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MSU / Psychology / PSY 1013 / What are the major issues of Developmental Psychology?

What are the major issues of Developmental Psychology?

What are the major issues of Developmental Psychology?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Alison patev
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Test 2 Class Notes Study Guide
Description: Class notes over chapters 3, 5, 6, and 7.
Uploaded: 02/27/2017
43 Pages 177 Views 2 Unlocks
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Continuity and Stages: What parts of development are gradual and continual like riding an escalator?




how do we change as we age?




Continuity and Stages: What parts of development are gradual and continual like riding an escalator?



Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span  I. Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn  A. Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues a. Nature and Nurture: How does our genetic inheritance (our Nature)  interactIf you want to learn more check out the last salute manto
We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 components of emotions?
If you want to learn more check out math 2433
Don't forget about the age old question of art 1010
Don't forget about the age old question of steve ritz ucsc
Don't forget about the age old question of turker topcu virginia tech
with our experiences (our Nurture) to influence our  development?  b. Continuity and Stages: What parts of development are gradual and  continual like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in  separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder? c. Stability and Change: Which of our traits persist through life? how do  we change as we age? II. Prenatal Development and the Newborn  A. Conception  a. Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell  division and developed into an embryo  b. Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after  fertilization through the second month  c. Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception  to birth  B. Prenatal Development a. Teratogens: literally “monster maker” agents, such as chemicals and  viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal  development and cause harm  b. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in  children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases,  signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial  features. C. The Competent Newborn a. Can feel touch before born (first sense to become functional)  b. Can hear in the placenta c. Sensitive to light  d. Preferring the human face III. Infancy and Childhood  A. Physical Development  1. Brain Development a. One of the earliest parts to begin developing during prenatal  development 2. Motor Development a. Sequence of motor development is the same for everyone, but the  timing is what differs among us all  b. Crawling before walking, but never learning to crawl AFTER learning  to walk 3. Brain Maturation and Infant Memory a. Infantile amnesia: parts of the brain that hold memory have not yet  been myelinated  b. Frontal Lobes are the last to be myelinated  B. Cognitive Development  1. Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking a. Underestimated the stages of childhood development- we are more  cognitively developed b. Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets  information  c. Assimilation- interpreting our new experiences in terms of our  existing schemas.  d. Accommodation- adapting our current understandings (schemas) to  incorporate new information  a. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth- 2 years b. Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking,  hearing, touching, grasping, and mouthing)  i. Object permanence- the awareness that things continue  to exist even when you can’t see them  ii. Stranger anxiety b. Pre-operational Stage a. Age 2-7  i. Representing things with words and images; using  intuitive rather than logical reasoning  1. Pretend play  2. Egocentrism- The pre-operational child’s  difficulty taking another’s point of view  3. Lack conservation- Principle that properties such  as mass, volume, and number remain the same  despite changes in the form of objects.  b. Theory of Mind- people’s ideas about their own and others’  mental state— about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts,  and the behaviors these might predict. c. Concrete Operational Stage a. Age 7-11  i. Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping  concrete analogies and performing arithmetical  operations  1. Conservation  2. Mathematical transformations d. Formal Operational Stage a. Age 12-Adulthood  i. Abstract reasoning  1. Abstract logic  2. Potential for mature moral reasoning2. An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child a. Mentorship in cognitive development  i. Scaffold- provide cognitive assistances to children so they  can reach higher levels until they master a skill.   3. Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory  a. Implications for Parents and Teachers  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder  C. Social Development a. Eric Ericson  i. Infancy (to 1 year): trust vs. mistrust  1. If needs are dependently met, infants develop a sense of  basic trust  ii. Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years): autonomy vs. shame and doubt  INDEPENDENCE 1. Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for  themselves, or they doubt their abilities  iii.Preschool (3 to 6 years): initiative vs. guilt  1. Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or  they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent  iv. Elementary school (6 years to puberty): competence vs.  inferiority  1. Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to  tasks, or they feel inferior  v. Adolescence (teen years into 20s): identity vs. role confusion  1. Teenagers work at refining a sense of self be testing roles  and then integrating them to form a single identity, or  they become confused about who they are. vi.Young Adulthood (20s to early 40s): Intimacy vs. isolation  1. Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to  gain the capacity for intimate love, or they may feel  socially isolated.  vii.Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s): Generativity vs. stagnation  1. In middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to  then world, usually through family and work, or they may  feel a lack of purpose  viii.Late Adulthood (late 60s and up): Integrity vs. despair  1. Reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a  sense of satisfaction or failure. 1. Human Bonding a. Harlow’s monkey experiments= body contact helps to develop strong  attachments a. Body Contact  b. Familiarity  2. Attachment Differences a. Mary Ainsworth: strange situation experiment  i. Observed mother and child together in laboratory playroom  ii. Mother would leave the room while child wasn’t looking and  new stranger came in the room. Observed child.  iii.Mom comes back and observe how child reacts  a. Attachment Styles and Later Relationships a. Secure: Child becomes distressed; seek contact with her  when she returns  b. Insecure: cry loudly when mom leaves, remain upset or seem  indifferent to her departure and return 3. Deprivation of Attachment 4. Self-Concept  5. Parenting Styles  IV. Adolescence a. The transition period from childhood to adulthood,  extending from puberty to independence A. Physical Development a. Early versus late maturing adolescence:  i. Late maturing males: embarrassing for the male; females are more  interested in the deep-voiced, rugged, tall men  ii. Early maturing males: “cool”- not with a lot of baggage in grown  society, however, male may feel outcast and seen as different by  peers. Adults see them as more mature and able to handle more  responsibility  iii.Late maturing females: Feel childish, even though they may be more  mature. Feel inferior, often tied to self-esteem issues. Spend a lot of  time and make choices to show the world that they are mature  iv. Early maturing females: people make assumptions about age and/or  maturity;  B. Cognitive Development a. Egocentric thinking in adolesence:  i. Personal fable: Intense investment in their own thoughts and  feelings and a belief that those thoughts and feelings are unique  to them.  ii. Imaginary audience: Belief that the adolescent is the center of  everybody’s attention 1. Developing Reasoning Power  2. Developing Morality a. Moral Reasoning a. Preconventional morality (before the age 9):  i. Self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain  concrete rewards.  ii. “If you save your dying wife, you'll be a hero”  b. Conventional Morality (early adolescence):  i. Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain  social order  ii. “If you steal the drug for her, everyone will think you’re a  criminal”  c. Post conventional Morality (adolescence and beyond):  i. Actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical  principles  ii. “People have a right to live” 3. Moral Intuition  a. Moral Action C. Social Development  1. Forming an Identity  2. Parent and Peer Relationships  D. Emerging Adulthood  V. Adulthood A. Physical Development  1. Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood  2. Physical Changes in Late Adulthood  a. Life Expectancy  b. Sensory Abilities, Strength, and Stamina  c. Health  d. The Aging Brain  i. Exercise and Aging  B. Cognitive Development  1. Aging and Memory  2. Neurocognitive Disorders and Alzheimer’s Disease a. Crystallized intelligence: Your accumulated knowledge and verbal  skills; you can always add to this intelligence  b. Fluid intelligence: Ability to reason speedily and abstractly; with age,  this tends to decrease/decline  C. Social Development  1. Adulthood’s Ages and Stages 2. Adulthood’s Commitments  a. Love  b. Work  3. Well-Being Across the Life Span  4. Death and Dying Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception I. Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception a. Sensation: How the world outside gets in; the process by which our  sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus  energies from our environment  b. Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting information,  enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events  c. Bottom-up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors  and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information  d. Top-down processing: information processing guided by higher-level  mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our  experience and expectations  A. Transduction a. Transduction: conversion of one form of energy into another. In  sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights,  sounds, and smells into neural impulses our brain can interpret.  