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School: Nanyang Technological University
Department: Mech Eng
Course: Microelectronic Process Intergration
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 25
Name: MS4630 Lecture 1
Description: This notes covered MS4630 Lecture 1
Uploaded: 02/25/2017
40 Pages 240 Views 0 Unlocks

MS 4630 : Photovoltaic and  Energy Storage Devices Assoc Prof Lydia Helena Wong (course coordinator) Assoc Prof Alex Yan QingyuEnergy harnessing/Storage CHARGING LIGHTING During daylight, the solar  panels produce enough  power to charge the battery At night, the battery  discharges providing current  to light up the field lampCourse Summary : Photovoltaics 1. Overview of Solar Cell Technology:  1. motivation for clean energy, solar cell cost projection, overview of 3 generations of  solar cells. 2. Basic Principles of Photovoltaics : 1. The Physics of Solar Cell 2. Electrical Characterizations of Solar Cell 3. Inorganic Solar cells:  1. Silicon-based solar cell : design and fabrication 2. Overview of thin film based solar cell: CIGS, CdTe, etc.  4. Organic Photovoltaics 1. Device principles and characterizations 2. Bulk Heterojunction OPV, Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 3. Fabrication and Loss mechanisms in OPV 5. Invited Speaker from Industry:  1. Crystalline and poly – Si process and technology (REC). Principles of solar cells:  1. Absorption 2. Charge separation 3. Charge transport 4. Charge collection 3 generations of solar cells •PCE calculation •IV curve • Losses 1st generation :  • bulk Si • Architectures • Losses • Fabrication 2nd generation :  • a-Si, CIGS,  CdTe/CdS, poly Si • Architectures:  • Main advantages and  challenges 3rd generation :  • BHJ, Tandem, DSC,  Hybrid • Architectures Designs towards improving the Efficiency of  a solar cell What you need to understand after  this PV course: • Understand the mechanisms of photon ???? electron conversion of  Photovoltaic devices • Understand the 3 generations of solar cells, their advantages and  disadvantages • Understand the architectures of the solar cells discussed in this  course • Able to calculate the PCE of a PV device • Understand the factors affecting PCE of the 3 generation of solar  cells • Able to compare pros and cons of different types of solar cells. • Able to perform materials selection towards an efficient solar cell. What you need to understand  before this PV course: • Semiconductor physics:  – Band gap, carrier concentration, doping – P-n junction working principles and operations – Carrier recombination, diffusion length – Carrier transport, diffusion, drift, etc.  – M/S junction, accumulation and recombination • General semiconductor manufacturing techniques: – Etching, diffusion, lithography, thin film depositionReference books (PV part) • Nelson, J. The Physics of Solar Cells, Imperial College Press, 2003. • T. Dittrich, Materials Concepts for Solar Cells, Imperial College  Press, 2015 • Luque, A. (Antonio), Handbook of photovoltaic science and  engineering [electronic resource], Wiley,2003.Course Timetable Week

Tutorials LT6 (Tue) 1530-1730 Topic Mon TR+19 1130-1230 Mon TR+19 1230-1330 Mon TR+19 1630-1730 1 10-Jan Lydia Introduction to PV Basics of Solar Cell 1

2 17-Jan Lydia Basics of Solar Cell 2 Electrical Characterizations of Solar Cell Tutorials start on Monday 23 January 2017 rd 3 24-Jan Lydia Silicon Solar Cell Thin Film Solar Cell Tut 1 Tut 1 Tut 1 4 31-Jan Lydia Third Generation Solar Cell

Lunar New Year

5 7-Feb Lydia Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cell (REC) Summary Lecture Tut 2 Tut 2 Tut 2 6 14-Feb Alex Battery (Prof Alex Yan) Tut 3 Tut 3 Tut 3

• Renewable Energy Resources and PV potential • Why is PV important now?

Don't forget about the age old question of Who are Peter Bachrach and Morton Baratz?

• First tutorials on Monday 23rd Jan 2017 • CA will be conducted on Tuesday, 28th March 2017, 3.30 – 5pm • Topics: PV + BatteryIntroduction to Photovoltaic  Technology Assoc Prof Lydia Helena Wong  Office: N4.1-02-27a Email: lydiawong@ntu.edu.sg Facebook: Lydia Helena WongOutline • Renewable Energy Resources and PV potential • Why is PV important now?  • Projected growth of PV technology • Current applications of PV deviceWhy Solar? Affordable abundant clean energy resource…..Renewable energy sourcesEnergy Source Comparison Coal Nuclear Bio-fuel Solar PV Wind Hydro Medium High Medium Medium Low Low Medium Low Free Free 90 - 120 110-140 60-100 130-200 60-110 Declining Limited Limited Abundant Abundant High > 85% High > 90% High > 80% Low < 25% Low < 35% Average Good Average Good Average

• How sustainable are the natural resources?

