Identify the potential impact of conscience clausecs on the training of graduate students ∙ “A university or community college shall not discipline or discriminate against a student in a counseling, social work or psychology program because the student refuses to counsel a client about goals that conflict with the student’s sincerely held religious belief if the student consults with the supervising instructor or professor to determine the proper course of action to avoid harm to the client” Arizona ∙ APA doesn’t agree with this and thinks Arizona legislature should veto this, they think all students should be trained in all aspects of diversity prior to receiving their degree because they might change their beliefs. They should receive exposure to populations and issues while in training. ∙ Goals of APA: reduce discrimination in all spheres, including access to compassionate and competent mental health services. Also academic freedom of professional education and training programs in psychology to determine what knowledge and skills students need to acquire to meet the responsibilities of a practicing psychologist. ∙ Discomfort vs Competency ∙ Trainee has to be willing to work on their awareness o Discomfort is part of learning process o Conflicts become easier to handle with exposure and practice. o Takes time to learn ∙ After expressing personal beliefs, trainee might feel unsafe and unsupported (“witch hunt”) o Respect trainee’s rights Identify the ethical principles and ethical standards at play when considering the Keeton & Ward cases, as well as how these may conflict with the first amendment. ∙ Keeton: expressed desire to either avoid LGBT clients or engage in conversion therapy ∙ Ward: requested client who was gay to be referred to another student o Claimed that her faith prohibited her from affirming/validating homosexual behavior. o States that she would see LGBT clients if they did not discuss sexual orientation. ∙ APA ethical principles: beneficence and nonmaleficence (benefit client, do no harm), justice (fairness) ∙ Ethical standards: 2.01 Boundaries of Competence, 3.01 Unfair discrimination ∙ 1st Amendment: freedom of speech and freedom of expression of religion Apply the separation, assimilation, and integration approaches to treating culturally different clients to vignettes. ∙ Separation: when psychologist in training operates with own personal values when making professional decisions. ∙ Assimilation: when psychologist in training operates with professional values when making professional decisions. ∙ Integration: when psychologist in training can integrate both personal and professional values in making decisions and can tolerate when there are discrepancies between the two. You are going over the guidelines of ethical standards that therapists are held to. Which of these pieces of information is incorrect and should be corrected? Jaffree vs Redmond set the precedent for psychotherapistpatient privilege. Yup Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California set the precedent for duty to warn. Yup Therapists cannot disclose any information about their patients to other therapists. they can, they have also taken a oath of confidentiality so they can be consulted on which therapy to proceed with. Child abuse must be ongoing for a