Geography 103 Exam 2 material Chapter 7: Landforms: Vocabulary ∙ Geologic time ∙ Geographers study why certain landforms are where they are, how they developed, and how they change ∙ Landforms identifiable variations of earth’s surface ∙ Geomorphology study of landforms, their spatial distribution, and the processes that create them ConDon't forget about the age old question of What are the key elements of sociology?
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cepts ∙ Earth formation: o Formed 4.6 billion years ago o Landforms are created and destroyed in geologic time ∙ Earth’s physical environment: o Constantly changing moving vertically and horizontally o Geographers o Landforms o Geomorphology Endogenic processes Exogenic processes ∙ Earth’s physical systems: o Exterior Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere o Interior Continental crust Oceanic crust Mantle Core ∙ Composition of earth: o Minerals Naturally formed compounds and elements of earth Mineralogy o Rocks Comprise one or more minerals petrology o landscapes built from rocks ∙ Rocks: o Classified by how the rock is formed Igneous ∙ Fiery inception ∙ Intrusive vs. extrusive ∙ Cooling lava Sedimentary ∙ Sediments worn from other rocks Metamorphic ∙ Changing chemistry, mineralogy, or texture of other rocks o Crystalline o Rock cycle ∙ Earth’s crust o Mostly igneous and metamorphic rocks o Mostly sedimentary rocks exposed at surface ∙ Earth’s surface: o Plate tectonics theory 12 major plates ∙ Why do plates move? o Convective currents in mantle circulate heat and drive tectonic processes ∙ Plate boundaries: o Divergent plates spread apart, new crust formed o Convergent plates converge and grind into one another o Transform plates grind horizontally, causing earthquakes ∙ Endogenic processes: o Diastrophism deformation of earth’s crust Solid portions of earth’s crust 2 categories: ∙ Folding bending; compressional pressure ∙ Faulting break or fracture; displacement of crust o Volcanism transports heated material of earth’s interior to the surface Shield volcano gentle broad slopes, lava flows without explosion Composite volcano steep sided cone, lava flows with explosion ∙ Earthquakes: o Sudden movement of crust along a fault line Focus/epicenter∙ Tsunamis: o Large ocean wave caused by underwater earthquake, volcanic eruption, or landslide ∙ Exogenic processes: o Weathering breakdown of rocks at the surface into pieces ranging from boulders to pebbles, to sand, to microscopic silt particles Rocks begin to breakdown the moment they are exposed to weather: attacked by water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature fluctuations 1st step in soil formation 2 types of weathering: ∙ Mechanical weathering o Physical breakdown of rocks o Only changes size of rock, not composition o Caused by frost, roots, salt crystals, human ∙ Chemical weathering o Chemical alteration of minerals o Changes composition of rock o Occurs in warm, moist areas o Oxidation o Carbonation (H2O + CO2) o Mass wasting (mass movement) downslope movement of material due to gravity Results from gravity, weight, moisture, and lack of cohesion in material Ex: soil creep, earthflow, slump, mudflow, landslide, rockfall, o Erosion movement of weathered material by water, wind, or glaciers Fast moving agents carry debris Slow moving agents deposit debris Erosion agents and deposition form distinctive landforms ∙ Running water (fluvial landscapes) ∙ Groundwater (groundwater landscapes) ∙ Glaciers (glacial landscapes) ∙ Wind (wind landscapes) ∙ Waves and currents (coastal landscapes) ∙ Running water: o Precipitation runoff river ocean o Fluvial = river o Alluvium = sediments deposited by running water o Effectiveness depends on: Amount of precipitation Slope and length Nature of soil/rock and vegetation cover o Effect of H2O on landforms depends on climate ∙ Fluvial landscapes: o Humid: Ex: floodplain o Arid: Lack of vegetation greatly increases erosional force, but due to temporary existence of running water, erosional power is less consistent Ex: alluvial fan, arroyo, butte, mesa ∙ Groundwater landscapes: o Aquifer rock body that holds groundwater o Karst