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bi 212

bi 212

Description

School: Oregon State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Principles of Biology
Professor: Jeff chang
Term: Winter 2017
Tags: BI212, Biology, Principles of biology, OSU, and Oregon State University
Cost: 50
Name: BI 212 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: This is a study guide for the second BI 212 midterm. Questions are pulled from the learning outcomes, pre-lecture quizzes, and the 2016 midterm, as well as other questions. The answers are at the end of the document. Material: cytoskeleton, plant cell structure, plant growth, soil and plant nutrition, light and photosynthesis, transport, genomics and biotechnology, and plant hormones, from lectures
Uploaded: 02/26/2017
22 Pages 11 Views 7 Unlocks
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Material: Cytoskeleton and plant cell structure (2/2)-plant hormones (2/20)


What is Cytoskeleton?



Cytoskeleton and Plant Cell Structure, Plant Growth, Soil and Plant Nutrition, Light  and Photosynthesis, Transport, Genomics and Biotechnology, Plant Hormones.

Learning Outcomes

Definitions

Winter 2016 Exam

Pre-Lecture Quizzes  

Additional Questions

Answer Key is at the end

Learning Outcomes

Cytoskeleton and Plant Cell Structure 

∙ Describe the structure and function of the chloroplast and plant cell wall (for later topics,  relate structure and function to the process of photosynthesis and plant growth, respectively).

∙ Pair cellular processes to the corresponding cytoskeletal components.

∙ Describe the structures and functions for microtubules, intermediate filaments, and  microfilaments

Plant Growth 

∙ Relate the structures of plant organs, tissues, and cells to their functions. 

∙ Illustrate primary and secondary growth of plants.


The light reaction occurs when?



Soil and Plant Nutrition 

∙ Explain how textural, structural, and chemical variations in soil affect nutrient availability. 

∙ Articulate the process by which plant microbiota­associated rhizobia and mycorrhizae  engage with hosts to exchange services/products.

Light and Photosynthesis 

∙ Describe the properties of light and the absorption of light by pigments. ∙ Apply knowledge of redox to explain the transformation of light to chemical energy. ∙ Illustrate the light reaction and its transformation of light energy into ATP and NADPH. ∙ Illustrate the Calvin cycle and its role in synthesizing a molecule of high potential energy.

∙ Compare and contrast the outcomes for the two enzymatic functions of Rubisco and  differentiate between C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Transport 

∙ Illustrate the transpiration­cohesion­tension mechanism. 


What is Apical dominance?



If you want to learn more check out art 105 uiuc

∙ Illustrate the process of bulk flow. 

∙ Calculate water potential and predict the direction that water will move across a membrane.

Genomics and Biotechnology 

∙ Draw analogies between cellular information storage and flow to those of computer systems. ∙ Compare and contrast the methods used for improving traits in plants. ∙ Evaluate the merits and risks of genetic engineering. 

Plant Hormones 

∙ Describe a general signal transduction pathway (the details presented on pages 838­839 are excessive so focus on the “big picture”).

∙ Pair plant hormones to their primary roles in plant growth, development, and responses. ∙ Relate how scientific process led to discoveries and our current understanding of plant  signaling.

∙ Pair signals to receptors to responses of plants. 

Definitions

Define the following terms

Cytoskeleton and Plant Cell Structure 

Actin

Basal Body

Cellulose

Centrosome

Centriole

Chloroplast

Cilia

Cytoskeleton

Dynein

Flagella

Hemicellulose

Intermediate filament

Keratin

Microfilament

Microtubules

Middle Lamella

Motor proteins

Myosin

Pectin

Plasmodesmata

Pseudopodia

Stroma If you want to learn more check out naming cyclohexenes

Thylakoid

Tonoplast

Tubulin

Plant Growth 

Apical Meristem

Axillary Bud

Bark

Collenchyma

Companion cell

Cork

Cork Cambium

Cuticle

Derivatives

Endodermis

Epidermis

Ground Tissue

Guard Cells

Indeterminate Growth

Initials (stem cells)

