Chapter 1: What are Governments and what do they do? 1. According to the textbook, what are the defining features of “government?” “...a set of institutions that endures over time and that, in relation to the people of a particular territory, authoritativeIf you want to learn more check out neuro 3000 osu
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ly make and enforces laws” 2. Make sure to know the basic definitions of these types of governing institutions: legislature: an institution of government that makes laws executive branch: a set of institutions in gov’t with authority to put laws into effect, including, but not limited to, through the use of physical force by police/military bureaucratic agencies: organizational units within the executive branch of government responsible for implementing specific public policies and/or providing public services judicial branch: branch of government consisting of courts of law courts: tribunals with authority to resolve legal disputes between parties and that make authoritative judgements that guide/limit executive branch enforcement/implementation of laws 3. What is the name of the legislature of the government of the State of Georgia? Georgia General Assembly What is the name of the legislature of the federal government of the United States? Congress What are the names of the two chambers of the legislature of the government of the State of Georgia? House of Representatives and the Senate What are the names of the two chambers of the legislature of the federal government of the United States? House of Representatives and the Senate 4. Make sure to know and understand these two distinctive features of the American form of government: federalism: principle of government that means authority is partly divided and partly shared between the federal/national government and the state governments separation of powers: principle of government that means legislative, executive, and judicial powers are exercised by three separate branches of government consisting of distinct institutions that are staffed by officials who serve in only one institution at a time 5. Make sure to know and understand the definition of these concepts provided by the textbook: a. Authority (as in A having authority over B): A has a right to issue commands to B and expect B to obey those commands b. Legitimate claim to authority: rightful/justified claim to have authority over another c. Power (as in A has power over B): A can get B to do what B would not otherwise do 6. How are the following three kinds of ordinary laws different from one another: ordinances: a law made by a city or municipal legislature statutes: a law made by Congress or a state legislature regulations: rules made by bureaucratic agencies that have the force of law *examples of ordinary laws 7. Why, according to the textbook, is Max Weber’s definition of government (as that which has “a monopoly over the legitimate use of force over a territory”) misleading? an emphasis on physical force emphasizes the executive function of government at the expense of the legislative and judicial functions performed by government the notion of a monopoly (i.e. an exclusive claim) on the legitimate use of force does not square well with the idea of federalism 8. What does it mean to be “sovereign?” to have sovereignty is to be the highest authority to rule over a given territory Whom (or what) is considered to be sovereign in the United States? governments 9. Make sure to know and understand the various ways governments exercise power over people. affecting hearts/minds and using the “power of the purse” as pos./neg. incentives Make sure to understand how the following concepts relate to the government’s use of power over people: positive incentives (carrots): something that motivates behavior by instilling the hope of enjoying a benefit if a particular action is taken or not taken negative incentives (sticks): something that motivates behavior by instilling the fear of suffering a burden if a particular action is taken or not taken power of the sword: gov’ts ability to influence behavior by using, or threatening to use, physical force through the police or military (executive branch has this power) power of the purse: gov’ts ability to influence behavior by using money through taxing and/or spending as a positive/negative incentive (legislative branch has this power) 10. What do “the power of the sword” and “the power of the purse” have to do with the “separation of powers” in American government? Legislative branch uses power of the purse to control behavior using money and executive branch uses power of the sword to control behavior using physical force. They use force and money to engage in making, enforcing, and judging the law. Only legislatures can pass laws that impose taxes and authorize spending so they control power of the purse. Only the executive branch can exert or threaten force through police or military so they control power of the sword thus the separation of powers. 