Study Guide for test 3
Study Guide for test 3 KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Avi Fox on Wednesday April 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 247 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/22/15
How does whole body glucose availability glycogen and blood glucose relate to Rate of Perceived Exertion during Exercise Central governor theory you have somewhere in your brain that monitors your glucose availability and as it gets lower and lower it becomes harder to recruit more motor units and your rate of perceived exertion goes up even though you are maintaining a constant pase How much total glucose is in the wellfed and recovered athlete There are roughly 500g of glucose in a wellfed athlete 400g stored as muscle glycogen 9095g stored as liver glycogen and 5g of glucose in the blood What is the difference between muscle and liver glucose Only liver glycogen can be directly converted to blood sugar and used to replenish depleting blood glucose Be able to describe hitting the wall Why does it happen typically in events greater than 90 minutes When one hits the wall there s a very noticeable decrease in energy stores When exercising one uses glucose at a rate of 1g minute and the liver is able to give glucose to the blood at a similar rate Since there are roughly 9095g of glycogen in the liver after 90 minutes when both blood glucose and liver glycogen has become critically low The body can no longer maintain glucose homeostasis which leads to perceived decrease in rate of work ACSM which may have biased guidelines recommends endurance athletes anaerobic athletes consume how many g of CHO per kgbw Preferably what percentage should the athlete use of his or her TDEE Endurance athletes 810g cho per kgbw Anaerobic athletes 68g cho per kgbw Should use between 4565 of TDEE Be able to estimate the TDEE for an athlete and macronutrient needs based on body weight and activity level Take your Fat free mass kg o 216 370 activity factor TDEE In males and females what are the typical Cho percentages approximately in the diets of gymnasts football players rowers weight lifters runners swimmers and triathletes Gymnasts F 44 M 50 Football Players 4345 Rowers M542 F 56 Weight lifters 40 Runners F 49 M48 Swimmers F49 M50 Triathletes F 59 M66 The minimum calories per day for female athletes are how many kcal per kgbw Shouldn t have below 1200 calories day To avoid the female athlete triad women should have a minimum of 30 calories per kgbw How might beets and arugula benefit an athlete in his or her diet Beets have the ability to convert nitric oxide and produce more oxygen than usual Helps mitochondria be more efficient in making ATP Nitric oxide supplements don t work the same way This allows people to go longer Describe the potential benefit of nutritional yeast for athletes Helps immune function and lowers risk of infection Athletes have also noted that it gave them more vigor Be able to help an athlete reach his or her goals of weight loss weight maintenance or weight gain Anaerobic Athletes build the program around protein of 16 18gkgbw Carbs can be up to 6 8 gkgbw Protien timing is critical consume about 5 10 gprotein kgbw in the period during and after resistance training Recovery 15g of carbs bet kgbw between 15 30 minutes of training with 5 gkgbw of protein Consume another meal with carbs and protein 2 hours following exercise Most carbs should from whole grains anc complex fiber rich sources except for those taken in immediately following exercise Lose weight Subtract 500 from TDEE females need at least 30cang of fat free mass cant ever go below 1200 calories eat breakfast to reduce late night feasts carbs avoid sugar processed carbs and starch except when exercising get it from Veggies whole grains and some whole fruit Plant based nutrient dense Gain weight Add 500 Eat every 3 hours to lower cortisol and maintain insulin Protien shouldn t get to high UL Carbs focus on root veggies and starches Fat 25 35 of diet Recov 40 50G of cho and 15 20 protein Be able to explain the Central Fatigue Theory with regard to functional tryptophan and BCAA s BCAA s compete with free tryptophan to get through he blood brain barrier When we exercise and exhaust our liver glycogen stores the BCAA s in muscle begin to break down to give sugar to the blood and as a result more tryptophan gets through and begins turning into serotonin and melatonin increasing fatigue What would best explain the benefit to performance of consuming Powerade during a 30minute pickup basketball game The best explanation is due to the oral carbohydrate receptors in the tongue that when you taste carbohydrates send signals to your brain that stimulate the reward centers in the brain allowing you to go longer Know the table describe carbohydrate intake guidelines for endurance athletes Event Duration Re zzgz jns Intake Curbohydrate type lt 30 minutes None na nu 3075 minutes Very Small mouth rinse only any form 12 hours Small up to 309 per hour glucose and Fructose 23 hours Moderate up to 609 per hour glucose