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USC / Geography / GEOG 103 / What is being studied by geographers?

What is being studied by geographers?

What is being studied by geographers?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Geography
Course: Introduction to Geography
Professor: Larianne collins
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: geography
Cost: 50
Name: Geography 103 exam 2
Description: this study guide covers the material for exam 2
Uploaded: 02/27/2017
12 Pages 234 Views 0 Unlocks
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∙ Q: what type of hazard event was most common in SC from 1960­2009?




 Where do hurricanes occur?




∙ Why do plates move?



Geography 103  Exam 2 material Chapter 7: Landforms: Vocabulary ∙  Geologic time­ ∙ Geographers­ study why certain landforms are where they are, how they developed, and  how they change ∙ Landforms­ identifiable variations of earth’s surface ∙ Geomorphology­ study of landforms, their spatial distribution, and the processes that  create them ConDon't forget about the age old question of What are the key elements of sociology?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the structure of substrate and enzyme of 3PG kinase?
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cepts   ∙        Earth formation: o Formed 4.6 billion years ago o Landforms are created and destroyed in geologic time   ∙        Earth’s physical environment: o Constantly changing­ moving vertically and horizontally o Geographers o Landforms o Geomorphology  Endogenic processes­  Exogenic processes­   ∙        Earth’s physical systems: o Exterior­  Atmosphere  Lithosphere  Hydrosphere  Biosphere o Interior­  Continental crust  Oceanic crust  Mantle  Core   ∙        Composition of earth: o Minerals Naturally formed compounds and elements of earth  Mineralogy o Rocks  Comprise one or more minerals  petrology o landscapes  built from rocks   ∙        Rocks: o Classified by how the rock is formed  Igneous­ ∙ Fiery inception ∙ Intrusive vs. extrusive ∙ Cooling lava  Sedimentary ∙ Sediments worn from other rocks  Metamorphic ∙ Changing chemistry, mineralogy, or texture of other rocks o Crystalline  o Rock cycle­   ∙        Earth’s crust o Mostly igneous and metamorphic rocks o Mostly sedimentary rocks exposed at surface   ∙        Earth’s surface: o Plate tectonics theory  12 major plates ∙ Why do plates move? o Convective currents in mantle circulate heat and drive tectonic processes   ∙        Plate boundaries: o Divergent­ plates spread apart, new crust formed o Convergent­ plates converge and grind into one another o Transform­ plates grind horizontally, causing earthquakes   ∙        Endogenic processes: o Diastrophism­ deformation of earth’s crust  Solid portions of earth’s crust  2 categories: ∙ Folding­ bending; compressional pressure ∙ Faulting­ break or fracture; displacement of crust o Volcanism­ transports heated material of earth’s interior to the surface  Shield volcano­ gentle broad slopes, lava flows without explosion  Composite volcano­ steep sided cone, lava flows with explosion ∙ Earthquakes: o Sudden movement of crust along a fault line  Focus/epicenter∙ Tsunamis: o Large ocean wave caused by underwater earthquake, volcanic eruption, or  landslide ∙ Exogenic processes: o Weathering­ breakdown of rocks at the surface into pieces ranging from boulders  to pebbles, to sand, to microscopic silt particles  Rocks begin to breakdown the moment they are exposed to weather:  attacked by water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature fluctuations  1st step in soil formation  2 types of weathering: ∙ Mechanical weathering o Physical breakdown of rocks o Only changes size of rock, not composition o Caused by frost, roots, salt crystals, human ∙ Chemical weathering o Chemical alteration of minerals o Changes composition of rock o Occurs in warm, moist areas o Oxidation o Carbonation (H2O + CO2) o Mass wasting (mass movement)­ downslope movement of material due to gravity  Results from gravity, weight, moisture, and lack of cohesion in material  Ex: soil creep, earthflow, slump, mudflow, landslide, rockfall, o Erosion­ movement of weathered material by water, wind, or glaciers  Fast moving agents carry debris  Slow moving agents deposit debris  Erosion agents and deposition form distinctive landforms­ ∙ Running water (fluvial landscapes) ∙ Groundwater (groundwater landscapes) ∙ Glaciers (glacial landscapes) ∙ Wind (wind landscapes) ∙ Waves and currents (coastal landscapes)   ∙        Running water: o Precipitation  runoff  river  ocean o Fluvial = river o Alluvium = sediments deposited by running water o