Leaf Primordium

Lignin

Meristem

Mesophyll

Organ

Parenchyma

Pericycle

Periderm

Phloem

Sclerenchyma

Sieve Plate

Sieve Tube Elements

Stomata  

Tissue

Tracheids

Vascular

Vascular Cambium

Vascular Rays

Vessel Elements

Xylem

Soil and Plant Nutrition 

Bacteroids

Clay

Flavonoids

Horizons

Humus

Leghemoglobin

Legume

Loam

Macronutrients

Microbiota If you want to learn more check out csu hes

Micronutrients

Mycorrhizae (ecto &arbuscular) Nod Factors

Rhizobia

Sand

Silt

Soil

Symbiosis

Light and Photosynthesis 

Bundle Sheath Cells

C4

Calvin Cycle

CAM If you want to learn more check out What are the two dominate environmental factors that affect how people live in Micronesia?

Carotenoid

Chlorophyll

Chloroplast

Cyclic Electron Flow

Cytochrome Complex

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

Light

Light Harvesting Complex

Light Reaction

Linear Electron Flow (noncyclic electron flow) Mobile Electron Carriers (Pq, Pc, and Fd)  NADPH

NADP+ Reductase

PEP Carboxylase

Photon

Photorespiration

Photosystem I and II

Pigment

Primary Electron Acceptor

Pyruvate

Reaction Center)

Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) Don't forget about the age old question of bscom

Rubisco

Transport 

Adhesion

Apoplast

Casparian Strip

Cavitation

Cohesion

Endodermis

Megapascal

Osmosis

Phloem

Pressure

Sink

Source

Surface Tension

Symplast

Transpiration

Turgor Pressure

Water Potential

Xylem

Ψ

Genomics and Biotechnology 

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Arabidopsis thaliana

Artificial Selection

Bacillus thuringiensis

Biotechnology (plant)

Bt Toxin

Chromatin

Chromosome

CRISPR

Gene

Genetic Engineering (plants)

Genome

Golden Rice

Transgene

Transgenic

Plant Hormones 

Abscisic Acid

Acid Growth Hypothesis

Apical Dominance

Auxin

Cytokinin

Ethylene

Far red light

Gibberellins

Hypersensitive response

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

Photomorphogenesis

Phototropism

Phytochromes

Post translational modification

Receptor

Red Light

Second Messenger

Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR)

Signal Transduction

Transcriptional Regulation

Triple Response

2016 Exam

1. A mixture of soil particles

a. Flavonoid

b. Horizon C

c. Hydathodes

d. Humus

e. Loam

2. Which of the following completes a true statement? Meristems ______ a. Consist of undifferentiated cells

b. Are present throughout the plant body

c. Contribute only to primary growth

d. Have specialized functions for each tissue type If you want to learn more check out stephen schafer victimology

e. Cease to divide in adult plants

3. In C3 plants, photorespiration is a consequence of:

a. An excess of ATP

b. The need to regenerate the pool of NAD+ 

c. The addition of O2 to RuBP by RUBISCO

d. The reducing state of the Pq pool

e. The need to expel CO2

4. Absent from prokaryotic cells.

a. Plasma membrane

b. DNA

c. Ribosomes

d. Cytosol

e. Lysosome

5. In response to drought, accumulation of Abscisic Acid (ABA) will lead to: a. A decrease in Ψs in the stomatal pore

b. An increase in Ψs in guard cells

c. A decrease in Ψs in guard cells

d. An increase in Ψp in guard cells

e. No change in Ψ in guard cells

6. During linear electron flow, what molecule is reduced first? a. ATP

b. Ferredoxin (Fd)

c. NADP+ 

d. Special chlorophyll in PSI

e. Special chlorophyll in PSII

7. The light reaction occurs:

a. Only in C3 plants (not C4 or CAM plants)

b. In the matrix

c. In the stroma

d. In the thylakoids

e. In the cytoplasm

8. A cell type found in xylem of plants.

a. Sieve tube elements

b. Tracheids

c. Parenchyma

d. Collenchyma

e. Sclerenchyma

9. An error in node factor synthesis occurred. Which one is true? a. Rhizobia bacteria will not recognize this new plant molecule b. The fungus that synthesized the node factor will not form mycorrhizae c. The plant will not be able to respond to the rhizobia bacteria d. The root cap will still curl but there will be no infection thread e. There will be a proliferation of root hairs

10.In regards to the long distance movement of water, evaporation occurs within the:

a. Xylem

b. Palisade mesophyll cells

c. Air spaces of the leaves

d. Guard cells

e. Phloem

11.Synthesis of soluble proteins is carried out in ribosomes:

a. Bound to the nuclear envelope

b. Bound to the rER

c. Free within the mitochondrial matrix

d. Free in the cytosol/cytoplasm

e. Bound to the plasma membrane

12.Immune systems of plants and humans can be signaled by:

a. PAMPS (aka MAMPs)

b. Flavonoids

c. Phytoalexin

d. Nod factors

e. SAR

Use the picture above to answer questions 13 and 14.