topography large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and underground streams o Ex: caverns ∙ Glacial landscapes: o Glacier large body of ice moving slowly down a slope o Weight and pressure of snow compact into ice and constantly move o Ex: fjord, glacial lake ∙ Wind landscapes: o Wind driven sand, soil, and dust sculpts landscape o Arid areas wind is a powerful agent of erosion and deposition o Humid areas vegetation cover confines effects of wind mainly to beach areas o Ex: dunes, loess ∙ Coastal landscapes: o Waves the forcing agent for most coastal processes and landform development and change wind generates most waves o Ex: depositional coast, erosional coast ∙ Landform regions: Chapter 8: Weather Vocabulary ∙ Weather short term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Climate long term changes in atmospheric conditions ∙ Albedo the degree of reflectivity of a surface ∙ Specific heat how resistant a material is to changes in temperature ∙ Concepts ∙ Weather vs. climate:o Weather short term changes in atmospheric conditions Temperature Moisture Wind ∙ Hourly, daily, or weekly ∙ Meteorology ∙ Caused by the unequal heating of earth’s surface o Climate long term changes in atmospheric conditions Temperature Moisture Wind ∙ Years (seasonal, average) ∙ Climatology ∙ Insolation and reflection: o Insolation land absorbs a lot of sun’s energy o Reflection Water reflects a lot of sun’s energy ∙ Unequal surface heating: o Albedo the degree of reflectivity of a surface o Angle of incidence Sun rises in east and sets in the west o Specific heat how resistant a material is to changes in temperature Land has lower specific heat Water heats and cools slowly high specific heat o Tilt of the planet seasons ∙ Insolation and reemission: o Solar radiation o Thermal radiation ∙ Layers of the atmosphere: o Troposphere Lowest layer: highest pressure Temp cools with altitude Temp inversion at tropopause ∙ Atmospheric pressure: o Avg. pressure at sea level =1013.3 mb o Pressure changes!! o Varies with Altitude ∙ Ex: Mt. Everest vs. Columbia Temperature ∙ As temp increases, pressure decreases ∙ What is weather: o The vertical movement of air o Rising air Creates low pressure Creates clouds, precipitation o Sinking air Creates high pressure Disperses clouds, creates clear air ∙ High pressure vs. low pressure: o High pressure Air is sinking (compresses and warms) diverging o Low pressure Air is rising (expands and cools) Converging o Moves H L ∙ Wind speed: o Pressure gradient force Air moves from high pressure to low pressure Low pressure = higher wind speeds ∙ Wind direction: o Coriolis force Earth’s rotation turns wind right in northern hemisphere (H passes L on right = counterclockwise) Earth’s rotation turns wind left in southern hemisphere (H passes L on left = clockwise) ∙ Wind – characteristics: o Speed o Direction o Temperature o Moisture o Wind’s characteristics determined by terrain over which it blows air mass source regions ∙ Air mass source regions: o Air mass a region of air with uniform temperature and moisture characteristics Moisture c,m ∙ C=dry ∙ M=moist Temp T/P/A ∙ Four lifting mechanisms: o Convergent lifting Air comes together, must go up o Convectional lifting Air rises from surface heating o Orographic lifting Mountains force air to rise o Frontal lifting Warmer, less dense air rises when air masses meet ∙ Cold front: o Cause squall lines violent storms Cold and warm air meeting ∙ Warm front: o Causes rain ∙ Precipitation type: o Rain o Snow o Sleet o Freezing rain Chapter 9: Climate Vocabulary ∙ Concepts ∙ Weather vs climate: o Weather Short term atmospheric conditions (hourly to weekly) Dynamic processes o Climate Long term average weather conditions (seasonal – millennial) Typical (seasonal norms) o Geography Normal “spatial” patterns for types of weather? Effect of normal weather patterns on place? ∙ Climate controls: o Latitude distance from equator o Altitude elevation o Prevailing wind o Distance to ocean (landwater heating/cooling differences) o Ocean currents o Great mountain barriers ∙ Climographs:o Shows monthly averages for temperature and precipitation of a location