and fructose o 25 hours large up to 909 per hour multiple and transportable Describe protein recommendations for a resistancetraining workout Be able to prepare a precompetition meal and hydration strategy 34 hours before the event stomach should be empty to avoid GI distress the meal should be fiber free no sacues fat or spices Consist of 159 CHO per kgbw and 02g of Pro kgbw Be able to put together recovery nutritional recommendations from exercise What nutritional factors help sustain immunity prevent disease susceptibility following vigorous exercise Replenishing glycogen stores and maintaining protein balance Glutamine is also good because it will reduce the cortisol released that is an immune suppresent How is glutamine related to protein balance Glutamine can improve immune system it is the most abundant amino acids that we make It re ects nitrogen balance in the body Its used by immune cells as fuel immune boost is usually glutamine or Vit C Study in military glutamine supplementations reduced number of dropouts illnesses and injuries Doesn t need to be supplemented because if protein is properly balanced with normal dietary needs it should be fine A smoothie with casein or whey will work to reduce injury Chocolate milk has consistently been equal or better than supplements Has the 31 ratio of carbs to protein How is protein balance related to immune function and how does it relate to liver glycogen When one is in a negative protein balance their immune function is decreased and one is more susceptible to injury Be able to explain the general recommendations for hydration before during and after training BEFORE shouldn t overdrink in the days before and event but maintain champagne color urine Should drink 25 cups 25 hours before the event and if 15 minutes before the event their urine is dark or they haven t urinated they should drink 15 cups of water DURING should be drinking a cup 1520 minutes and be a 68 electrolyte solution AFTER 2 cups of water lb of weight loss but shouldn t feel bloated Need TDEE240 cups of water day or your TDEE mL of water Be able to perform a sweat trial don t need to know but might be Extra credit For every 1lb a person loses after exercise assume 20 ounces were lost as sweat So if you exercise an hour and lost 20 ounces and drank 8 ounces then you lost 28 02 hour or 466 02 minute What is hyponatremia and the risk factors Hyponatremia is having too lower blood sodium caused by overdrinking The risk factors are being a woman that over drinks having a low BMI and doing events over 3 hours In the Boston marathon is was found that over 2000 people were hyponatremic One should drink a cup of water every 15 20 minutes to avoid this You shouldn t overdrink to gain weight or feel bloated during the workout Be able to explain carbohydrate loading Classic CarboLoading Most effectiveCarbo loading isn t necessary for an event under 90 minutes If a race is Sunday Monday Wednesday depletion exercise and eat a low carb diet roughly 10 Thursday Saturday rest and have a high cho diet 10g per kgbw complex catbs every 2 hours By Sunday Athletes can have a ZOO 300 increased storage of glycogen which can prolong time to exhaustion by ZOO 300 Works even in stop and go for 90 minutes For every extra gram of glycogen you store you store 3g Taper only method no depletion and just taper down the exercise and increase carbohydrate in the 3 days leading up to competition This method has comparable results to the classic method via biopsy studies of glycogen content in the muscle Data was skewed because they used muscle biopsies where glycogen stores is effected by in ammation this is the most recommended 1 day method 24 hours before completion perform 3 minutes of high intensity sprints using the same muscles as your sport immediately following consume cho to achieve 120 g per kgbw by the race Comparable to Taper method What does it mean by all natural beef Doesn t mean much it means that the meat has no additives once they got it Doesn t say anything about the quality Nothing artificial added after slaughter but the livestock may have lived and eaten unnaturally Differentiate between cages free free range and pasture raised Cage free only means they aren t shoved into cages but they are just left packed in a barn Free Range Pasture Raised What is the difference between grassfed grass finished and pasture raised beef Grass fed This means that early in life they were fed grass but they can feed it grains later in life Grass finished means they were raised on grass for life but they could be eating dry grass and confined small spaces Pasture raised beef free to roamm and grass finished Know the nutrient differences between pastureraised and conventional beef in saturated fats vitamins antioxidants and essential fatty acids Pasture raised has 800 more beta carotene 300 more vitamin E preserves shelf life of omega 3 More vitamin C and contains CLA s conjugated linoleic acid that has been shown to act an antioxidant reducing cancer is heart healthy and counteracts some effects of diaebeties