11. According to the textbook, one reason governments exercise power is in order to provide “public goods.” What are public goods? How do they differ from socalled “private goods?” What does the provision of public goods have to do with collective action problems and free riding? Public Goods: Goods that, once provided, no one in a group can be excluded from enjoying (aka nonexcludable goods) Private Goods: Goods that individuals within a group CAN be excluded from enjoyingFor public goods, no one can demand payment in exchange for their enjoyment and individuals within a group can easily lack motivation to voluntarily contribute to providing them so they will have a strong temptation to free ride (enjoying the benefits of a public good without bearing part of the burden of providing it) The group faces a collective action problem when free riding threatens to prevent a group from providing a public good and so sometimes governments exercise power so that individuals contribute to providing the public good and that prevents free riding and overcomes collective action problems. Chapter 2: Introduction to the American Way of Government 1. What is meant by the word “ideology”? Views about the proper role or legitimate purposes of the government, that tend to emanate from core values and beliefs about human nature and society 2. According to the textbook, what are two government purposes that most Americans consider to be legitimate? Securing Rights Promoting Happiness/Welfare of the People 3. What is “limited government”? What does it have to do with “securing rights”? Limited Government: A principle that government must be empowered to serve its legitimate purposes, including the protection of rights, but it must also be limited and controlled in its powers so that it does not pose an unacceptable risk to rights. Americans believe securing rights means to protect our rights (ex: keep the public safe) and to respect our rights (ex: refrain from harming us unless absolutely necessary) 4. What is the difference between a legal right and a natural right? Which natural rights are listed in the Declaration of Independence? Do Americans tend to agree or disagree that those rights listed in the Declaration are actual moral rights that government has a responsibility to secure? Legal Rights: rights written in ordinary or constitutional law. May or may not be consistent with natural rights. Natural Rights: (aka human rights) Moral rights that all human beings have even when government does not recognize or secure them Natural Rights in Declaration of Independence: Right to life (right not to be killed), right to liberty (right to not be enslaved or physically restrained) and the right to pursue happiness without unjust interference by others. Americans tend to agree that protecting and respecting basic rights such as life, liberty and pursuit of happiness is a primary purpose of government 5. What are socioeconomic rights? Socioeconomic rights: social or economic services or benefits such as housing, healthcare, safe working conditions, and paid vacation time that governments and/or private employers have a duty to provide or guarantee6. In which document are they listed: The Declaration of Independence or the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Do Americans agree or disagree over whether socioeconomic rights are actual moral rights that government has a responsibility to secure? Listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Americans tend to disagree whether socioeconomic rights are moral rights that governments have a responsibility to secure. Many Americans believe it is proper for the government to secure those rights while others believe it is not. 7. According to the textbook, three government purposes the mainstream of American politics considers to be illegitimate are theocracy, racial supremacy, and state socialism (also known as communism or MarxistLeninist socialism). a. Make sure to know and understand the definitions of those three terms. Theocracy/Theocratic Government: Government with a primary purpose of enforcing and/or fulfilling the doctrines of a particular religion. Racial Supremacy: Promote the supremacy of one racial group over another State Socialism/Communism/MarxistLeninist socialism: An ideology that seeks the overthrow of market capitalism and replace it with an equal society free of all class oppression. To achieve this revolution, it calls for government command and control of economic activity including government ownership and control of the means of production. b. Which of those three purposes was accepted as legitimate by parts of the mainstream of American politics in the past? promoting racial supremacy c. According to the textbook, what is market capitalism and how does it differ from state socialism? Market Capitalism: An economic system based on market exchanges and the private ownership of the means of production, and in which the private owners of the means of production purchase labor hours from workers in exchange for wages. State Socialism: An ideology that seeks the overthrow of market capitalism and replace it with an equal society free of all class oppression. To achieve this revolution, it calls for government command and control of economic activity including government ownership and control of the means of production State socialism rejects the idea that the government has a responsibility to secure individual rights especially right of property. While market capitalism relies on markets to organize economic activity and has private ownership in the means of production, state socialism relies on government to control and organize economic activity and control means of production. 8. In addition to federalism and the separation of powers, two distinctive features of the American form of government are constitutional government and democratic government. Make sure to know and understand how each of those concepts are defined by the textbook. Constitutional government: Governments that are effectively bound by fundamental laws Democratic government: Form of government that is by the people in the sense that the people understood as all adult citizens, are enabled to exercise ongoing significant control over the government by exercising legal rights and freedoms designed to give them that control 9. What does it mean to say that in a constitutional government “ordinary laws can be unlawful?” If a law passed by Congress violates the Constitution, then that law is considered “unlawful,” “illegal,” “illegitimate,” “void,” or, equivalently, “unconstitutional.” 