13.This bicycle is approximately 8 feet off the ground. How did the bike get to  this height?

a. Someone leaned it against the tree and primary growth elevated it to 8 feet

b. Someone leaned it against the tree and secondary growth elevated it  to 8 feet

c. Someone hung it at 8 feet

d. Meristem cells grew beneath it and elevated it to its current height e. It is impossible to provide a plausible explanation

14.The right pedal of the bicycle is encircled by the vascular cambium. The right  pedal is embedded in:

a. Cells of the xylem

b. Cells of the phloem

c. Cells of the ground tissue

d. Cells of the peridem

e. Both A and B

15.You label an electron of a single chlorophyll molecule located within PSII.  Where will the labeled electron be located immediately after you expose the  plant to light?

a. Water

b. An adjacent chlorophyll molecule

c. Special chlorophyll

d. Primary electron acceptor

e. The same chlorophyll molecule  

16.Apical dominance is influenced by the ratio of cytokines and: a. Auxin

b. Jasmonate

c. Gibberellin

d. Abscisic Acid

e. Ethylene

17.What statement regarding the Calvin Cycle is false?

a. It begins and ends with RuBP

b. It involves an enzyme called Rubisco

c. It is dependent on the light reaction

d. It generates ATP for use in future sugar reduction

e. It occurs in the stroma

18.In cation exchange, K+ in soil is made available to plants via: a. Co-transport with an anion

b. Releasing H+ to displace K+ 

c. Na+-K+ pump

d. Diffusion through the membrane

e. Xylem loading

19.You collected rhizobia from a soybean field and added them to your pea  garden. Your peas turned yellow and produced few seeds. What happened? a. The rhizobia do not survive in the soil and died before you used them b. The pea plants failed to produce cytokinins for root growth c. There was too much oxygen in the garden

d. There was an insufficient amount of Nitrogen near the garden e. The peas and collected rhizobia were not compatible  

20.Primary hormone involved in triggering fruit ripening.

a. Auxin

b. Cytokinin

c. Gibberellin

d. Abscisic Acid

e. Ethylene

21.The hydrophobic tails of chlorophyll molecules are for:

a. Providing electrons for electron transport

b. Capturing light energy

c. Inserting within membranes

d. Generating ATP through photophosphorylation

e. Being the primary electron acceptor

22.Microfilaments consist of

a. Actin

b. Tubulin

c. Dynein

d. Myosin

e. Centrioles

23.An example of sink tissue:

a. Is a photosynthesizing leaf

b. One that promotes phloem loading

c. One that produces Carbon

d. Is a fruit

e. Is a mature leaf

24.A plant cell is placed in a sugar solution with ΨS = -0.2 MPa. If the plant cell  was originally ΨS = -0.4 MPa and flaccid, which of the following statements is  true?

a. Water will enter the cell and the cell will be turgid at equilibrium b. Water will leave the cell and the cell will be turgid at equilibrium c. Water will enter the cell and the cell will be flaccid ate equilibrium d. Water will leave the cell and the cell will be flaccid at equilibrium e. There will be no movement of water

25.Bound ribosomes synthesizing proteins physically associate with the: a. Mitochondrial outer membrane

b. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)

c. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)

d. Gooey crap (goop) in a cell

e. Plasma membrane

26.Rhizobia typically enter root tissue via a(n):

a. Infection thread

b. Symbiosiome

c. Flavonoid

d. Pericycle

e. Leghemoglobin

27.A lettuce seed planted in a dense and dark forest will:

a. Germinate because of a high amount of Pfr

b. Not germinate because of a high amount of Pfr

c. Germinate because of a high amount of Pr

d. Not germinate because of a high amount of Pr

e. Germinate because of an equal amount of Pfr and Pr

28.This group of cells has a Casparian strip to ensure symplastic route into the  xylem:

a. Epidermis

b. Xylem

c. Bundle sheath cells

d. Root hairs

e. Endodermis

29.Guard cells are part of what plant tissues?