Why might not cholesterol levels be adversely affected by pastureraised egg yolks Because these egg yolks contain Lecithin that helps the liver metabolize cholesterol Describe the ratio omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids and how the ratio relates to health Most people have an omega 6 omega 3 ratio of 401 and we should be closer to 41 but since its so far off they RDA is 101 Omega6 fatty acids increase inflammation and promote obesity How significant is hormonefree chicken marketing claims Hormone free chicken is purely a marketing stunt that doesn t mean anything because in the US all chicken and eggs must be hormone free Know the components of a grain and how whole grain is often processed in most bread in the supermarket A grain constist of the endosperm germ and bran layers Most processed breads remove the germ and bran leading to a sweeter bread Whole grain bread may be deceiving because they enrich the bread with bran and germ after which is still contains endosperm that isn t protected by the germ and bran Why are most products going to contain wheat soy and corn They are cheaper because they are genetically modified and the government gives subsidies for them Describe Celiac disease and how it differs from gluten sensitivity Is a disease where the small intestine is hypersensitive to gluten and they can t digest it and have a negative immune response to it Gluten sensitivity doesn t have an immune response and still is debated if its real or not Why might gluten sensitivity be hard for physicians to diagnose lts hard to know whether its psychosomatic or not People also tell themselves that they have a gluten sensitivity and actively avoid it so when they try to eat it later they have built up a sensitivity to it and have GI distress ls soy bad for men to consume No male testosterone is not altered in any way Does soy increase breast cancer No it has antiangiogenic properties eating soy early in life may actually lower your risk of getting breast cancer Does soy increase hypothyroidism Yes it can increase hypothyroidism What are some legitimate concerns about soy in the diet The only legitimate concern for soy in the diet is that it takes up the body s iodine away from the thyroid and can give an increased risk in thyroid cancer Also if it isn t fermented it can have antinutrients and most of it is GMO Describe the best soy to consume for health The best soy to consume for health is organic and fermented Describe the best beef to consume for health The best beef to consume is organic pasture raised beef meaning it has been grass finished and allowed to freely roam around and has been given no antibiotics or steroids Describe the best eggs and poultry to consume for health The best eggs and poultry are the organic pasture raised Athletes use nutrition 1 Prolong fatigue by 300 2 Increase power output 3 Directly boost V02 mac 4 Reduce muscle soreness injuries and illness 5 Increase muscle protein synthesis following resistance training by 400 Nutritional strategies aimed towards 4 main goals 1 Supplying energy 2 Promoting tissue repair or muscle growth 3 Combatting immune dysfunction and injury 4 Representing an integral element of the competition game plan Glucose Simplest form of carbohydrates Most efficient fuel for the energy needs of rapid muscle contraction and is used almost exclusively by the CNS and red blood cells Fats 47 kcalories L Oxygen consumed Cant be used anaerobically Carbohydrates Supplies 5 kcalories L of oxygen Only fuel that can be used nonoxidatively Used rapidly and is the reason that maintaining glucose levels is critical to performance Brain and CNS become energy deprived when blood glucose levels fall which is associated with increased perceived exertion reduced motor unit recruitment and potentially fatal in the case of pathological hypoglycemia to little blood sugar Nourished athlete has 500g endogenous glucose 5g in the blood 40g in the muscle as glycogenbranched energy rich animal starch stored with water and phosphates 9095g in the liver as liver glycogen Every 1g of glycogen is stored with 3 grams of water this is why restricting carbohydrates and glycogen depletion leads to rapid weight loss Muscle glycogen cant replenish blood glucose but liver glycogen can and is oxidized at a rate of 1gmin this is why people hit the wall after 90 minutes when both blood glucose and liver glycogen has become critically low The body can no longer maintain glucose homeostasis which leads to perceived decrease in rate of work For exercise longer than 90 minutes athletes need to Improve their ability to oxidize fat through training Ensure they are fully loaded with glycogen going into an event Consume exogenous carbohydrates during the activity to prolong bonking Exogenous sources of glucose in the form of simple carbohydrates should be consumed at 3060ghour to offset decay in performance Studies show it can increase time till exhaustion by 15 Endogenous glycogen stores are more important than exogenous stores and has been shown to improve time till exhaustion