o Line = temperature o Bars = precipitation ∙ Koppen climate classification: o Classified based on temperature and precipitation Average annual temp Average monthly temp Average annual precipitation Average monthly precipitation o Vegetation is an indicator of temp and moisture ∙ Tropical climates: A o Rainforest: Af Plentiful year round rainfall o Savanna: Aw Dry summer/wet winter More and longer dry periods o Monsoon: Am Dry and wet seasons More and longer wet periods ∙ Mild midlatitude climates: C o Humid subtropical: Cfa/Cwa Wet in all seasons Tropical summers, short/mild winters o Mediterranean: Csa/Csb Wild winters and summers Slightly drier than Cfa o Marine west coast: Cfb/Cfc Warm summers, cool winters ∙ Severe midlatitude climates: D o Humid continental: Dfa/Dfb/Dwb Severe winters, warm summers 4 distinct seasons o Subarctic: Dfc/Dfd/Dwc/Dwd Very severe winters, cool summers ∙ Polar climates: E o Tundra: ET Very low temps Permafrost o Glacier: EF Very low temps Continental or alpine glaciers ∙ Dry climates: B o Desert: BWh/BWk Huge daily temp swings Little vegetation (arid) o Steppe: BSh/BSk Too dry for trees Very short rainy season ∙ Highlands: H o Microclimates o Altitudinal zonation ∙ SC’s climate: o Cfa =humid subtropical o f – no dry season o a – hot summer ∙ Biomes: o ∙ Variations in EarthSun relations: o Earth’s orbit changes between circular and elliptical 100,000 year cycle o Earth tilt varies between 22.124.5 degrees 41,000 year cycle o Earth wobbles; doesn’t always point to north star 25,800 year cycle Chapter 10: hazards and disasters: Vocabulary ∙ Hazard a natural or manmade event that is potentially harmful ∙ Disaster a losscausing event that impacts human systems ∙ Hurricanes An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over 74mph ∙ Concepts ∙ Hazard vs. disaster: o Hazard a natural or manmade event that is potentially harmful o Disaster a losscausing event that impacts human systems ∙ Hurricanes: o An intense rotating tropical convective weather system with sustained winds over 74mph Warm ocean water energy ∙ Temps >80 F Rapid cooling of rising (unstable) air Coriolis effect spinning motion Where do hurricanes occur? ∙ Tropics/subtropics: 1030 latitude ∙ Seasonality varies across the globe Hurricane intensity scale Hurricane impacts: ∙ Storm surge ∙ Wind damage ∙ Heavy rainfall ∙ Flooding ∙ Tropical cyclone tornadoes ∙ Floods: o Flash flood o Fluvial flooding river flooding o Coastal flood ∙ Tornadoes: o ∙ Earthquakes: o ∙ Q: what type of hazard event was most common in SC from 19602009? o A: severe weather ∙ Other hazards: o Acid precipitation o Ozone depletion o Climate change o Species loss o Famine o Water shortages o Pandemics o Weapons of mass destruction o Aviation, auto, train accidents ∙ How do we define and measure hazards? o Vulnerability susceptibility to harm from hazards o Sensitivity human characteristics Factors influencing sensitivity: ∙ Age ∙ Housing tenure ∙ Race/ethnicity ∙ Language barrier ∙ Gender ∙ Income ∙ Employment ∙ Medical dependence∙ Access to a car o Exposure biophysical characteristics o Exposure… severity Magnitude ∙ How bad was it? ∙ Ex: Richter scale (earthquakes) Intensity ∙ How strong did it feel here? ∙ Ex: Mercalli scale (earthquakes) o Exposure… time Speed of onset ∙ How much warning? Duration ∙ How long did the event last? o Exposure… recurrence/size Frequency ∙ How often does it happen? Areal extent ∙ How widespread was the impact? Q: what facet of exposure is shown? ∙ A: intensity ∙ Loss: o Vulnerability increase risk o Risk likelihood of loss o Losses property, crop, death, injury o Q: What type of hazard event caused the most losses in SC from 19602009? A: hurricanes ∙ Emergency management (disaster) cycle: o Mitigation Reducing susceptibility to future hazards Structural Nonstructural LONG TERM o Preparation Evacuation, stockpiling, protecting property Prepositioning support teams SHORT FUSE o Response Rescue organizations Providing water, food, medical care, temporary shelter o Recovery Rebuilding structures and social communications better than before ∙ SHELDUS: Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the U.S.