Why are PV devices important now?

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Capital Cost High Fuel Cost Free Levelized Cost of  Electricity $/MWh 50-90 Fuel Availability Limited Load or Capacity  Factor Predictability  (Reliability) Environmental  Impact High CO2 Acid Rain Long term  effect High > 90% Good None None Noise EarthquakeThe Advantages & Disadvantages  of Solar PV Advantages • Sunlight is abundant ( infinite )  • No moving parts to wear out, break down or replace – low  maintenance • Solar PV can provide distributed electricity to rural areas • It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gas • Fuel cost is low – Free! Disadvantages • Relatively more expensive than other forms of energy • Low Capacity Factor and location dependentSolar energy per hour on earth surface: Wsun =1.78 x 10 14 kWh Yearly worldwide energy demand: Wdemand =1.11 x 10 14 kWh Covering this area (size of Sumatra) with standard solar cells (12% efficiency) would deliver the world energy demand.Vanguard space shuttle • First space shuttle with PV technology • Launched March 17, 1958 • Lasted 2 weeks with battery, the rest with PV. History of PV • 1839 : Discovery of Photovoltaic effect with liquid (Edmond Becquerel) • 1876 : Photovoltaic effect in a solid (Heinrich Hertz) • 1883 : Se solar cell (C. Fritts) • 1930 : Research of Cu2O/Cu solar cell • 1941 : Patent of Si solar cell (R. Ohl) • 1954 : Crystalline Si solar cell (Bell Lab.) ; 6 % efficiency • 1958 : Using as assistant power in the spaceship (Vanguard I ) ; 5 mW • 1973 : oil crisis • 1980 : solar cell using CdTe, CuInSe2 ,TiO2 etc. • 1986 : organic solar cell by Tang • 2000 : research of an advanced materials and structures • (dye sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell) cheap process , flexible  substrate • 2008 : oil crisisWhy are PV devices important now? Combustible  Renewables &  Waste, 10.6% Hydro, 2.2% Nuclear, 6.5% Natural Gas, 20.9%Others, 0.4% Coal, 25.1% Oil, 34.3% World total primary energy supply (2004) by source • Rising cost of oil • How sustainable are the natural resources? CO2 emission and global warming • Earth temperature = Sun radiation + emitted heat radiation from earth • The emitted radiation is strongly affected by the gases in the atmosphere, in particular,  CO2 is a strong heat absorber.  • When the total earth T increases by 5°C, 100m of land will be covered by water ???? Beijing, Bangkok and Singapore will disappear!https://youtu.be/NEoZV4htuXoAn inconvenient truth…  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu6SE5TYrCMHow competitive is solar compared to other  resources? The penetration of renewables will double to 46% of world electricity output by 2040 with  variable renewable technologies such as wind and solar accounting for 30% of generation  – up from 5% in 2014. As this penetration rises, countries will need to add flexible capacity  that can help meet peak demand, as well as ramp up when solar comes off-line in the  evening. Which country installed the most  solar panels in 2013? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India25% 17% 8% 42% 8% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Annual PV installation by locationsAnnual PV Installations by Location Which country is projected to  produce the most solar panels in  2040? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India18% 82% 0% 0% 0% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which country is projected to  install the most solar panels in  2040? 1. Germany 2. Japan 3. USA 4. China 5. India40% 20% 10% 10% 20% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Solar harvesting in Singapore By 2020, 5% of electricity in Singapore will be generated by Solar energy.. PV in Singapore…  Zero-Energy Building @ Building and Construction Authority Academy And many more..  313@Somerset mall  Sentosa Cove Tampines GrandeCommercial Solar panels Solar panels Solar cells Solar modules Commercial solar panels used in solar  fields/rooftops consist of an array of solar modules,  assembled from an interconnected solar cells. Solar tree – an art expression..  • By Welsh designer Ross  Lovegrove, exhibited outside MAK  museum, Vienna, Austria – October  2007By: YankoSolar gadgets Solar roof – by ToyotaSolar vest Solar tent Applications of PV device www.konarka.comSummary • PV is a potential clean resources because it is abundant, clean,  renewable and potentially cheap! • The technology is maturing and more applications will be developed  to use PV.  • The future is bright for solar!!
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