B. Thresholds  1. Absolute Thresholds a. Absolute Threshold: The minimum stimulus energy necessary to  detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.  b. Sometimes we can detect something that is below our absolute  threshold  c. Signal Detection Theory: predicts when we will detect weak  signals  i. Age  ii. Fatigue  iii. What’s important to you2. Difference Thresholds a. Difference Threshold: the minimum difference between two  stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; smallest  amount of stimuli needed for you to notice something has  changed. C. Sensory Adaptation (Habituation)  a. Sensory Adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of  constant stimulation  b. Happens in two ways:  i. Receptor Adaptation: adaptation that occurs in the receptor  neurons themselves (Bottom-Up)  ii. Central Habituation: adaptation that occurs in the brain  D. Perceptual Set  a. Perceptual Set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not  another (Top-Down) E. Context Effects a. Context Effect: the immediate context of a stimulus influences how  you see it F. Motivation and Emotion  II. Vision: Sensory and Perceptual Processing  A. Light Energy and Eye Structures a. Light energy is the physical stimulus for vision1. The Stimulus Input: Light Energy a. Wavelength (color) and amplitude (brightness) both influence  vision  2. The Eye a. Cornea  b. Pupil  c. Iris  d. Lense  e. Retina  i. Both contain chemicals and breakdown when light hits  them- neurochemical message  ii. Rods- black and white  iii. Cones- color  f. Fovea (Point of central focus) allows for the clearest vision  g. Blind spot absolutely no receptors for vision  B. Information Processing in the Eye and Brain  1. Retinal Processing  2. Color Processing a. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory: the theory that the retina  contains three different color receptors— one most sensitive to  ed, one to green, one to blue— which, when stimulated in  combination, can produce the perception of color  b. Hering’s opponent-process theory: the theory that opposing  retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable  color vision. 3. Feature Detection a. Feature Detectors: nerve cells in the brain that respond to  specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or  movement 4. Parallel Processing a. Parallel Processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem  sim C. Perceptual Organization a. Gestalt psychologists:  1. Form Perception  a. Figure and Ground a. The organization of the visual field into objects (the Figures)  that stand out from their surroundings (the Ground) b. Grouping a. The perceptual  i. Proximity  ii. Continuity  iii. Closure 2. Depth Perception  a. Binocular Cues  a. Retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By  comparing images from he retinas in the two eyes, the brain  computes distance— the greater the disparity (difference)  between the two images, the closer the object.  b. Convergence: the less inward turn, the farther the brain  perceives the object to be and vice-versab. Monocular Cues a. Relative height: we perceive objects that are higher in our  field of vision to be farther away  b. Relative size: if we assume two objects are similar in size,  MOST people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal  image as farther away  c. Interposition: if one object partially blocks our view of  another, we perceive it as closer 3. Motion Perception a. Phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or  more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession  4. Perceptual Constancy a. Top-down process a. Color and Brightness Constancies  b. Shape and Size Constancies  D. Perceptual Interpretation  1. Experience and Visual Perception  a. Restored Vision and Sensory Restriction  b. Perceptual Adaptation III. The Non-visual Senses  A. Hearing a. Audition: Sense of hearing  1. The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves  2. The Eara. Transduction: in the cochlea with the protruding hair cells 3. Perceiving Loudness, Pitch, and Location  a. Responding to Loud and Soft Sounds  b. Hearing Different Pitches a. Place theory (explains how we sense HIGH PITCHES): in  hearing, the theory that links the pitch with the place  where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated  b. Frequency theory (explains how we sense LOW PITCHES): in  hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses  traveling up  c. Locating Sounds a. You turn your head B. The Other Senses  1. Touch a. Skin is the largest sense organ (9 lbs. and 19 feet)  i. Thickest: soles of hands and feet  ii. Thinest: eyelids  b. Sense of touch is a mix of 4 skin senses:  i. Pressure  ii. Warmth  iii. Cold  iv. Pain 2. Pain  a. Understanding Pain a. Gate-control theory: the theory that the spinal cord  contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened  by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve  fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by  information coming from the brain a. Messages from receptors in your skin, muscles, and tendons tell  your brain 4 things about pain:  i. Location of sensation  ii. Quality of the experience  iii. Quantity or strength of the experience (pressure/ temperature)  iv. Duration of the stimulation  i. Biological Influences  ii. Psychological Influences   iii. Social-Cultural