★ In 25 states, including TX, the interest groups and political parties are equally balanced, but slightly leaning towards interest groups.
• Interest groups have most power in states with a traditionalistic culture and non-competitive party system.Don't forget about the age old question of Why anions made the solution basic?
→ Total Number of Groups Registered in Each State
• 1980’s → range of number: 113-3920
★ TX has 1351 groups (more than all but 6 others)
⮡ Rank: 7th or 6thDon't forget about the age old question of How do row vector and column vector differ?
• Larger states have more registered groups.
• Other factors leading to more groups include economics, and political and demographic diversity of state.Don't forget about the age old question of What comprises nonhuman primate communication?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are some specialized type of sentence?
Individual participation is one of the central guiding principles of government in the US and TX.We also discuss several other topics like What does intra-industry trade between similar trading partners allow?
Considered source of government legitimacy in our democracy.
★4 Types [easiest (least costly) to most difficult]:
2) Contacted an elected officialDon't forget about the age old question of Who introduced the cartesian system?
3) Campaigning for someone
4) Running for office
• Easiest and least costly method of political participation
• Turnout very low in TX
★ Time is number 1 cost of voting
⮡ time to get informed, register, and vote.
→ Costs of Voting (1830s – 1850s)
• 1845 → TX first became a state
• That time, voting was restricted to the white, male landowners over 21.
• 1850 → Jacksonian Democracy → property requirement lifted
⮡ people who are not wealthy should participate.
• This was when TX picked up that we should vote for everything.
⎰De Jure → by law ⎱
⎱De Facto → by fact ⎰
Costs of Voting (1860s)
★ De Jure Expansion for Minority Males
• Emancipation Proclamation → Abe Lincoln
⮡ all males in US could vote
⮡ after 14th and 15th amendment, all males over 21 in Southern states could vote as
• Didn’t take full effect until 1960s or so (even in TX)
★ Several mechanisms were put in place in the South and throughout TX to keep African-Americans from voting:
(I) Poll Tax (1902 – 1966)
• In order to vote, a fee had to be paid at the polls.
• tax stayed in TX till 1966 (for state and local) and till 1964 (for national elections)
• used to discourage poor black, white, or Hispanic voters
(II) White Primary (1923 – 1953)
• Most of its history, TX dominated by Democratic party
• That party forbade nonwhites from voting in its primaries → so they basically had no
• This was overruled in the 1950s by the U.S. Supreme Court.
(III) Literacy Test
• Potential voters had to prove they were literate before voting (read, understand, and
interpret U.S. Constitution)
• This was not used in TX.
★ Removing landholding → 🡩 20%
★ Including African American → 10%
★ Decreasing voting age to 18 → no more than 5%🡩
(IV) Grandfather Clause
• Used throughout the South, but not in TX.
• Person couldn’t vote if grandfather didn’t vote.
★ Discrimination in TX was more along economic lines.
⮡ efforts made to keep poor from voting, not necessarily particular races.
⮡ due to traditionalistic culture where elites didn’t want poor to vote.