10. According to the textbook, a government can be a “constitutional government” even if it doesn’t have a single written constitutional document like the U.S. Constitution. Furthermore, due to the existence of “sham constitutions,” a government can have a single written constitutional document and still not be a true constitutional government (as defined by the textbook). Make sure to understand this discussion. 11. According to the textbook, what is the most basic aspiration Americans strive for by binding their government to fundamental laws? They want to have a limited government which allows the government to: a. protect rights, b. promote happiness, and c. provide public goods, but also They would like a government which doesn’t threaten their rights. 12. What, according to James Madison, is the “great difficulty” one must confront when “framing a government which is to be administered by men over men?” First, you must enable the government to control the governed and in the next place, oblige it to control itself. a. What, according to the textbook, did Madison mean by saying “a dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government.” According to Madison, the way to control the government is making sure that the people’s opinions are heard and they have a big part of the decisions made. They should also have some balance of powers. In conclusion, he is basically talking about the America,n form of government, which is democracy. b. What, according to the textbook, did Madison mean by saying “auxiliary precautions” are also needed for controlling government?“Auxiliary precautions” is referring to a principle that we now call “checks and balances”. Checks and Balances refers to different branches of the government that have enough power over the other to keep a balance of power within constitutional limits. 13. Make sure to know and understand the three general ways and ten specific ways (discussed in section 2.2.1. of the textbook) that American citizens are legally and institutionally enabled to exert control over government. Helping to elect who serves in Government 1. You can run for elected office 2. You can vote in free elections 3. You can openly advocate for a candidate running for elected office 4. You can work for, and/or donate money to, a candidate’s campaign. 5. You can work for, and/or donate money to, a political party. Seeking to Influence the Behavior of those Serving in Government 6. You can directly voice your views and needs to government officials. 7. You can start, work for, and/or donate money to an interest group that, in turn, seeks to influence government officials. 8. You can serve on a jury. 9. You can sue government in court if you believe it has violated one of your legal rights or denied you a benefit to which you are legally entitled. Working Outside the Normal Democratic Process in Order to Improve it 10. you are also free to engage in many activities outside the normal democratic process in order to create changes to the normal democratic process itself. a. Make sure to know and understand the following terms introduced in Section 2.2.1.: free elections, political parties, constituents, petition, interest groups, lobbying, jury, civil disobedience. Free elections: are where more than one candidate runs for office, the candidates present realistic policies for people of all cultures who have different values or principles, every adult citizen is not denied to vote, everyone who can vote has reasonable opportunity to be able to vote, all votes are counted Political Parties: When a group of individuals are together because of mostly similar interests, beliefs and values. They want to have an effect on the government by getting members of their party elected. Constituents: The citizens who elected officials represent and to the citizens they are held accountable via elections. Petition: A written request asking government to address an issue which is signed by many people Interest Groups: An association of individuals or organizations that seeks to influence government to benefit members of the association or advance a cause they share a belief in Lobbying: Activities aimed at influencing government through direct contact with government officials. Lobbyists are in contact with those officials through interest groups. Jury: A group of citizens chosen at random to make judgements on 1 or more legal cases Civil Disobedience: Deliberate acts of of lawbreaking to create awareness about unjust laws or government practices and cause reforms to those laws or practices. 14. Make sure to understand the four freedoms necessary for democracy discussed in Section 2.2.3. adults are free to seek election to government office elections are “free elections” people are free to think, believe, speak, debate, petition, contact government officials, join or form organized interest groups, join or form political parties, assemble, pursue the truth, and publish ideas and factual claims (without censorship or intimidation) procedural protections are in place to prevent government from falsely accusing and/or punishing individuals for “crimes” when in fact the government’s real motive is to intimidate, detain, torture and/or kill those who attempt to exercise one of the above freedoms. 