Influences  b. Controlling Pain  i. Placebos  ii. Distraction  3. Taste a. Mixture of: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (meaty)  b. Chemical sense  i. Tastebuds have a canal around it and a hair cell that  enters into that canal  ii. Canal fills up with substance and hair cells sends signal to  the brain about what kind of taste you are experiencing  iii. Tastebuds reproduce about a week or two, however, as you  age, there is a reduction of the production and the basis of whether or not you enjoy tastes of certain thins changes as  well.  4. Smell a. Is very closely related to taste  b. Is a chemical sense  c. Most basic sense- one that seems to be tied closest to emotion  and motivation  d. First thing noticed: pleasant or unpleasant? Then you identify it.  e. Each of your nasal cavities contains about 5,000,000 receptor  cells  f. Receptors replaced about every 30-60 days  5. Body Position and Movement  a. Kinesthesia: the system for sensing the position and movement of  individual body parts  b. Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position,  including the sense of balance C. Sensory InteractionChapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span  I. Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn  A. Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues a. Nature and Nurture: How does our genetic inheritance (our Nature)  interact with our experiences (our Nurture) to influence our  development?  b. Continuity and Stages: What parts of development are gradual and  continual like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in  separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder? c. Stability and Change: Which of our traits persist through life? how do  we change as we age? II. Prenatal Development and the Newborn  A. Conception  a. Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell  division and developed into an embryo  b. Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after  fertilization through the second month  c. Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception  to birth  B. Prenatal Development a. Teratogens: literally “monster maker” agents, such as chemicals and  viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal  development and cause harm  b. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in  children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases,  signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial  features. C. The Competent Newborn a. Can feel touch before born (first sense to become functional)  b. Can hear in the placenta c. Sensitive to light  d. Preferring the human face III. Infancy and Childhood  A. Physical Development  1. Brain Development a. One of the earliest parts to begin developing during prenatal  development 2. Motor Development a. Sequence of motor development is the same for everyone, but the  timing is what differs among us all  b. Crawling before walking, but never learning to crawl AFTER learning  to walk 3. Brain Maturation and Infant Memory a. Infantile amnesia: parts of the brain that hold memory have not yet  been myelinated  b. Frontal Lobes are the last to be myelinated  B. Cognitive Development  1. Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking a. Underestimated the stages of childhood development- we are more  cognitively developed b. Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets  information  c. Assimilation- interpreting our new experiences in terms of our  existing schemas.  d. Accommodation- adapting our current understandings (schemas) to  incorporate new information  a. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth- 2 years b. Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking,  hearing, touching, grasping, and mouthing)  i. Object permanence- the awareness that things continue  to exist even when you can’t see them  ii. Stranger anxiety b. Pre-operational Stage a. Age 2-7  i. Representing things with words and images; using  intuitive rather than logical reasoning  1. Pretend play  2. Egocentrism- The pre-operational child’s  difficulty taking another’s point of view  3. Lack conservation- Principle that properties such  as mass, volume, and number remain the same  despite changes in the form of objects.  b. Theory of Mind- people’s ideas about their own and others’  mental state— about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts,  and the behaviors these might predict. c. Concrete Operational Stage a. Age 7-11  i. Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping  concrete analogies and performing arithmetical  operations  1. Conservation  2. Mathematical transformations d. Formal Operational Stage a. Age 12-Adulthood  i. Abstract reasoning  1. Abstract logic  2. Potential for mature moral reasoning2. An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky and the Social Child a. Mentorship in cognitive development  i. Scaffold- provide cognitive assistances to children so they  can reach higher levels until they master a skill.   3. Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory  a. Implications for Parents and Teachers  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder  C. Social Development a. Eric Ericson  i. Infancy (to 1 year): trust vs. mistrust  1. If needs are dependently met, infants develop a sense of  basic trust  ii. Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years): autonomy vs. shame and doubt  INDEPENDENCE 1. Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for  themselves, or they doubt their abilities  iii.Preschool (3 to 6 years): initiative vs. guilt  1. Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or  they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent  iv. Elementary school (6 years to puberty): competence vs.  inferiority  1. Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to  tasks, or they feel inferior  v. Adolescence (teen years into 20s): identity vs. role confusion  1. Teenagers work at refining a sense of self be testing roles  and then integrating them to form a single identity, or  they become confused about who they are. vi.Young Adulthood (20s to early 40s): Intimacy vs. isolation  1. Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to  gain the capacity for intimate love, or they may feel  socially isolated.  vii.Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s): Generativity vs. stagnation  1. In middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to  then world, usually through family and work, or they may  feel a lack of purpose  viii.Late Adulthood (late 60s and up): Integrity vs. despair  1. Reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a  sense of satisfaction or failure. 1. Human Bonding a. Harlow’s monkey experiments= body contact helps to develop strong  attachments a. Body Contact  b. Familiarity  2. Attachment Differences a. Mary Ainsworth: strange situation experiment  i. Observed mother and child together in laboratory playroom  ii. Mother would leave the room while child wasn’t looking and  new stranger came in the room. Observed child.  iii.Mom comes back and observe how child reacts  a. Attachment Styles and Later Relationships a. Secure: Child becomes distressed; seek contact with her  when she returns  b. Insecure: cry loudly when mom leaves, remain upset or seem  indifferent to her departure and return 3. Deprivation of Attachment 4. Self-Concept  5. Parenting Styles  IV. Adolescence a. The transition period from childhood to adulthood,  extending from puberty to independence A. Physical Development a. Early versus late maturing adolescence:  i. Late maturing males: embarrassing for the male; females are more  interested in the deep-voiced, rugged, tall men  ii. Early maturing males: “cool”- not with a lot of baggage in grown  society, however, male may feel outcast and seen as different by  peers. Adults see them as more mature and able to handle more  responsibility  iii.Late maturing females: Feel childish, even though they may be more  mature. Feel inferior, often tied to self-esteem issues. Spend a lot of  time and make choices to show the world that they are mature  iv. Early maturing females: people make assumptions about age and/or  maturity;  B. Cognitive Development a. Egocentric thinking in adolesence:  i. Personal fable: Intense investment in their own thoughts and  feelings and a belief that those thoughts and feelings are unique  to them.  ii. Imaginary audience: Belief that the adolescent is the center of  everybody’s attention 1. Developing Reasoning Power  2. Developing Morality a. Moral Reasoning a. Preconventional morality (before the age 9):  i. Self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain  concrete rewards.  ii. “If you save your dying wife, you'll be a hero”  b. Conventional Morality (early adolescence):  i. Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain  social order  ii. “If you steal the drug for her, everyone will think you’re a  criminal”  c. Post conventional Morality (adolescence and beyond):  i. Actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical  principles  ii. “People have a right to live” 3. Moral Intuition  a. Moral Action C. Social Development  1. Forming an Identity  2. Parent and Peer Relationships  D. Emerging Adulthood  V. Adulthood A. Physical Development  1. Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood  2. Physical Changes in Late Adulthood  a. Life Expectancy  b. Sensory Abilities, Strength, and Stamina  c. Health  d. The Aging Brain  i. Exercise and Aging  B. Cognitive Development  1. Aging and Memory  2. Neurocognitive Disorders and Alzheimer’s Disease a. Crystallized intelligence: Your accumulated knowledge and verbal  skills; you can always add to this intelligence  b. Fluid intelligence: Ability to reason speedily and abstractly; with age,  this tends to decrease/decline  C. Social Development  1. Adulthood’s Ages and Stages 2. Adulthood’s Commitments  a. Love  b. Work  3. Well-Being Across the Life Span  4. Death and Dying Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception I. Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception a. Sensation: How the world outside gets in; the process by which our  sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus  energies from our environment  b. Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting information,  enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events  c. Bottom-up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors  and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information  d. Top-down processing: information processing guided by higher-level  mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our  experience and expectations  A. Transduction a. Transduction: conversion of one form of energy into another. In  sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights,  sounds, and smells into neural impulses our brain can interpret.  