by 300 In an energy depleted state studies have shown that simply rinsing your mouth with any kind of carbohydrates increases time till exhaustion because there are receptors in your mouth that trigger reward centers in the brain It is unknown why during aerobic exercise when oxygen needs meet stores that exercise at a constant load becomes more difficult but it has been suggested that it has to do with depleting glucose availability Borg rate of Perceived Exertion RPE subjective scale going from 620max exertion Over time at the same workload people will report going from 7 to 9 to 11 to a 17 It has been theorized that the CNS becomes deprived of glucose and causes a reduced recruitment of muscle fibers making working out more difficult Central governor theory once the discomfort of exercise exceeds the intrinsic reward of continuing a person fatigues It can be seen as a protective mechanism that prevent total glycogen depletion because if one were to use up all sugar the CNS wouldn t be able to function and muscles wouldn t be able to generate ATP It also functions to stop the breakdown of proteins in the muscles mainly the breakdown of the BCAA Valine lsoleucine and Leucine that leads to increased muscle damage and a reduction in the body s protein balance This damage negates any gains in muscle mass increases recovery time and promotes injuries and infection due to the immune system needing protein Also causing cortisol levels to rise which further suppresses the immune system leading to further damage weakness soreness and increased risk of injury and illness Sufficient daily carbohydrate recommendations 610g per kgbw which should 5565 of total caloric intake Complex and nutrient rich carbs whole grains vegetables and fruits throughout the day Before during and right after exercise one should have simple sugars wound in sports drinks juices gels and processed grains Carbs before exercise should be 30 minutes before to avoid hypoglycemia and should be taken in supplement form in a glucose to electrolyte solution of 48 for fast absorption Avoid fiber leads to GI distress Hydration and adequate carbs intake 1 cup of water of a 48 glucose to electrolyte solution consumed every 15 minutes or raisins gels or bars should be consumed at a rate 3060ghour Best glucose repletion One should use a combo of fructose and glucose as they use different means of transport in the body Fructose has the slowest rate of oxidation and alone may cause GI distress Supplements containing multiple types of sugar may give a synergistic benefit by increasing absorption rate enhancing endocrine response or stimulate tissue and liver replenishment lf fasting before exercise less than 60 minutes taking in carbs is still beneficial as it slows muscle breakdown Prudent dietary recommendations for adequate energy supply Aim for maintaining whole body glucose availability during peak periods of training Daily intake of 810g of carbs per kgbw in endurance athletes Daily intake of 68g per kgbw in anaerobic or resistance training athletes Complex carbs should be taken in throughout the day 200300g consumed 34 hours before exercise 3060g of simple carbs during prolonged exercise or shorter bouts in a fasting athlete or 79 per kgbwhour Carbohydrate and protein after exercise for recovery and tissue repair Promoting Tissue repair or muscle growth Full repletion can take between 2448 hours after an exhaustive exercise Repeated workouts prior to full repletion of glycogen stores may cause a decrease in performance and an increase in injury due to overtraining Triathletes are more at risk since they have multiple events in a single day More muscles will break down as BCAA s are brought to help energy needs lf liver glycogen remains low cortisol levels increase causing greater muscle breakdown and Insulin levels decrease Insulin is an anabolic hormone used to build muscles This will persist long after causing more damage and soreness To fix this one should try to correct the endocrine imbalance by increasing blood glucose and amino acid stores Consuming a high index carb with easily absorbed proteins such as whey and casein will cause Insulin level to rise quicker Increase in insulin lowers cortisol and increase glucose and amino acid uptake in the muscle tissues insulin also fights muscle breakdown by reducing the catabolic enzyme and increasing protein synthesis increasing potassium and glucose will help boost osmotic pressure and help the uptake of amino acids into muscle tissues 31 CARB protein during and after exercise improves performance However we aren t sure if this is beneficial due to the increase in calories because protein hasn t been shown to be beneficial Recovery meal protein and carbohydrates have been shown to increase muscular protein synthesis and muscle growth by 400 vs just a carbohydrate recovery drink 15g carb 05g protein per kgbw within the first hour post exercise should be a complete high quality and easily absorbed protein Whey or a supplement containing 5g of essential amino acids and should be consumed with