15. Make sure to know and understand the advantages democratic governments have over nondemocratic (“authoritarian”) governments (as discussed in Section 2.2.4.). Protects the interests of citizens Prevents monopoly of authority Promotes equality Makes for a responsible and stable administration Brings a feeling of obligation towards the citizens Promotes change Chapter 3: Introduction to the American Way of Politics1. How does the textbook define “politics”? According to this account, is politics more or less likely to be found in a stable democratic government or in an unstable and/or authoritarian government? politics: nonviolent, open, and free activities through which people, bound by the same stable democratic government, and who often have different opinions and interests, struggle to exert power over what government does 2. According to the textbook, what are “two (sometimes overlapping) sources of disagreement …. [that] are constant objects of political contention in the United States.” proper role of government (ideology) and economic interests. 3. Be able to identify someone as “liberal” (i.e., “to the left”) or “conservative” (i.e., “to the right”) based on how they stand on the following five dimensions of policy discussed in Section 2.1.1. of the textbook: (1) Regulating the Market Capitalist Economy: conservatives the market capitalist economy will be productive, stable, fair, and safe without government regulation Liberals supports government regulation of the market capitalist economy to bring productivity, stability, fairness, and safety (2) Programs Promoting Economic Security, Welfare and Equality: conservatives opposed to programs that redistribute income or wealth from higher income earners to those who are lower income or unemployed Liberals supports government programs intended to reduce economic inequality or that provide low income Americans, children, and elderly with income support and access to food, housing, education, and healthcare (3) Promoting Social Equality of Historically Oppressed or Underprivileged Groups: conservatives concerned with maintaining the traditional statuses and roles of those (men, whites, and heterosexuals) who have historically been most privileged in American society Liberals supports policies intended to enhance the social status, influence and freedom of women, nonwhites, recent immigrants, gay, lesbian, bisexual,and transgendered Americans. Supports laws intended to bring historically oppressed or underprivileged groups to a condition of social equality with historically privileged groups (4) Upholding and Promoting Traditional Moral Values: conservatives support programs intended to uphold and promote traditional moral values such as moral prohibitions on premarital sex, abortion, gambling, drug use, pornography, and homosexualityLiberals see such policies as unjustly oppressive toward women, poor, nonwhites, and homosexuals and see such policies as inappropriate attempts by government to impose particular moral values on those who do not share them (5) Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice System: conservatives emphasize the need for punishing those who are guilty of crimes. Favor empowering police to do their work with as few legal and procedural impediments as possible Liberals emphasize the need for securing the rights of those accused of committing crimes. Emphasize the importance of guarding against abuse of power by police. 4. How are liberals and social democrats (or “progressives”) similar to and different from each other? similar: believe government should not interfere with choice of abortion and same sex marriage, favor greater role for government in regulating the economy and providing economic assistance to low income families, and support federal law mandating that working mothers be granted 6 weeks paidleave from work after giving birth. Raise tax on wealthiest Americans. liberal (Hilary Clinton): make student loans more affordable, rely on government regulation of a competitive private health insurance system, more effective regulation of large banks, raise tax considerably, trust in business corporations. social democrat (Bernie Sanders): want government to pay for ALL of college, health insurance should be provided to all citizens by government, break large banks into small banks, raise taxes really high, less trusting of large business corporations. 5. How are libertarians similar to and different from liberals? similar: they are not very similar. Libertarians are extremely republican and liberals are democrats. libertarians (Gary Johnson): minimal government, extreme when it comes to opposing economic regulation, social security is illegitimate use of government power and should be eliminated, punish those who violate the rights of life and liberty and property, enforce contracts that private persons freely enter into. liberals: in favor of government regulation, supports social security and welfare programs to help low income families, secure the rights of those accused of committing crimes. 6. How are libertarians similar to and different from conservatives? Similar: opposed to welfare and programs aimed at improving the status of historically oppressed groups, think laws should uphold traditional moral values.libertarians: minimal government, extreme when it comes to opposing economic regulation, social security is illegitimate use of government power and should be eliminated, punish those who violate the rights of life and liberty and property, enforce contracts that private persons freely enter into. conservatives: limited government, allows police to do their job with few impediments, less spending on social security. 