a. Ground

b. Stems

c. Dermal

d. Vascular

e. Roots

30.Best describes muscle contraction:

a. Rapid disassembly of intermediate filaments

b. Arrays of microfilaments pulled towards each other

c. 9+2

d. Cisternal maturation model

e. Rare example of motor protein-independent cell movement 31.Oxygen:

a. Inhibits nitrogenase

b. Is a substrate for RUBISCO

c. Is necessary for plants

d. All of the above

e. One of the above

32.Which statement is false?

a. Red light has a longer wavelength than blue light

b. Plants absorb green light for photosynthesis

c. Light energy is referred to as protons

d. Light excites electrons in chlorophyll

e. Light is absorbed by pigments located in the thylakoid membrane 33.Tissue with functions in long distance transport in plants. a. Vascular

b. Ground

c. Dermal

d. Peridermal

e. Meristem

34.In the absence of water, a seed will have:

a. More gibberellins that abscisic acid (ABA) and will not germinate b. More gibberellins than ABA and will not germinate

c. Less gibberellins than ABA and will not germinate

d. Less gibberellins than ABA and will germinate

e. Equal amounts of gibberellins and ABA and will not germinate 35.The component of the cytoskeleton present in eukaryotic cilia. a. Microfilaments

b. Intermediate filaments

c. Microtubules

d. Macrofilaments

e. Microfiche

36.The primary force in moving water long distances in plants a. Pumping of K+ 

b. Cohesion

c. Cavitation

d. Source to sink pressure

e. Negative pressure

37.Best describes an aspect of the “Cisternal maturation model’. a. Proteins are matured in the cisternae of the rER

b. Proteins are moved through the Golgi via vesicles

c. Old cisternae are recycled via autophagy

d. The cisternae of the Golgi move from cis to trans

e. Cisternae of the rER mobilize and form the cis face of the Golgi 38.Enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation.

a. Calvinase

b. Pc

c. G3P

d. RuBP

e. RUBISCO

39.I dislike mowing my lawn. Why does the grass continue to grow after mowing  it?

a. The grass have shoot meristems further down towards the base b. The grass have a vascular cambium

c. The root apical meristems give rise to below and above ground tissues d. Each grass blade consists entirely of meristematic cells

e. Grass trichomes are meristematic and can regenerate

40.Long distance transport of water occurs in the:

a. Endodermis

b. Xylem

c. Apoplast

d. Sieve element

e. Periderm

41.The acid growth hypothesis models growth in response to which hormone? a. Auxin

b. Cytokinin

c. Gibberellin

d. Abscisic acid

e. Ethylene

42.Secretion of proteins outside of the plasma membrane of bacteria occurs via: a. Direct synthesis of proteins outside the plasma membrane b. A process that is identical to the process of protein secretion in animal  cells

c. Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because of their cell wall d. Coupling proteins synthesis with secretion

e. Binding ribosomes directly to the Golgi apparatus

43.Mycorrhizae:

a. Fix nitrogen

b. Increase gas exchange through stomata

c. Increase surface area for root absorption

d. Remove O2 to prevent photorespiration

e. Can only function in anoxic environments

44.The general function of the transduction stage of signal transduction is: a. Signal reception

b. Signal amplification

c. Changing gene expression

d. Glycosylating receptor proteins

e. Associating with the ECM

45.What is true regarding phloem?

a. Active transport is required for phloem loading

b. It always transports downward

c. Active transport of water is required for phloem unloading d. Transports from sink to source

e. The driving force is negative pressure (sucking)

46.Which of the following changes will cause houseplants to transpire more? a. Turning on a device to increase humidity (humidifier)

b. Lowering the house temperature by 5 degrees

c. A new house cat

d. Leaving the ceiling fans on at full speed

e. Addition of another plant

47.Hydrogen bonding between water molecules is called:

a. Covalent

b. Cohesion

c. Tension

d. Adhesion

e. Ionic

48.Which statement is false?