a high glycemic index carbohydrate like raisins berries melon bananas jam bread or a carbrich beverage chocolate milk Weight gain add 01 g of Creatine per kgbw to the carb and protein recovery meal Caffeine has been shown to aid in uptake of exogenous glucose To grow 1g of tissue 58 Kcal extra energy 1Ib 454 grams of tissue one needs an excess of 3000 kcalories to create one pound of muscle roughly 400 day to gain 1 pound a week Can t successfully lose weight and gain muscle at the same time since they are conflicting However by gaining muscle one will lower their body fat percentage because creating more muscle makes you gain weight and therefore less of your body mass is fat One pound of muscle 70 water 22 protein Protein supplements act more as a placebo where one trains harder while giving them the extra calories they need Increasing muscle mass High volume variable resistance training around 7080 1RM One minute recovery bw sets 1618g per kgbw protein day 68g carbs per kgbw 400500 caloric surplus 01g per kgbw creatine monohydrate added to recovery meal aid in gains of lean and total body mass Timing of protein ingestion is more important one should consume carbs before during and after weight training Combatting immune dysfunction and preventing injuries need to maintain proper protein balance and nitrogen balance by giving yourself proper recovery If not cortisol will be released and insulin will be suppressed leading to the break of more muscle causing illness soreness and muscle breakdown TEST 3 Performance Nutrition 1 Energy to the tissues 2 Competition strategies 3 Preventing injury and illness Energy to the tissues Sugar as fuel More you exercise the more carbs you need What causes fatigue Rate of Perceived Exertion why exercise gets harder as you continue at the same resistancelinked to decrease of glucose availability Central governor theory somewhere something in your brain that monitors sugar in body and as glucose gets lower in your body it becomes harder to recruit motor units and exercise becomes harder However we have yet to find this organ system Brain only uses sugar for fuel so if sugar gets lower the brain makes sense to tell you to turn down exercise Oral Carb receptors once you put sugar in someone s mouth they can keep going even without consuming it When sugar is put into the mouth it activates reward centers in the brain allowing you to recruit muscle fibers easier Muscle glycogen the more you have the longer you last Body has 400g of carbs in muscle 9095 g liver and 5g in the blood body consumes a gminute Only the liver can put sugar into the blood after at least 90 minutes the liver runs out and people usually hit the wall bonking Guidelines Use 1g of sugar minute of workout Endogenous carbohydratesglycogen 500g in your body can extend time by 200 300 much more important to endurance sports Exogenous carbohydratesglucose during exercise can extend time to exhaustion during endurance sports by roughly 15 if its less than 30 minutes you don t need any 3075 minutes you need any form of carbs just in your mouth don t need to consume 12 hours need roughly want glucose and fructose up to 30g Glucose goes to muscles liver and brain goes to muscle stores fructose goes only to liver helps replenish liver stores They also have different enzymes that take them through sucrose glucose fructose also high fructose corn syrup good for sports is genetically modified and contains lead 23 hours need about 60g hour When you go at lower intensities than you can take in 60g hour because the blood is going slower so you absorb less Another factor is that you can train your gut the same way you can train your muscles so if you start at absorbing 30g hour you can train it to absorb 60ghour If you train with a substance you should perform with it because your gut gets used to absorb that substance same thing with powdered drinks not mixed well the different concentrations can mess you up If its over 25 hours take up 90ghour using different types of When a person s muscle glycogen gets down to 13 of a completely saturated level the muscle becomes weaker D benefit of consuming carbs during exercise of over an hour because there are oral carb receptors that triggers reward centers that make you work hard Caffeine has a similar effect Less research on anerboic exercises such as team sports weight lifting Athletes of training endurance athletes require 810g CHOkgbwday Anaerobic athletes need 68gkgbw Athletes consume a lot of calories but the carbohydrates should be between the 4565 range American college of sports medicine decides these recommendations and are funded by Gatorade Shows most competive athletes are on the lower end of the carb scale and only triathletes pass the 60 threshold Caffeine shown to have an ergogenic effect on performance and increases exogenous glucose readily available caffeine with carbohydrates in a mouth rinse trial improved performance over carbohydrate alone Makes exercise feel easier may also help fatty acid oxidation Found in berries coffee beans phytochemicals