7. How were state socialism and fascism similar to and different from each other? similar: both are totalitarian → unlimited authoritarian government based on the complete subservience of the individual to government. state socialism: also known as communism that seeks the overthrow of market capitalism and replace it with an equal society free of all class oppression. To achieve this revolution, it calls for government command and control of economic activity including government ownership and control of the means of production. fascism: right wing totalitarian ideology. This antiegalitarian ideology embraced class divisions, sought to subordinate and exterminate peoples it viewed as being inferior races, and viewed military triumph over other nations as the highest aspiration of politics. 8. What is the difference between “principled politics” and “the politics of interest”? principled politics: people enter into politics for causes that do not serve their obvious selfinterest. Political conflicts emanating from genuine disagreements over ideology, justice, and what will truly be advantageous for the people. politics of interest: struggle to exert influence over government emanating from conflicting economic interests and the efforts by individuals and groups to advance public policies that benefit themselves and pass burdens into others. 9. Make sure to know and understand the four political scientific models of American politics discussed in Section 3. majoritarianism: says the opinions and interests of the majority of Americans tend to prevail, through the mechanism of democratic elections, in the struggle for power over government. elite theory: says a tiny group of connected and wealthy Americans are the rulers of America. pluralism: says government is influenced by the efforts of multiple minority organized groups with opposing interests and values. All citizens potentially affected by politics can and will organize and thereby exert influence over policy. biased pluralism: sees the process as plural (represented by diverse values and interests) but biased toward the particular values and interests that concern and divide the relatively affluent and welleducated. Chapter 4: Constitutional Origins, Principles, and Development1. The Declaration of Independence expressed philosophical principles that are sometimes referred to as “America’s Creed.” o What does that creed say about the legitimate ends (i.e., purpose) of government? The first states that the purpose of government is “to secure … [natural] rights.” The second states that for government authority to be legitimate, it must be based on “the consent of the governed.” The government needs to be empowered to protect the rights of individuals from one another and from foreign threats. The government also needs to be controlled so that they do not unjustly threaten the people's’ rights. o According to that creed, what is the source of government’s legitimate authority? The source is based on the consent of the governed o According to that creed, what do the people have the right to do when confronted with a government that is destructive of the ends which governments should serve? The people have a right to withdraw their consent from the government, to abolish it, and to create a “new government”, that will be more likely to secure their rights and promote happiness. 2. You will not be expected to remember precise dates and/or years. However, you should know the order in which the following events/activities transpired: ratification of the Bill of Rights, ratification of the Articles of Confederation, first round of revolutionaryera state constitution making, Critical Period, Shays Rebellion, signing and ratification of the original U.S. Constitution, signing of the Declaration of Independence. Declaration of Independence (July 4,1776) first round of revolutionaryera state constitution making Article of Confederation ratified (March 1781) Critical Period (17831789) Shay’s Rebellion (17861787) Ratification of US Constitution (September 1788) Ratification of Bill of Rights (December 1791) 3. Make sure to know and understand the first five design principles of the Articles of Confederation discussed in the textbook and how these contributed to the weakness of the central government. Make sure to know and understand the sixth design principle of the Articles of Confederation discussed in the textbook. 1. Confederal Structure: created a confederacy there is a central government and state governments, but the system is setup so that states maintain as much sovereignty and independence as possible. States cede only as much power to the central government as is absolutely necessary for the government to maintain good relations with states.The central government does not claim direct authority, or directly exercise power, over individual persons rather over state governments. 2. No Distinct Branches of Government: The central government consisted solely of a unicameral legislature a legislature with only one “chamber” or “house”. The articles did not create independent executive or judicial branches of government. Since there was no executive or judicial branches, no one could carryout public policy. Congress could select a person to be “president” but the president only serves for one year, could be replaced by Congress any time, and didn’t have much power. Missions were undermined when other countries complained that there was no person or office in the United States responsible for making sure the U.S. carriedout the agreements. 3. Lack of Clear Supremacy of Treaties and Other National Laws: The articles did not explicitly specify that treaties entered into by the US were binding agreements that took precedence over state laws. Since there was a lack of clarity, states passed laws that contradicted the terms of treaties. Congress sent ambassadors to other countries on diplomatic missions. 