a. Plant cells can have mitochondria

b. Some plant cells lack all or most organelles

c. Ribosomes are present in the cytoplasm and in some organelles d. Plant, bacterial, fungal, and animal cells have cell walls

e. Some animal cells are motile

49.The ΨS of a flaccid cell = -0.6 MPa. At sea level, the cell is placed in a NaCl  solution with Ψ = -0.4 MPa. At equilibrium, what is the ΨP of the cell? a. +0.4

b. +0.2

c. 0.0

d. -0.2

e. -0.4

50.Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) is:

a. The product that “leaves” the Calvin cycle

b. Utilized during cyclic electron transport

c. Only produced by C4 plants

d. A mobile electron carrier

e. Only present in photosynthetic organisms

Pre-Lecture Quizzes

Quiz 8:

1. Which of the following is a type of cell junction in animal cells? 

a. Plasmodesmata

b. Desmosomes

c. Extracellular connections

d. Membrane bypasses

e. Microvilli

2. What is the role of centrioles? 

a. Move flagella

b. Help organize the microtubule assembly

c. Make up microvilli

d. Reinforce shape of the cell

e. Create permanent framework of cell

3. What is the name of the fluid outside the thylakoids in chloroplasts? 

a. Matrix

b. Cytosol

c. Granum

d. Stroma

e. Thylakoid fluid

4. Which component of the cytoskeleton is the biggest in diameter? 

a. Intermediate filaments

b. Megafilaments

c. Microfilaments

d. Microtubules

e. Ginormatubules

5. What best describes the structure of a microtubule? 

a. Helical

b. Supercoil

c. Hollow rod

d. Polymer of nucleotides

e. Double helix

6. Where is the middle lamella? 

a. Inside the microtubules

b. Between the two layers of the phospholipid bilayer

c. Outside the extracellular matrix

d. Between the primary cell walls or adjacent plant cells

e. Between the cell membrane of adjacent animal cells

7. In animal cells, where do microtubules grow out of? 

a. Centrosome

b. Centriole

c. Centromere

d. None of the Above

8. Which organelle utilizes the process of converting solar energy to chemical energy? a. Mitochondria

b. Nucleus

c. Chloroplast

d. Lysosome

9. Which one does not describe or pertain to the cytoskeleton? 

a. Confer structure

b. Confer movement

c. Microtubules

d. Actin

e. Immobile structure

10.What is the role of peroxisomes? 

a. To break-down glucose into usable energy

b. To help transfer proteins to the cell membrane

c. To allow movement of cytosol between plant cells

d. Support the cellular structure by increasing the amount of cytoskeleton elements in the cell

e. To move hydrogens to oxygen atoms creating hydrogen peroxide that  they can also break down

Quiz 10:

1. Contributes to primary growth in woody plants. 

a. Apical meristem 

b. Cork cambium 

c. Vascular cambium 

d. Vessel elements 

e. Vascular rays 

2. Guard cells regulate: 

a. Pores

b. Meristems 

c. Thylakoids 

d. Sieve plates 

e. Cambiums 

3. Connected to sieve­tube elements via Plasmodesmata. 

a. Companion cell 

b. Xylem cell 

c. Phloem cell 

d. Phelloderm cell 

e. Sell cell 

4. Keeps sieve­tube elements (members) alive. 

a. Companion cells 

b. Tracheids 

c. Hydathodes 

d. Sink cells 

5. Typically dead at functional maturity. 

a. Collenchyma 

b. Sieve­tube elements 

c. Companion cells 

d. Parenchyma 

e. Sclerenchyma 

6. Increases girth of plants. 

a. Shoot apical meristem 

b. Axillary bud meristem 

c. Vascular cambium 

d. Pericycle 

7. A cell type found in xylem of plants. 

a. Sieve tube elements 

b. Tracheids 

c. Parenchyma 

d. Collenchyma 

e. Sclerenchyma 

8. Which one of the following completes a true statement? Meristems: ____________ a. Consist of undifferentiated cells 

b. Are present throughout the plant body 

c. Contribute only to primary growth 

d. Have specialized functions for each tissue type 

e. Cease to divide in adult plants 

9. Guard cells are part of what plant tissue? 

a. Ground 

b. Stems 

c. Dermal 

d. Vascular 

e. Roots 

10.Tissue with functions in long distance transport in plants. 