natural pesticide taken 100 200mg roughly 12 cups an hour before exercise will last 25 hours because has such a long half life Have receptors in our mouth for coffee as soon as it hits your mouth is pretty good Precomp Meal should take place 34 hours before the event whereas pretraining meals are usually 2 hours before Stress hormones impede digestive motility and the gi tract should be empty during competition to prevent GI distress The pre comp meal shouldn t include fat fiber spices or sauces and should contain the 15g carbkgbw and 2g of prokgbw Before competition you release a lot of stress hormones and it stops GI tract eat the meal 34 hours before 15g carbs and 2g of proteinkng Don t include fats sauces fiber and spices Higher on protein lower on carbs to maintain nitrogen and not break down muscle Cunningham equationTDEE use a machine that measures body fat percentage Fat free mass kg 21 6 370 activity fator Moderate exercise sports 35daysweek BMR155 Hard Exercise 67days a week BMR1725 Very hard BMR 19 Carbs 55 Protein 25 676 calories169g of protein still need to watch out for upper limit at 20gkgbw Fat 20 75g fat day Protein 14gkgbw for endurance and 17gkgbw for anaerobic Carbs 610gkgbw depending on intensity or amdr Fat not less than 20 of dietary intake Anaerobic Athletes build the program around protein of 1618gkgbw Carbs can be up to 68 gkgbw Protien timing is critical consume about 510 gprotein kgbw in the period during and after resistance training Recovery 15g of carbs bet kgbw between 1530 minutes of training with 5 gkgbw of protein consume another meal wiTh carbs and protein 2 hours following exercise Most carbs should from whole grains anc complex fiber rich sources except for those taken in immediately following exercise Lose weight subtract 500 from TDEE females need at least 30calkg of fat free mass cant ever go below 1200 calories eat breakfast to reduce late night feasts carbs avoid sugar processed carbs and starch except when exercising get it from Veggies whole grains and some whole fruit Plantbased nutrient dense Gain weight Add 500 Eat every 3 hours to lower cortisol and maintain insulin Protien shouldn t get to high UL Carbs focus on root veggies and starches Fat 2535 of diet Recov 4050G of cho and 1520 protein Don t need to get all these supplements because most pro athletes prefer regular fruits Central Fatigue theory BCAA s compete with free tryptophan turns serotonin into melatonin in the blood to get across the blood brain barrier After every big meal insulin rises and pulls BCAA s out of blood and allows more tryptophan to get through Prolonged exercise requires BCAA s to be broken down into sugar thereby letting more tryptophan in People advise supplementing BCAA s when exercising but the data isn t consistent Data of fatigued rats shows increase of serotonin in the brain We use BCAA s for fuel when we first run out of carbohydrates because the liver will convert them in When people hit the wall from running out of sugar the body is telling you to stop Anaerobic Athletes Build program around 1618g kgbw Carbs should be 68gkgbw or 50 Protein timing is critical consume about 0510g of proteinkgbw in the period before during and after resistance trainingweight lifting Recovery 15 g carbs kgbw between 15330 minutes of training with 5gkgbw of protein Consume another meal with carbs and protein 2 hours following exercise Most carbs should from whole grains and complex fiber rich sources 2 Preventing Injury and Illness Caloric paradox with athletes overtraining in athletes not recovering properly or eating correctly In athletes we see that as their caloric intake goes up their body fat percentage actually decreases which is why it s a paradox and if they eat to few their body fat goes down By losing mass from muscle body fat percentage goes up because they are using all of their glycogen stores Negative protein balance when muscle breaks down it increases sorenessin ammation cortisol is an antiin ammatory that suppresses the immune system and is increased cortisol levels are high when muscle breaks down Muscle loss also increases risk of injury because it reduces stability in joints and tendons Need to make sure to get adequate sleep Moderate exercise improves immunity and decreases illness rates small bouts of exercise increase immune system functioning and promoting health Bakers yeast might just be a placebo but many show signs of increase immune system and reduced injuries Glutamine can improve immune system it is the most abundant amino acids that we make It re ects nitrogen balance in the body Its used by immune cells as fuel immune boost is usually glutamine or vit C Study in military glutamine supplementations reduced number of dropouts illnesses and injuries Doesn t need to be supplemented because if protein is properly balanced with normal dietary needs it should be fine A smoothie with casein or whey will work to reduce injury Chocolate milk has consistently been equal or better than supplements Has the 31 ratio of carbs to protein Post exercise 30 minutes after