4. Tight Control of Congressional Delegates by State Legislatures: Delegates who served in Congress were tightly controlled by state legislatures. Legislatures were required to select delegates every year but could recall any delegate at any time and replace them. But no matter how many delegates a state sent to Congress, each state had only one vote in Congress. The delegates would decide by majority vote on how they would use their state’s single vote on each bill or resolution considered by Congress. This meant the state's only had to control a majority of their delegates in order to get what they wanted. 5. Supermajority Voting in Congress: The articles of Confederation stated that for Congress to implement any important policy, the support of supermajority of nine states (70%) was required. Even if the states were not prone to voting in a highly selfinterested manner, it would have still been very difficult for Congress to get that many states to support proposed policies. Supermajority was difficult to meet so enacting policies weakened Congress’ power. 6. No Direct Control by the People over Congress: The articles gave people no direct control over Congress. The people did not elect their representatives in Congress, instead the state legislatures elected every member of Congress. o What was “the great and radical vice” in the design of the Articles of Confederation according to Alexander Hamilton? Why did this “vice” contribute so greatly to the weakness of the Articles of Confederation? The great and radical vice was the Confederal Structure. The problem was that the central government was unable to effectively exercise power over the state governments. It was government over government instead of government over people. o What was the Critical Period? What did it have to do with the weaknesses of the central government created by the Articles of Confederation? How did the Critical Period lead to the Constitutional Convention in 1787? The Critical Period (17831789) was after the Revolutionary War when it seemed America’s revolutionary experiment in democratic government faced high risk of failure. The main reason was that the states were becoming antagonistic and even hostile toward one another. It was already clear, for example, that there was a growing divide between Northern states and Southern states over the issue of slavery. The central government was given no general authority to regulate trade and other forms of commerce between the states, and, thus, much of the protectionism was actually lawful. A growing sense that the system was dysfunctional led Madison and Alexander Hamilton to organize a small convention in Annapolis, Maryland in September of 1786 to discuss the need for reforming the Articles of Confederation. Only12 delegates from 5 states attended the Annapolis Convention so Congress followed the Convention’s recommendation by calling for a Constitutional Convention. 4. How did the principle of popular sovereignty (consent of the governed) help the Founders to get away with “unconstitutionally establishing an entirely new constitution”? Relatedly, why does Article VII of the Constitution call for ratification through state conventions instead of through state legislatures? According to the fundamental law laid out in the Articles of Confederation, the only lawful way to amend the Articles was by unanimous consent of the state legislatures This led founders to devise an ingenious way to get around the state legislatures Instead of submitting to legislatures, the Founders decided to submit the Constitution to special popularly elected ratifying conventions in each state *only required 9/13 states to ratify it Although a lot had to happen for the Founders to get away with unconstitutionally establishing an entirely new constitution, arguably the most important factor was that, by appealing directly to the people through conventions for approval, they were able to invoke the principle of popular sovereignty to justify their actions. 5. Make sure to know and understand the six design principles of the original U.S. Constitution (as discussed in the textbook chapter). 1. Federalism 2. Popular Sovereignty 3. Representative Democracy 4. Bicameralism 5. Separation of Power/Checks and Balances 6. Small List of Civil Liberties o Which institution (House, Senate, President, or Supreme Court) was designed to be held the most closely accountable to the people? Which was designed to be the least accountable to the people?HOUSE and PRESIDENT are most closely accountable to the people. SCOTUS and SENATE are least accountable to people o For how long are terms for .. ● members of the U.S. House of Representatives? 2 years ● U.S. senators? 6 years ● U.S. presidents? 4 years o What is the difference between a direct democracy and representative democracy? What kind of democracy did the Founders create? A direct democracy is a form of democratic government in which all of the citizens directly participate in making and enforcing laws. A representative democracy is a form of democracy in which the citizens who make and enforce laws are accountable to and represent the majority of citizens who do not directly participate in making and enforcing laws. The founders created a representative democracy o Why did the Founders choose a bicameral legislature instead of a unicameral one? They chose a bicameral legislature because it facilitated the Great Compromise. All state constitutions provided for bicameral legislatures. Madison’s Virginia Plan had also proposed a bicameral legislature despite the fact that all representation in Congress were based on state population size. The purpose of a bicameral legislature was to create an upper and lower house. o What purposes were served by the system of checks and balances? the system of checks and balances was designed to try and keep the branches truly separate from one another by giving them a bit of power over one another. The system was designed to uphold the rule of law especially to make sure that each branch followed the fundamental law of the Constitution. 