• First tutorials on Monday 23rd Jan 2017 • CA will be conducted on Tuesday, 28th March 2017, 3.30 – 5pm • Topics: PV + BatteryIntroduction to Photovoltaic Technology Assoc Prof Lydia Helena Wong Office: N4.1-02-27a Email: email@example.com Facebook: Lydia Helena WongOutline • Renewable Energy Resources and PV potential • Why is PV important now? • Projected growth of PV technology • Current applications of PV deviceWhy Solar? Affordable abundant clean energy resource…..Renewable energy sourcesEnergy Source Comparison Coal Nuclear Bio-fuel Solar PV Wind Hydro
90 - 120
High > 85%
High > 90%
High > 80%
Low < 25%
Low < 35%
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Capital Cost High Fuel Cost Free Levelized Cost of Electricity $/MWh 50-90 Fuel Availability Limited Load or Capacity Factor Predictability (Reliability) Environmental Impact High CO2 Acid Rain Long term effect High > 90% Good None None Noise EarthquakeThe Advantages & Disadvantages of Solar PV Advantages • Sunlight is abundant ( infinite ) • No moving parts to wear out, break down or replace – low maintenance • Solar PV can provide distributed electricity to rural areas • It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gas • Fuel cost is low – Free! Disadvantages • Relatively more expensive than other forms of energy • Low Capacity Factor and location dependentSolar energy per hour on earth surface: Wsun =1.78 x 10 14 kWh Yearly worldwide energy demand: Wdemand =1.11 x 10 14 kWh Covering this area (size of Sumatra) with standard solar cells (12% efficiency) would deliver the world energy demand.Vanguard space shuttle • First space shuttle with PV technology • Launched March 17, 1958 • Lasted 2 weeks with battery, the rest with PV. History of PV • 1839 : Discovery of Photovoltaic effect with liquid (Edmond Becquerel) • 1876 : Photovoltaic effect in a solid (Heinrich Hertz) • 1883 : Se solar cell (C. Fritts) • 1930 : Research of Cu2O/Cu solar cell • 1941 : Patent of Si solar cell (R. Ohl) • 1954 : Crystalline Si solar cell (Bell Lab.) ; 6 % efficiency • 1958 : Using as assistant power in the spaceship (Vanguard I ) ; 5 mW • 1973 : oil crisis • 1980 : solar cell using CdTe, CuInSe2 ,TiO2 etc. • 1986 : organic solar cell by Tang • 2000 : research of an advanced materials and structures • (dye sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell) cheap process , flexible substrate • 2008 : oil crisisWhy are PV devices important now? Combustible Renewables & Waste, 10.6% Hydro, 2.2% Nuclear, 6.5% Natural Gas, 20.9%Others, 0.4% Coal, 25.1% Oil, 34.3% World total primary energy supply (2004) by source • Rising cost of oil • How sustainable are the natural resources? CO2 emission and global warming • Earth temperature = Sun radiation + emitted heat radiation from earth • The emitted radiation is strongly affected by the gases in the atmosphere, in particular, CO2 is a strong heat absorber. • When the total earth T increases by 5°C, 100m of land will be covered by water ???? Beijing, Bangkok and Singapore will disappear!https://youtu.be/NEoZV4htuXoAn inconvenient truth… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu6SE5TYrCMHow competitive is solar compared to other resources? The penetration of renewables will double to 46% of world electricity output by 2040 with variable renewable technologies such as wind and solar accounting for 30% of generation – up from 5% in 2014. As this penetration rises, countries will need to add flexible capacity that can help meet peak demand, as well as ramp up when solar comes off-line in the evening. Which country installed the most solar panels in 2013? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India25% 17% 8% 42% 8% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Annual PV installation by locationsAnnual PV Installations by Location Which country is projected to produce the most solar panels in 2040? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India18% 82% 0% 0% 0% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which country is projected to install the most solar panels in 2040? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India40% 20% 10% 10% 20% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Solar harvesting in Singapore By 2020, 5% of electricity in Singapore will be generated by Solar energy.. PV in Singapore… Zero-Energy Building @ Building and Construction Authority Academy And many more.. 313@Somerset mall Sentosa Cove Tampines GrandeCommercial Solar panels Solar panels Solar cells Solar modules Commercial solar panels used in solar fields/rooftops consist of an array of solar modules, assembled from an interconnected solar cells. Solar tree – an art expression.. • By Welsh designer Ross Lovegrove, exhibited outside MAK museum, Vienna, Austria – October 2007By: YankoSolar gadgets Solar roof – by ToyotaSolar vest Solar tent Applications of PV device www.konarka.comSummary • PV is a potential clean resources because it is abundant, clean, renewable and potentially cheap! • The technology is maturing and more applications will be developed to use PV. • The future is bright for solar!!
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