a. Vascular 

b. Ground 

c. Dermal 

d. Peridermal

e. Meristem 

Quiz 11:

1. What is the first thing that happens in photosynthesis? 

a. An electron is transferred from P680 to the primary electron acceptor 

b. Water is split via enzyme catalyzation 

c. An electron is excited in Photosystem II 

d. An electron is excited in Photosystem I 

e. An electron is passed form PS I to PS II 

2. What is linear electron flow in photosynthesis? 

a. The flow of electrons through the photosystems in the thylakoid 

b. The excitation of the electrons by photons 

c. The transfer of energy from ADP to ATP 

d. The active transport of electrons against their concentration gradient 

e. The cycling of electrons in the Calvin cycle 

3. Pigments absorb specific colors because: 

a. Only the absorbed photons have an amount of energy that equals the difference between the ground and excited states of the pigment 

b. The pigments adopt different confirmations at different times of the day to absorb specific wavelengths 

c. The degradation of phenylalanine to alanine is a rate­limiting step and variations in the  accumulated alanine affect specificity of absorption 

d. Light takes certain paths through tissues and the specificity of light absorption is  predicated on the location of the pigment 

4. What are the three main photosynthetic pigments? 

a. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll c 

b. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Carotenoids 

c. Xanthophyll, Chlorophyll, Carotenoids 

d. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Xanthophyll 

e. Chlorophyll, Xanthophyll, Orthophyll 

5. What are the two stages of photosynthesis? 

a. Glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle 

b. Light reactions and the Kreb’s cycle 

c. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle 

d. Light reaction and Calvin Cycle 

e. Light reactions and the citric acid cycle 

6. Plants are photoautotrophs. What does this mean? 

a. They are attracted to light 

b. They synthesize their own food from inorganic materials 

c. They are the primary consumers of the biosphere 

d. They generate oxygen 

e. They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic  materials 

7. The ultimate source of energy to support most life on Earth is _____. 

a. Chemosynthetic microbes 

b. The carbon cycle 

c. Photosynthetic plants 

d. Sunlight 

e. Geothermal heat

8. The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells. 

a. Mitochondria 

b. Chloroplasts 

c. Golgi apparatus 

d. Nucleus 

e. Endoplasmic reticulum 

9. Which of the following is a product of the light reactions of photosynthesis? 

a. glyceraldehyde­3­phosphate 

b. oxygen, ATP, and NADPH 

c. NADP+ and RuBP 

d. high­energy photons 

e. water and CO2 

10.When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by  _____. 

a. Removing them from NADPH 

b. Fixing carbon 

c. Splitting water 

d. Oxidizing glucose 

e. Breaking down ATP 

Quiz 15:

1. What is the biological basis for the debate about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? a. Unknown risks about the release of GMOs into the environment 

b. Increasing net carbon dioxide emissions 

c. Decreasing crop yields 

d. Contaminating the water supply in areas were GMOs are grown 

2. Which of the following is considered plant biotechnology? (Select all that apply) a. Use of plant to make products of use to humans 

b. Use of genetically modified organism in agriculture and industry 

c. Use of plant fossils to oil 

d. hand pollination of plants 

3. Why is Bacillus thuringiensis used to genetically modify agricultural crops? 

a. It’s transgenic genes encode a protein that is toxic to insects reducing the need for  pesticides 

b. It’s transgenic genes encode a protein that make corn taste better 

c. It’s transgenic genes make wheat seeds larger 

d. It’s transgenic genes are not able to “fuse” with plant genes preventing contamination of  the original plant genome 

4. _______________ form between the nitrogenous bases in complimentary strands in DNA holding these strands together. 

a. Phosphodiester linkages 

b. Glycosidic linkages 

c. Hydrogen bonds 

d. Ionic bonds 

e. Ester linkages 

5. ___________________ form the sugar­phosphate backbone. 

a. Phosphodiester linkages 

b. Hydrogen bonds 

c. Van der waals forces

d. Ionic bonds 

e. Ester linkages 

6. ___________________ is a purine base and it is relatively ________________ in size compared  to pyrimidines. 