6. What was “the Great Compromise”? Why was the Constitutional Convention in a stalemate before it? The Great Compromise (aka the Connecticut Compromise) was set to solve the disagreement between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention over how to apportion seats in Congress. The lower chamber has proportional representation and the upper chamber has equal state representation. The stalemate was that citizens in small states did not want to be outvoted in Congress by large states any more than citizens of large states wanted to be outvoted in Congress by small states. 7. Make sure to know and understand the four ways discussed in the textbook that the Original Constitution protected slavery. 1. 3/5ths Compromise each slave would count as threefifths of a person 2. Electoral College 3. Slave Trade Clauses 4. Fugitive Slave Clauseo Why did antislavery delegates want slaves to NOT be counted at all for purposes of calculating each state’s number of representatives? Why did slavestate delegates want each slave to be counted as at least threefifths of a person (if not as a whole person)? Antislavery delegates believed it was unjust to to make special accommodations for slave owners’ property in slaves. They even believed that counting slaves would actually reward slaveseats with more seats in Congress if they increased the number of slaves. Slave state delegates wanted each slave to be counted as at least threefifths of a person because it would give assurance to slave states that they would hold majority of the seats in the House of Representatives. o How did the Electoral College give slave states extra voice in the selection of the President? The number of electors in each state would be equal to the number of representatives for their state, meaning that the larger population states would have more electors. o What did the Original Constitution establish about the Atlantic Slave Trade? Congress would not ban the slave trade prior to 1808, which was twenty years after they expected the constitution to be ratified which was 1788. o What did the Fugitive Slave Clause do? The Fugitive Slave Clause granted slave owners a constitutional right to recapture runaway slaves who had fled to other states, including states where slavery was illegal. And, as importantly, it took away the right of states to pass laws to protect and/or emancipate runaway slaves. 8. Which group—the Federalists or the Antifederalists—supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution? Which opposed ratification? The Antifederalists opposed ratification, while the federalists supported ratification. o Why, according to Section 3.3. of Chapter 4, were the Federalists and Antifederalists “cofounders of the Constitution”? The Federalists created the Federalist Papers which are the best guide for understanding the theory behind the US Constitution and the system of government it creates. The Anti Federalists created the Bill of Rights and even the 27th Amendment which attest to the fact that they were cofounders along with the Federalists. 9. Make sure to know the basic subject areas covered by the seven articles of the Original Constitution. (Article I) Article I: Legislative Power, Limits on Federal and State Government Authority Article II: Presidency Article III: Judiciary Article IV: States and the Union Article V: Constitutional Amendment ProceduresArticle VI: Status of Legal Authority and Obligations under the Constitution Article VII: Method and Requirements for Ratifying the Constitution 10. Which amendments make up the Bill of Rights? The first 10 11. What was the last amendment in the Founders’ Constitution? 12th Amendment 12. Which three amendments are referred to as the Reconstruction Amendments? The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments o What did each of those amendments declare? 13th abolished slavery everywhere in the US 14th rejects the doctrine that only white persons can be citizens; it also establishes that it is unconstitutional for any state government to pass or enforce any law that abridges U.S. citizens’ fundamental rights and liberties; to deprive anyone of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law”; or to deny any person the “equal protection of the laws.” 15th declared that it is unconstitutional for anyone to be deprived of the right to vote on account of “race or previous condition of servitude.” o In what ways did these transform the Founders’ Constitution—particularly with respect to slavery and white supremacist views of American citizenship? The Founders’ Constitution assured slave states that the federal government would not interfere with slavery in the states where it existed, the 13th Amendment bans slavery everywhere in the United States and empowers the federal government to make and enforce laws designed to assure its permanent abolition The Reconstruction Amendments gave the federal government a new responsibility for protecting the fundamental liberties and freedoms of individuals against abuse by state governments. The 14th and 15th Amendments each in their own way make it clear that the U.S. Constitution enacts the principle that “all men are created equal” everywhere in the union and rejects white supremacist views of American citizenship.