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UMB / Psychology / PSYC 100 / What is Garcia effect?

What is Garcia effect?

What is Garcia effect?


School: University of Maryland
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Curtis
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, behavior, Cognitive Psychology, and biopsychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC100 Exam 1 study guide
Description: Alphabetized list of concepts to know for our first exam
Uploaded: 02/27/2017
4 Pages 4 Views 9 Unlocks

PSYC100 Exam 1 Study Guide

What is Garcia effect?

- Amygdala

o Holds emotional memories

- Backfire effect

o Evidence that threatens worldview can strengthen initially held beliefs o Gravitate towards unfalsifiable ideas

- Behaviorism

o Stimulus pairing ???? response is generated

- Classical conditioning

o Pair an unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response with a conditioned  stimulus and response to achieve a conditioned response to a previously neutral  stimulus

- Cognitive dissonance

o Inconsistency between attitude and behavior causes unpleasant mental state - Cognitive Miser perspective

o Mental shortcuts lead to being reluctant to question what we think we know - Conceptual replication

o Scientist tries to confirm previous findings using a different set of specific  methods

- Conditioned response

o A previously unconditioned response begins occurring to a conditioned stimulus - Conditioned stimulus

What is evolutionary psychology?

o What was once neutral now has a conditioned meaning

- Conjunction fallacy

o Probability of A+B together is always less than probability of A or B alone - Context-dependent learning

o Match in encoding and retrieval setting

- Correlational design

o Variables measured only If you want to learn more check out what is the distance of earth to sun?
If you want to learn more check out What is X- linked?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the Libertarian Argument?

o Does not always indicate causation

o Correlations range from -1 to +1, 0 meaning no correlation

▪ Highest absolute value of correlation = strongest correlation

- Counter-conditioning

o Replacing undesired response by replacing association We also discuss several other topics like What heterogeneous mixture means?

- Demand characteristics

o If participants are aware of the purpose of the study, their behavior may change - Dependency paradox

o Independence and dependence are opposites, yet people who are more  dependent on their partners tend to be more independent in other ways  - Ego depletion

What is heuristics?

We also discuss several other topics like Infants discover words, or segment, the fluent stream of speech.

o Idea that willpower is limited

o Discovered that this is only real if you believe it is

- Estrogen

o Causes memory problems post menopause

- Evolutionary psychology

o Natural, sexual, and artificial selection

o Reproductive fitness and adaptation

- Exact replication

o Scientist attempts to recreate an experiment step by step

- Extinction

o The process of unlearning a behavior when reinforcement is no longer  associated with it

▪ Initial behavior ???? reinforcement removed ???? extinction burst ????

extinction occurs ???? spontaneous recovery (sometimes)

- Garcia effect

o Taste aversion if you’ve felt sick after eating a food ???? you no longer want to eat  it

- Glutamate

o Stress triggers this neurotransmitter, it helps people remember)

o Similar to epinephrine  

- Habituation

o Getting used to something

- Heuristics

o Mental shortcuts (have some information, then assume a lot based off that) ▪ Expensive=better If you want to learn more check out Caused by a permanent inadequacy of food.

▪ Halo effect

▪ Beautiful=good

▪ Hot hand fallacy ???? made a couple shots, think they will make next one ▪ Gambler’s fallacy ???? think that chance events will “even out”

- Hindsight bias

o Two plausible explanations given, one seems obvious only after evidence given  for one

- Hippocampus

o Brain’s librarian ???? holds memories, then directs them elsewhere in the brain - Hypothesis

o Specific prediction for variables in a study

- Intrinsic motivation

o Value in the activity itself, not external conditions

- Learning bias

o Mind has a template, not a blank slate

o Not fixed, but some things are easier to learn than others

- Modeling

o Observation and mimicry

- Motivated cognition

o When weighing evidence, seek preferred conclusion to confirm existing  worldview

- Neutral stimulus

o No naturally wired response

- Operant conditioning

o Positive reinforcement

▪ Presenting desired stimulus after desired behavior

o Negative reinforcement

▪ Removing aversive stimulus after desired behavior

o Positive punishment

▪ Presenting aversive stimulus after undesired behavior occurs

o Negative punishment

▪ Removing desired stimulus after undesired behavior occurs

- Operationalization

o Way to quantify a qualitative observation

- Personality

o Stability in behavior over time

- Placebo effect

o Mind causes you to experience what you expect to, rather than what is actually  happening

- Primacy effect

o Something learned first is easier to remember because it was easier to encode o Nothing interfered with encoding because this information came first - Primary punishers

o Something naturally aversive

- Primary reinforcers

o Something we naturally desire

- Priming

o Bringing up related things to remember something in the same category - Random assignment

o The key to experimentation – not attributable to pre-existing variables - Recency effect

o The last thing to be learned is easy to remember because it is easier to store - Research design

o Quasi-experiments

o Naturalistic observations

o Experience samples

o Longitudinal studies

o Case studies

- Rosenthal effect

o Researcher’s own expectations of results could subconsciously influence how  participants are treated

- Schedules of reinforcement

o Continuous

o Fixed ratio

o Variable ratio

o Fixed interval

o Variable interval

- Schema

o Cognitive structures representing ideas in the mind

▪ Types include: concept, person, group, events, procedure, self

- Secondary punishers

o Something we have learned to avoid

- Secondary reinforcers

o Something we have learned to want

o (second order conditioning)

- Self-determination

o Darwin’s idea that infants have intrinsic motivation

o Children seek new information and feel happy when they solve a problem or  learn something new

o Contrast to behaviorism which states that behavior will depend on external  stimuli

- Serotonin

o Happy neurotransmitter, secreted during learning

- Shaping

o Differential reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target  behavior

- Situationist perspective

o Immediate environmental cues dictate behavior

- Social cognitive theory

o Schemas determine activity

▪ Beliefs, attitudes, memories, mindset

- Social desirability

o Bias in which people are reluctant to talk honestly in fear of negative social  judgements

- Socio-cultural theory

o Groups develop norms

- Stimulus timing

o Simultaneous

o Forward long-delay

o Backwards

- Systematic desensitization

o Start out with an easy stimulus and work your way up to the real one - Theory

o Overarching explanation for phenomena

o Testable and falsifiable

- Unconditioned response

o Natural response to something

- Unconditioned stimulus

o Something we naturally have a response to

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