a. Adenine : smaller 

b. Cytosine : smaller 

c. Guanine : larger 

d. Thymine : larger 

e. Uracil : larger 

7. Covalent bond between R groups of cysteine. 

a. Disulfide bond (bridge) 

b. Super bond (bridge) 

c. Ester bond (bridge) 

d. Quaternary bond (bridge) 

e. Chris Christie (George Washington bridge) 

8. The dehydration reaction between adenine and cytosine: 

a. Forms a phosphodiester linkage 

b. Forms a glycosidic linkage 

c. Requires the addition of water 

d. Forms a phosphopeptide bond 

9. The DNA double helix is made up of two strands of DNA arranged _________________ and  bonds form between base pairs that are _________________. 

a. Antiparallel : complementary 

b. Antiparallel : identical 

c. Parallel : complementary 

d. Parallel : identical 

10.Which of the following bases will basepair with adenine in DNA? 

a. Adenine 

b. Cytosine 

c. Guanine 

d. Thymine 

e. Uracil 

Quiz 16:

1. Growth of a plant towards light is: 

a. Photophosphorylation 

b. Photoperiodism 

c. Photosynthesis 

d. Photography 

e. Phototropism 

2. What is a hormone? 

a. A molecule produced in very large amounts in an organism. 

b. A molecule that does not impact an organism but is excreted as wastes 

c. A signaling molecule that is transport from one part of the organism to another or act  locally 

d. A type of opening in the cellular membrane that allows protein production 

e. In plants, something that is transported through the whole plant body 

3. What is the function of transduction? 

a. to take a very strong signal and weaken it so it doesn’t damage the cell

b. to amplify the signal and transfer it from the receptor to the response c. to respond to the signal 

d. to alter the chemical make­up of the cell to allow it to receive the signal e. None of the above 

4. Contribute to sensing direction of gravity in plants. 

a. Chromophores 

b. Statoliths 

c. Pericycle 

d. Gibberellins 

e. Gravimetry 

5. Light receptor of plants. 

a. Phytochrome 

b. Phytoagar 

c. Fightoclub 

d. Phytophthora 

e. Phytoalexin 

6. Phytochromes: 

a. Detect blue light 

b. Initiate leaf abscission 

c. Fix carbon 

d. Carry out electron transport 

e. Regulate plant responses to light 

7. What is the role of heat shock proteins? 

a. To protect a plant from excessive heat 

b. To protect other proteins from heat stress 

c. To activate a tropism away from heat 

d. To turn on cooling cells that protect the plant from damage 

e. To stimulate leaf abscission 

8. What is thigmotropism? 

a. Directional growth in response to gravity 

b. Directional growth in response to light 

c. Directional growth away from light 

d. Directional growth in response to touch 

e. Directional growth towards mycorrhizae 

9. Which type of light enhances seed germination? 

a. Red 

b. Far Red 

c. Blue 

d. Ultraviolet 

e. Infrared 

10.Where are hormone receptors located in plants?  

a. In the cytosol 

b. In the nucleus 

c. In the cell wall 

d. In the cell membrane 

e. Either A or D 

Additional Questions

1. Label the cross section of the monocot stem.

A.________________

B.________________ _

C.________________ _

D.________________

2. Label the cross section of the dicot stem.

A.___________________________ B.___________________________

C.___________________________ D.___________________________

E.___________________________ F.___________________________ G.___________________________

Answer Key

2016 Exam

1. E 2. A 3. C

4. E 5. B 6. E.

7. D 8. B 9. C

10. C 11. D 12. A

13. C 14. A (E is also  

acceptable) 15. E 16. A 17. D 18. B 19. E 20. E 21. C 22. A

23. D 24. A 25. B 26. A 27. D 28. E 29. C 30. B 31. D 32. B 33. A

34. C 35. C 36. E

37. D 38. E 39. A

40. B 41. A 42. D

43. C 44. B 45. A

46. D 47. B

48. D 49. B 50. A

Pre-Lecture Quizzes

Quiz 8:

1. Which of the following is a type of cell junction in animal cells? 

B. Desmosomes

2. What is the role of centrioles? 

B. Help organize the microtubule assembly

3. What is the name of the fluid outside the thylakoids in chloroplasts? 

D. Stroma

4. Which component of the cytoskeleton is the biggest in diameter? 

D. Microtubules

5. What best describes the structure of a microtubule? 

C. Hollow rod

6. Where is the middle lamella? 

D. Between the primary cell walls or adjacent plant cells

7. In animal cells, where do microtubules grow out of? 

A. Centrosome

8. Which organelle utilizes the process of converting solar energy to chemical energy? A. Chloroplast

9. Which one does not describe or pertain to the cytoskeleton? 

E. Immobile structure

10. What is the role of peroxisomes? 

E. To move hydrogens to oxygen atoms creating hydrogen peroxide that they  can also break down

Quiz 10:

1. Contributes to primary growth in woody plants. 

A. Apical meristem 

2. Guard cells regulate: 

A. Pores 

3. Connected to sieve­tube elements via Plasmodesmata. 

A. Companion cell 

4. Keeps sieve­tube elements (members) alive. 

A. Companion cells 

5. Typically dead at functional maturity. 

E. Sclerenchyma 

6. Increases girth of plants. 

D. Vascular cambium 

7. A cell type found in xylem of plants. 

B. Tracheids 

8. Which one of the following completes a true statement? Meristems: ____________ A. Consist of undifferentiated cells 

9. Guard cells are part of what plant tissue? 

C. Dermal 

10. Tissue with functions in long distance transport in plants. 

A. Vascular 

Quiz 11:

1. What is the first thing that happens in photosynthesis? 

C. An electron is excited in Photosystem II 

2. What is linear electron flow in photosynthesis? 

A. The flow of electrons through the photosystems in the thylakoid 

3. Pigments absorb specific colors because:

A. Only the absorbed photons have an amount of energy that equals the difference between the  ground and excited states of the pigment 

4. What are the three main photosynthetic pigments? 

C. Xanthophyll, Chlorophyll, Carotenoids 

5. What are the two stages of photosynthesis? 

D. Light reaction and Calvin Cycle 

6. Plants are photoautotrophs. What does this mean? 

E. They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic materials 7. The ultimate source of energy to support most life on Earth is _____. 

D. Sunlight 

8. The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells. 

B. Chloroplasts 

9. Which of the following is a product of the light reactions of photosynthesis? 

B. oxygen, ATP, and NADPH 

10. When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by  _____. 

C. Splitting water 

Quiz 15:

1. What is the biological basis for the debate about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? A. Unknown risks about the release of GMOs into the environment 

2. Which of the following is considered plant biotechnology? (Select all that apply) A. Use of plant to make products of use to humans 

B. Use of genetically modified organism in agriculture and industry 

3. Why is Bacillus thuringiensis used to genetically modify agricultural crops? 

A. It’s transgenic genes encode a protein that is toxic to insects reducing the need for pesticides 4. _______________ form between the nitrogenous bases in complimentary strands in DNA holding  these strands together. 

C. Hydrogen bonds 

5. ___________________ form the sugar­phosphate backbone. 

A. Phosphodiester linkages 

6. ___________________ is a purine base and it is relatively ________________ in size compared  to pyrimidines. 

C. Guanine : larger 

7. Covalent bond between R groups of cysteine. 

A. Disulfide bond (bridge) 

8. The dehydration reaction between adenine and cytosine: 

A. Forms a phosphodiester linkage 

9. The DNA double helix is made up of two strands of DNA arranged _________________ and bonds form between base pairs that are _________________. 

A. Antiparallel : complementary 

10. Which of the following bases will basepair with adenine in DNA? 

D. Thymine 

Quiz 16:

1. Growth of a plant towards light is: 

E. Phototropism 

2. What is a hormone? 

C. A signaling molecule that is transport from one part of the organism to another or act locally 3. What is the function of transduction? 

B. to amplify the signal and transfer it from the receptor to the response 

4. Contribute to sensing direction of gravity in plants. 

B. Statoliths 

5. Light receptor of plants.

A. Phytochrome 

6. Phytochromes: 

E. Regulate plant responses to light 

7. What is the role of heat shock proteins? 

B. To protect other proteins from heat stress 

8. What is thigmotropism? 

D. Directional growth in response to touch 

9. Which type of light enhances seed germination? A. Red 

10. Where are hormone receptors located in plants?  E. Either A or D 

Additional Questions

1. Label the cross section of the monocot stem.  2. Labe the cross section of the dicot stem.

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