Fruit smoothie with whey protein Peanut butter and jelly sandwich with Gatorade Fruit juice or coke and a turkey sandwich soy yogurt with blue berries bananas and strawberries 2 hours after 400500 calorie meal with 31 carbs and protein turkey sub and lemonade or coke Chicken rice and coke Reducing risk of muscle soreness when your glycogen stores are critically low you start breaking down muscle tissue so replenishing with both Immune suppressants cortisol breaks down muscle tissue suppresses the immune system and food helps increase Muscle breakdown joints become weaker and become more likely to become injured Competition strategies Thermoregulation at rest 60 of heat is lost through radiation being in a cool environment can help cool you down Conduction body transfers heat with direct contact to objects that are colder than you Convection warm air molecules on the skin get blown off by cooler air 80 of heat loss during exercise is due to evaporation for every 1g of sweat that evaporates of your skin you lose 06 KCalories off your skin Most effective in a dry environment because in a humid environment sweat will not evaporates Worst place would be in warm waters where people suffer from heat strokes Sweat comes from the plasma of the blood so in the heat the Heart works harder in order to push blood out to the skin For every degree over 59 F one can add a minute to their overall time Therefore at 70 degrees one can expect their time to be 11 minutes longer How does body adaptacclimate to the heat A person that sweats a lot is better at cooling A person that doesn t sweat a lot shows they aren t very efficient at cooling Who would sweat more hurricanes or Hurricanes more acclimated Obese people also sweat a lot When one acclimates there will be roughly 300mL of extra water to your blood so one can sweat more Blood is thin because one has more water Hyponatremia People are over hydrating before events and it becomes very dangerous even fatal Hypo low natsodium emia blood Low blood sodium due to over drinking Need about a cup of water 812 oz every 1520minutes Risk factors Women that overdrink Do events over 3 hours Have a low BMI Sports drinks with electrolytes do not stop this Hydration Urine should be slightly more tinited than clear lemonade color Regular 2 cups of water fore every pound you lose in training TDEE mL At a strong yellow or a decrease in body mass to 2 bw is associated with reduced performance heat illness and weakness If dehydrated during weight training less likely to build muscle due to increase in stress hormones and can contribute to atrophy and overtraining lowers testosterone levels TDEE240 Cups of water day Do not over drink by gaining weight or feeling bloated during the workout to prevent hyponatremia Q10 effect when your body core temp goes up by 1 degree your enzymes go up 10 Heat begets heat Heat cramps muscle cramps stretch cool off vinegar or pickle juice Heat exhaustion feel faint nauseous need to stop Heat stroke skin becomes dry and hot to the touch either having a seizure or unconscious need to put ice in all sensitive areas AVOID HEAT ILLNESS don t traincompete dehydrated or hungover Fill the tank you want to go into an event with a stomach filled so that the water taken in will get absorbed in the blood Roughly 25 cups 200z 25 hours before training If the athletes doesn t piss or if its strong coller consumer another 12 ozp 15 cups during activity consume roughly 1 cup of water every 15 minutes To meet cho needs Classic CarboLoading Most effectiveCarbo loading isn t necessary for an event under 90 minutes If a race is Sunday MondayWednesday depletion exercise and eat a low carb diet roughly 10 ThursdaySaturday rest and have a high cho diet 10g per kgbw complex catbs every 2 hours By Sunday Athletes can have a 200300 increased storage of glycogen which can prolong time to exhaustion by 200300 Works even in stop and go for 90 minutes For every extra gram of glycogen you store you store 3g Taper only method no depletion and just taper down the exercise and increase carbohydrate in the 3 days leading up to competition This method has comparable results to the classic method via biopsy studies of glycogen content in the muscle Data was skewed because they used muscle biopsies where glycogen stores is effected by in ammation this is the most recommended 1 day method 24 hours before completion perform 3 minutes of high intensity sprints using the same muscles as your sport immediately following consume cho to achieve 120 g per kgbw by the race Comparable to Taper method Competition strategies pre comp meal 34 hours before and exclude fat fiber sauces and spices Constist of 15 g cho and 02 g protein 25 cups of water 23 hours before the event consume nothing between 2 hours and 15 minutes of the event Caffeine can taken in coffee 25 hours before the event 2 cups 15 min b4 bad urine or hasn t consumes another 15 cups of water or a sports drink During completion Soz approx every 1520 minutes 3060g of cho hours and if tolerated a 31 carb protein may prolong time to fatigue and