Effectiveness depends on:  Amount of precipitation   Slope and length  Nature of soil/rock and vegetation cover o Effect of H2O on landforms depends on climate   ∙        Fluvial landscapes: o Humid:  Ex: floodplain o Arid:  Lack of vegetation greatly increases erosional force, but due to temporary  existence of running water, erosional power is less consistent  Ex: alluvial fan, arroyo, butte, mesa   ∙        Groundwater landscapes: o Aquifer­ rock body that holds groundwater o Karst topography­ large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and  underground streams o Ex: caverns   ∙        Glacial landscapes: o Glacier­ large body of ice moving slowly down a slope o Weight and pressure of snow compact into ice and constantly move o Ex: fjord, glacial lake   ∙        Wind landscapes: o Wind driven sand, soil, and dust sculpts landscape o Arid areas­ wind is a powerful agent of erosion and deposition o Humid areas­ vegetation cover confines effects of wind mainly to beach areas o Ex: dunes, loess   ∙        Coastal landscapes: o Waves­ the forcing agent for most coastal processes and landform development  and change  wind generates most waves o Ex: depositional coast, erosional coast ∙ Landform regions: Chapter 8: Weather Vocabulary ∙ Weather­ short term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Climate­ long term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Albedo­ the degree of reflectivity of a surface ∙ Specific heat­ how resistant a material is to changes in temperature ∙ Concepts   ∙        Weather vs. climate:o Weather­ short term changes in atmospheric conditions  Temperature  Moisture  Wind ∙ Hourly, daily, or weekly ∙ Meteorology ∙ Caused by the unequal heating of earth’s surface o Climate­ long term changes in atmospheric conditions  Temperature   Moisture  Wind ∙ Years (seasonal, average) ∙ Climatology    ∙        Insolation and reflection: o Insolation­   land absorbs a lot of sun’s energy o Reflection­  Water reflects a lot of sun’s energy   ∙        Unequal surface heating: o Albedo­ the degree of reflectivity of a surface o Angle of incidence­   Sun rises in east and sets in the west o Specific heat­ how resistant a material is to changes in temperature  Land has lower specific heat  Water heats and cools slowly­ high specific heat o Tilt of the planet­  seasons   ∙        Insolation and re­emission: o Solar radiation o Thermal radiation ∙ Layers of the atmosphere: o Troposphere­  Lowest layer: highest pressure  Temp cools with altitude  Temp inversion at tropopause   ∙        Atmospheric pressure: o Avg. pressure at sea level =1013.3 mb o Pressure changes!! o Varies with­  Altitude  ∙ Ex: Mt. Everest vs. Columbia  Temperature ∙ As temp increases, pressure decreases  ∙        What is weather: o The vertical movement of air o Rising air  Creates low pressure  Creates clouds, precipitation o Sinking air  Creates high pressure  Disperses clouds, creates clear air ∙ High pressure vs. low pressure: o High pressure­   Air is sinking (compresses and warms)  diverging o Low pressure­  Air is rising (expands and cools)  Converging o Moves H  L   ∙        Wind speed: o Pressure gradient force  Air moves from high pressure to low pressure  Low pressure = higher wind speeds   ∙        Wind direction: o Coriolis force  Earth’s rotation turns wind right in northern hemisphere (H passes L on  right = counterclockwise)  Earth’s rotation turns wind left in southern hemisphere (H passes L on left = clockwise)   ∙        Wind – characteristics: o Speed  o Direction o Temperature o Moisture o Wind’s characteristics determined by terrain over which it blows  air mass  source regions   ∙        Air mass source regions: o Air mass­ a region of air with uniform temperature and moisture characteristics  Moisture­ c,m ∙ C=dry ∙ M=moist  Temp­ T/P/A ∙ Four lifting mechanisms: o Convergent lifting­  Air comes together, must go up o Convectional lifting­ Air rises from surface heating o Orographic lifting­  Mountains force air to rise o Frontal lifting­  Warmer, less dense air rises when air masses meet   ∙        Cold front: o Cause squall lines­ violent storms  Cold and warm air meeting   ∙        Warm front: o  Causes rain   ∙        Precipitation type: o  Rain o Snow o Sleet o Freezing rain Chapter 9: Climate Vocabulary ∙ Concepts   ∙        Weather vs climate: o Weather  Short term atmospheric conditions (hourly to weekly)  Dynamic processes o Climate  Long term average weather conditions (seasonal – millennial)  Typical (seasonal norms) o Geography  Normal “spatial” patterns for types of weather?  Effect of normal weather patterns on place?   ∙        Climate controls: o Latitude­ distance from equator o Altitude­ elevation o Prevailing wind o Distance to ocean (land­water heating/cooling differences) o Ocean currents  o Great mountain barriers ∙ Climographs:o Shows monthly averages for temperature and precipitation of a location o Line = temperature o Bars = precipitation ∙ Koppen climate classification: o  Classified based on temperature and precipitation  Average annual temp  Average monthly temp  Average annual precipitation  Average monthly precipitation o Vegetation is an indicator of temp and moisture   ∙        Tropical climates: A o Rainforest: Af  Plentiful year round rainfall o Savanna: Aw  Dry summer/wet winter  More and longer dry periods o Monsoon: Am  Dry and wet seasons  More and longer wet periods   ∙        Mild mid­latitude climates: C o Humid subtropical:  Cfa/Cwa  Wet in all seasons  Tropical summers, short/mild winters o Mediterranean: Csa/Csb  Wild winters and summers  Slightly drier than Cfa o Marine west coast: Cfb/Cfc  Warm summers, cool winters   ∙        Severe mid­latitude climates: D o Humid continental: Dfa/Dfb/Dwb  Severe winters, warm summers  4 distinct seasons o Subarctic: Dfc/Dfd/Dwc/Dwd  Very severe winters, cool summers   ∙        Polar climates: E o Tundra: ET  Very low temps  Permafrost o Glacier: EF  Very low temps  Continental or alpine glaciers   ∙        Dry climates: B o Desert: BWh/BWk Huge daily temp swings  Little vegetation (arid) o Steppe: BSh/BSk  Too dry for trees  Very short rainy season   ∙        Highlands: H o Microclimates o Altitudinal zonation ∙ SC’s climate: o Cfa =humid subtropical o f – no dry season o a – hot summer ∙ Biomes: o   ∙        Variations in Earth­Sun relations: o Earth’s orbit changes between circular and elliptical 100,000 year cycle o Earth tilt varies between 22.1­24.5 degrees 41,000 year cycle o Earth wobbles; doesn’t always point to north star­ 25,800 year cycle Chapter 10: hazards and disasters: Vocabulary  ∙ Hazard­ a natural or man­made event that is potentially harmful ∙ Disaster­ a loss­causing event that impacts human systems ∙ Hurricanes­ An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds  over 74mph ∙ Concepts   ∙        Hazard vs. disaster: o Hazard­ a natural or man­made event that is potentially harmful o Disaster­ a loss­causing event that impacts human systems   ∙        Hurricanes: o An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over  74mph  Warm ocean water  energy ∙ Temps >80 F  Rapid cooling of rising (unstable) air  Coriolis effect  spinning motion Where do hurricanes occur? ∙ Tropics/sub­tropics: 10­30 latitude ∙ Seasonality varies across the globe  Hurricane intensity scale  Hurricane impacts: ∙ Storm surge ∙ Wind damage ∙ Heavy rainfall ∙ Flooding ∙ Tropical cyclone tornadoes   ∙        Floods: o Flash flood o Fluvial flooding­ river flooding o Coastal flood ∙ Tornadoes: o ∙ Earthquakes: o ∙ Q: what type of hazard event was most common in SC from 1960­2009? o A: severe weather   ∙        Other hazards: o Acid precipitation o Ozone depletion o Climate change o Species loss o Famine o Water shortages o Pandemics o Weapons of mass destruction o Aviation, auto, train accidents   ∙        How do we define and measure hazards? o Vulnerability­ susceptibility to harm from hazards  o Sensitivity­ human characteristics   Factors influencing sensitivity: ∙ Age ∙ Housing tenure ∙ Race/ethnicity ∙ Language barrier ∙ Gender ∙ Income ∙ Employment ∙ Medical dependence∙ Access to a car o Exposure­ biophysical characteristics  o Exposure… severity­  Magnitude ∙ How bad was it? ∙ Ex: Richter scale (earthquakes)  Intensity ∙ How strong did it feel here? ∙ Ex: Mercalli scale (earthquakes) o Exposure… time­  Speed of onset ∙ How much warning?  Duration ∙ How long did the event last? o Exposure… recurrence/size   Frequency ∙ How often does it happen?  Areal extent ∙ How widespread was the impact?  Q: what facet of exposure is shown? ∙ A: intensity   ∙        Loss: o Vulnerability increase risk o Risk­ likelihood of loss o Losses­ property, crop, death, injury o Q: What type of hazard event caused the most losses in SC from 1960­2009?  A:  hurricanes    ∙        Emergency management (disaster) cycle: o Mitigation­  Reducing susceptibility to future hazards  Structural  Non­structural  LONG TERM o Preparation­  Evacuation, stockpiling, protecting property  Pre­positioning support teams  SHORT FUSE o Response­  Rescue organizations  Providing water, food, medical care, temporary shelter o Recovery­  Rebuilding structures and social communications better than before ∙ SHELDUS: Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the U.S.

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