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USC / Geography / GEOG 103 / What is being studied by geographers?

What is being studied by geographers?

What is being studied by geographers?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Geography
Course: Introduction to Geography
Professor: Larianne collins
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: geography
Cost: 50
Name: Geography 103 exam 2
Description: this study guide covers the material for exam 2
Uploaded: 02/27/2017
12 Pages 234 Views 0 Unlocks

∙ Q: what type of hazard event was most common in SC from 1960­2009?

 Where do hurricanes occur?

∙ Why do plates move?

Geography 103  Exam 2 material Chapter 7: Landforms: Vocabulary ∙  Geologic time­ ∙ Geographers­ study why certain landforms are where they are, how they developed, and  how they change ∙ Landforms­ identifiable variations of earth’s surface ∙ Geomorphology­ study of landforms, their spatial distribution, and the processes that  create them ConDon't forget about the age old question of What are the key elements of sociology?
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cepts   ∙        Earth formation: o Formed 4.6 billion years ago o Landforms are created and destroyed in geologic time   ∙        Earth’s physical environment: o Constantly changing­ moving vertically and horizontally o Geographers o Landforms o Geomorphology  Endogenic processes­  Exogenic processes­   ∙        Earth’s physical systems: o Exterior­  Atmosphere  Lithosphere  Hydrosphere  Biosphere o Interior­  Continental crust  Oceanic crust  Mantle  Core   ∙        Composition of earth: o Minerals Naturally formed compounds and elements of earth  Mineralogy o Rocks  Comprise one or more minerals  petrology o landscapes  built from rocks   ∙        Rocks: o Classified by how the rock is formed  Igneous­ ∙ Fiery inception ∙ Intrusive vs. extrusive ∙ Cooling lava  Sedimentary ∙ Sediments worn from other rocks  Metamorphic ∙ Changing chemistry, mineralogy, or texture of other rocks o Crystalline  o Rock cycle­   ∙        Earth’s crust o Mostly igneous and metamorphic rocks o Mostly sedimentary rocks exposed at surface   ∙        Earth’s surface: o Plate tectonics theory  12 major plates ∙ Why do plates move? o Convective currents in mantle circulate heat and drive tectonic processes   ∙        Plate boundaries: o Divergent­ plates spread apart, new crust formed o Convergent­ plates converge and grind into one another o Transform­ plates grind horizontally, causing earthquakes   ∙        Endogenic processes: o Diastrophism­ deformation of earth’s crust  Solid portions of earth’s crust  2 categories: ∙ Folding­ bending; compressional pressure ∙ Faulting­ break or fracture; displacement of crust o Volcanism­ transports heated material of earth’s interior to the surface  Shield volcano­ gentle broad slopes, lava flows without explosion  Composite volcano­ steep sided cone, lava flows with explosion ∙ Earthquakes: o Sudden movement of crust along a fault line  Focus/epicenter∙ Tsunamis: o Large ocean wave caused by underwater earthquake, volcanic eruption, or  landslide ∙ Exogenic processes: o Weathering­ breakdown of rocks at the surface into pieces ranging from boulders  to pebbles, to sand, to microscopic silt particles  Rocks begin to breakdown the moment they are exposed to weather:  attacked by water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature fluctuations  1st step in soil formation  2 types of weathering: ∙ Mechanical weathering o Physical breakdown of rocks o Only changes size of rock, not composition o Caused by frost, roots, salt crystals, human ∙ Chemical weathering o Chemical alteration of minerals o Changes composition of rock o Occurs in warm, moist areas o Oxidation o Carbonation (H2O + CO2) o Mass wasting (mass movement)­ downslope movement of material due to gravity  Results from gravity, weight, moisture, and lack of cohesion in material  Ex: soil creep, earthflow, slump, mudflow, landslide, rockfall, o Erosion­ movement of weathered material by water, wind, or glaciers  Fast moving agents carry debris  Slow moving agents deposit debris  Erosion agents and deposition form distinctive landforms­ ∙ Running water (fluvial landscapes) ∙ Groundwater (groundwater landscapes) ∙ Glaciers (glacial landscapes) ∙ Wind (wind landscapes) ∙ Waves and currents (coastal landscapes)   ∙        Running water: o Precipitation  runoff  river  ocean o Fluvial = river o Alluvium = sediments deposited by running water o Effectiveness depends on:  Amount of precipitation   Slope and length  Nature of soil/rock and vegetation cover