reduce muscle injury Soreness Beet juice and arugula Beets have the ability to convert nitric oxide and produce more oxygen than usual Helps mitochondria be more efficient in making ATP Nitric oxide supplements don t work the same way This allows people to go longer Beef Poultry Eggs Natural beef doesn t mean much it means that the meat has no additives once they got it Doesn t say anything about the quality Nothing artificial added after slaughter but the livestock may have lived and eaten unnaturally Steven Colbert taco bell less than 33 beef in there meat one of the fillers is sand Grass fed fed grass and forage shall be the feed source for the lifetime of the animal with the exception of milk consumed prior to weaning Grassfed most cattle are grass fed up in the early years of life may be deceiving Grass finished raised on grass for life but may be fed dry Grass in a confined space Pastured free to roam and grass finished quality meat USDA diets soley from forage such as grass legumes brassica cereal grain in the vegetative state Animals must have continuous access to pasture Routine mineral and vitamin supplementation may also be included No grains permited Corn Field vs organic meat corn are bigger because they are left in small spaces more fructose in corn fed so the meat is sweeter and less expensive different fatty acids non organic meats are filled with antibiotics that surprisingly to cause weight gain by clearing out intestinal ora you gain weight The opposite is not necessarily true probiotics don t help weight loss Grass fed has higher omega 3 to omega 6 Heart healthy hypothesis Trans fat worst fat for cholesterol Polmetic acid 16 carbs made from sugar very bad Red meat high level of meristic CM and palmetic acid that are bad Organic meats lower levels of these fatty acids and higher amount of steric acid C18 that could improve cholesterol 1950 s Tried to improve production and costefficiency High energy grains fed within a confined space appeared to increase marbling and taste consumers wanted Grass fed contain conjugated linoleic acid CLA has been shown to act as an antioxidant reducing cancer heart healthy and counteract some effects of diabetes Has a an omega 6 omega 3 of 17 1 800 more beta carotene then grain 300 more vitamin E preserving shelf life of omega 3 more vitamin C Nutrient synergy Vegans need lots of seaweed Selenium 50 of thee beef contain MERSA but heating it up kills it Eggs and poultry Cage free open to sunlight all cramped in a room with a small window Hormone free in the US all eggs must be hormone free Free range not accurate Pasture raised only one that still means they are out free in the pasture 0 66 more Vitamin A 0 2x more omega 3 s 0 3X more vitamin E 0 7x More beta carotene Chicken no hormones or steroids are allowed to be added ever Organic no antibiotics Pastured free to roam and forage Sunny side up or poached yolks in tact don t have as much oxidation to the lipid but conventional eggs may have an increased risk of salmonella Egg yolks rich in ADEK contain Lecithin helps liver metabolize cholesterol may assist in cholesterol metabolism more yellow and stick up Whole eggs helps improve lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity compared to yolk free STRAUS grass finished beef highly rated quality meat Whole Grains Fortifiedenriched take something and put it back in take white our and add bran and fortify it with germ to cheat to get the right ratio Whole grains must have the intact ground cracked or aked caryopsis whose principal anatomical components the starchy endosperm germ abd bran are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis want bread from the refrigerator sprouted grain most like whole grains no our in the ingredients Whole grains 1 contain at least 8 g of whole grain serving 2 qualify for FDA whole grain health claim must be 51 whole grain by weight 3 Have a whole grain as the first ingredient or first ingredient by weight for non mixed dishes or first of mixed Food allergies Gluten sensitivity still disagreed upon whether it s real People Hypothesis stay away from it for a while and then go back and have a huge response to it as you built up sensitivity Celiac disease immune response to gluten Soy Isof39lavone plant form of estrogen Plants have phytosterols not cholesterol and don t mean that it will cause female secondary sex characteristics Does soy cause cancer No connection has been made showing this link In fact it has angiogenic properties Eating soy early in life may actually be beneficial to lower risk of breast cancer Men and soy male testosterone is not altered by soy intake Hypothyroidism takes up some of body s iodine that is necessary for the thyroid glands Might have an increased risk of thyroid cancer Not all soy is created equally when its not fermented has antinutrients Fermented soy has more available nutrients and health benefits 90 is GMO processed soy should be aboided and this include tofu and soymilk organic and fermented is the best 10
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