o Effect of H2O on landforms depends on climate   ∙        Fluvial landscapes: o Humid:  Ex: floodplain o Arid:  Lack of vegetation greatly increases erosional force, but due to temporary  existence of running water, erosional power is less consistent  Ex: alluvial fan, arroyo, butte, mesa   ∙        Groundwater landscapes: o Aquifer­ rock body that holds groundwater o Karst topography­ large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and  underground streams o Ex: caverns   ∙        Glacial landscapes: o Glacier­ large body of ice moving slowly down a slope o Weight and pressure of snow compact into ice and constantly move o Ex: fjord, glacial lake   ∙        Wind landscapes: o Wind driven sand, soil, and dust sculpts landscape o Arid areas­ wind is a powerful agent of erosion and deposition o Humid areas­ vegetation cover confines effects of wind mainly to beach areas o Ex: dunes, loess   ∙        Coastal landscapes: o Waves­ the forcing agent for most coastal processes and landform development  and change  wind generates most waves o Ex: depositional coast, erosional coast ∙ Landform regions: Chapter 8: Weather Vocabulary ∙ Weather­ short term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Climate­ long term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Albedo­ the degree of reflectivity of a surface ∙ Specific heat­ how resistant a material is to changes in temperature ∙ Concepts   ∙        Weather vs. climate:o Weather­ short term changes in atmospheric conditions  Temperature  Moisture  Wind ∙ Hourly, daily, or weekly ∙ Meteorology ∙ Caused by the unequal heating of earth’s surface o Climate­ long term changes in atmospheric conditions  Temperature   Moisture  Wind ∙ Years (seasonal, average) ∙ Climatology    ∙        Insolation and reflection: o Insolation­   land absorbs a lot of sun’s energy o Reflection­  Water reflects a lot of sun’s energy   ∙        Unequal surface heating: o Albedo­ the degree of reflectivity of a surface o Angle of incidence­   Sun rises in east and sets in the west o Specific heat­ how resistant a material is to changes in temperature  Land has lower specific heat  Water heats and cools slowly­ high specific heat o Tilt of the planet­  seasons   ∙        Insolation and re­emission: o Solar radiation o Thermal radiation ∙ Layers of the atmosphere: o Troposphere­  Lowest layer: highest pressure  Temp cools with altitude  Temp inversion at tropopause   ∙        Atmospheric pressure: o Avg. pressure at sea level =1013.3 mb o Pressure changes!! o Varies with­  Altitude  ∙ Ex: Mt. Everest vs. Columbia  Temperature ∙ As temp increases, pressure decreases  ∙        What is weather: o The vertical movement of air o Rising air  Creates low pressure  Creates clouds, precipitation o Sinking air  Creates high pressure  Disperses clouds, creates clear air ∙ High pressure vs. low pressure: o High pressure­   Air is sinking (compresses and warms)  diverging o Low pressure­  Air is rising (expands and cools)  Converging o Moves H  L   ∙        Wind speed: o Pressure gradient force  Air moves from high pressure to low pressure  Low pressure = higher wind speeds   ∙        Wind direction: o Coriolis force  Earth’s rotation turns wind right in northern hemisphere (H passes L on  right = counterclockwise)  Earth’s rotation turns wind left in southern hemisphere (H passes L on left = clockwise)   ∙        Wind – characteristics: o Speed  o Direction o Temperature o Moisture o Wind’s characteristics determined by terrain over which it blows  air mass  source regions   ∙        Air mass source regions: o Air mass­ a region of air with uniform temperature and moisture characteristics  Moisture­ c,m ∙ C=dry ∙ M=moist  Temp­ T/P/A ∙ Four lifting mechanisms: o Convergent lifting­  Air comes together, must go up o Convectional lifting­ Air rises from surface heating o Orographic lifting­  Mountains force air to rise o Frontal lifting­  Warmer, less dense air rises when air masses meet   ∙        Cold front: o Cause squall lines­ violent storms  Cold and warm air meeting   ∙        Warm front: o  Causes rain   ∙        Precipitation type: o  Rain o Snow o Sleet o Freezing rain Chapter 9: Climate Vocabulary ∙ Concepts   ∙        Weather vs climate: o Weather  Short term atmospheric conditions (hourly to weekly)  Dynamic processes o Climate  Long term average weather conditions (seasonal – millennial)  Typical (seasonal norms) o Geography  Normal “spatial” patterns for types of weather?  Effect of normal weather patterns on place?   ∙        Climate controls: o Latitude­ distance from equator o Altitude­ elevation o Prevailing wind o Distance to ocean (land­water heating/cooling differences) o Ocean currents  o Great mountain barriers ∙ Climographs:o Shows monthly averages for temperature and precipitation of a location o Line = temperature o Bars = precipitation ∙ Koppen climate classification: o  Classified based on temperature and precipitation  Average annual temp  Average monthly temp  Average annual precipitation  Average monthly precipitation o Vegetation is an indicator of temp and moisture   ∙        Tropical climates: A o Rainforest: Af  Plentiful year round rainfall o Savanna: Aw  Dry summer/wet winter  More and longer dry periods o Monsoon: Am  Dry and wet seasons  More and longer wet periods   ∙        Mild mid­latitude climates: C o Humid subtropical:  Cfa/Cwa  Wet in all seasons  Tropical summers, short/mild winters o Mediterranean: Csa/Csb  Wild winters and summers  Slightly drier than Cfa o Marine west coast: Cfb/Cfc  Warm summers, cool winters   ∙        Severe mid­latitude climates: D o Humid continental: Dfa/Dfb/Dwb  Severe winters, warm summers  4 distinct seasons o Subarctic: Dfc/Dfd/Dwc/Dwd  Very severe winters, cool summers   ∙        Polar climates: E o Tundra: ET  Very low temps  Permafrost o Glacier: EF  Very low temps  Continental or alpine glaciers   ∙        Dry climates: B o Desert: BWh/BWk Huge daily temp swings  Little vegetation (arid) o Steppe: BSh/BSk  Too dry for trees  Very short rainy season   ∙        Highlands: H o Microclimates o Altitudinal zonation ∙ SC’s climate: o Cfa =humid subtropical o f – no dry season o a – hot summer ∙ Biomes: o   ∙        Variations in Earth­Sun relations: o Earth’s orbit changes between circular and elliptical 100,000 year cycle o Earth tilt varies between 22.1­24.5 degrees 41,000 year cycle o Earth wobbles; doesn’t always point to north star­ 25,800 year cycle Chapter 10: hazards and disasters: Vocabulary  ∙ Hazard­ a natural or man­made event that is potentially harmful ∙ Disaster­ a loss­causing event that impacts human systems ∙ Hurricanes­ An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds  over 74mph ∙ Concepts   ∙        Hazard vs. disaster: o Hazard­ a natural or man­made event that is potentially harmful o Disaster­ a loss­causing event that impacts human systems   ∙        Hurricanes: o An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over  74mph  Warm ocean water  energy ∙ Temps >80 F  Rapid cooling of rising (unstable) air  Coriolis effect  spinning motion Where do hurricanes occur? ∙ Tropics/sub­tropics: 10­30 latitude ∙ Seasonality varies across the globe  Hurricane intensity scale  Hurricane impacts: ∙ Storm surge ∙ Wind damage ∙ Heavy rainfall ∙ Flooding ∙ Tropical cyclone tornadoes   ∙        Floods: o Flash flood o Fluvial flooding­ river flooding o Coastal flood ∙ Tornadoes: o ∙ Earthquakes: o ∙ Q: what type of hazard event was most common in SC from 1960­2009? o A: severe weather   ∙        Other hazards: o Acid precipitation o Ozone depletion o Climate change o Species loss o Famine o Water shortages o Pandemics o Weapons of mass destruction o Aviation, auto, train accidents   ∙        How do we define and measure hazards? o Vulnerability­ susceptibility to harm from hazards  o Sensitivity­ human characteristics   Factors influencing sensitivity: ∙ Age ∙ Housing tenure ∙ Race/ethnicity ∙ Language barrier ∙ Gender ∙ Income ∙ Employment ∙ Medical dependence∙ Access to a car o Exposure­ biophysical characteristics  o Exposure… severity­  Magnitude ∙ How bad was it? ∙ Ex: Richter scale (earthquakes)  Intensity ∙ How strong did it feel here? ∙ Ex: Mercalli scale (earthquakes) o Exposure… time­  Speed of onset ∙ How much warning?  Duration ∙ How long did the event last? o Exposure… recurrence/size   Frequency ∙ How often does it happen?  Areal extent ∙ How widespread was the impact?  Q: what facet of exposure is shown? ∙ A: intensity   ∙        Loss: o Vulnerability increase risk o Risk­ likelihood of loss o Losses­ property, crop, death, injury o Q: What type of hazard event caused the most losses in SC from 1960­2009?  A:  hurricanes    ∙        Emergency management (disaster) cycle: o Mitigation­  Reducing susceptibility to future hazards  Structural  Non­structural  LONG TERM o Preparation­  Evacuation, stockpiling, protecting property  Pre­positioning support teams  SHORT FUSE o Response­  Rescue organizations  Providing water, food, medical care, temporary shelter o Recovery­  Rebuilding structures and social communications better than before ∙ SHELDUS: Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the U.S.

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