B. Thresholds  1. Absolute Thresholds a. Absolute Threshold: The minimum stimulus energy necessary to  detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.  b. Sometimes we can detect something that is below our absolute  threshold  c. Signal Detection Theory: predicts when we will detect weak  signals  i. Age  ii. Fatigue  iii. What’s important to you2. Difference Thresholds a. Difference Threshold: the minimum difference between two  stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; smallest  amount of stimuli needed for you to notice something has  changed. C. Sensory Adaptation (Habituation)  a. Sensory Adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of  constant stimulation  b. Happens in two ways:  i. Receptor Adaptation: adaptation that occurs in the receptor  neurons themselves (Bottom-Up)  ii. Central Habituation: adaptation that occurs in the brain  D. Perceptual Set  a. Perceptual Set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not  another (Top-Down) E. Context Effects a. Context Effect: the immediate context of a stimulus influences how  you see it F. Motivation and Emotion  II. Vision: Sensory and Perceptual Processing  A. Light Energy and Eye Structures a. Light energy is the physical stimulus for vision1. The Stimulus Input: Light Energy a. Wavelength (color) and amplitude (brightness) both influence  vision  2. The Eye a. Cornea  b. Pupil  c. Iris  d. Lense  e. Retina  i. Both contain chemicals and breakdown when light hits  them- neurochemical message  ii. Rods- black and white  iii. Cones- color  f. Fovea (Point of central focus) allows for the clearest vision  g. Blind spot absolutely no receptors for vision  B. Information Processing in the Eye and Brain  1. Retinal Processing  2. Color Processing a. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory: the theory that the retina  contains three different color receptors— one most sensitive to  ed, one to green, one to blue— which, when stimulated in  combination, can produce the perception of color  b. Hering’s opponent-process theory: the theory that opposing  retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable  color vision. 3. Feature Detection a. Feature Detectors: nerve cells in the brain that respond to  specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or  movement 4. Parallel Processing a. Parallel Processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem  sim C. Perceptual Organization a. Gestalt psychologists:  1. Form Perception  a. Figure and Ground a. The organization of the visual field into objects (the Figures)  that stand out from their surroundings (the Ground) b. Grouping a. The perceptual  i. Proximity  ii. Continuity  iii. Closure 2. Depth Perception  a. Binocular Cues  a. Retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By  comparing images from he retinas in the two eyes, the brain  computes distance— the greater the disparity (difference)  between the two images, the closer the object.  b. Convergence: the less inward turn, the farther the brain  perceives the object to be and vice-versab. Monocular Cues a. Relative height: we perceive objects that are higher in our  field of vision to be farther away  b. Relative size: if we assume two objects are similar in size,  MOST people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal  image as farther away  c. Interposition: if one object partially blocks our view of  another, we perceive it as closer 3. Motion Perception a. Phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or  more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession  4. Perceptual Constancy a. Top-down process a. Color and Brightness Constancies  b. Shape and Size Constancies  D. Perceptual Interpretation  1. Experience and Visual Perception  a. Restored Vision and Sensory Restriction  b. Perceptual Adaptation III. The Non-visual Senses  A. Hearing a. Audition: Sense of hearing  1. The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves  2. The Eara. Transduction: in the cochlea with the protruding hair cells 3. Perceiving Loudness, Pitch, and Location  a. Responding to Loud and Soft Sounds  b. Hearing Different Pitches a. Place theory (explains how we sense HIGH PITCHES): in  hearing, the theory that links the pitch with the place  where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated  b. Frequency theory (explains how we sense LOW PITCHES): in  hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses  traveling up  c. Locating Sounds a. You turn your head B. The Other Senses  1. Touch a. Skin is the largest sense organ (9 lbs. and 19 feet)  i. Thickest: soles of hands and feet  ii. Thinest: eyelids  b. Sense of touch is a mix of 4 skin senses:  i. Pressure  ii. Warmth  iii. Cold  iv. Pain 2. Pain  a. Understanding Pain a. Gate-control theory: the theory that the spinal cord  contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened  by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve  fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by  information coming from the brain a. Messages from receptors in your skin, muscles, and tendons tell  your brain 4 things about pain:  i. Location of sensation  ii. Quality of the experience  iii. Quantity or strength of the experience (pressure/ temperature)  iv. Duration of the stimulation  i. Biological Influences  ii. Psychological Influences   iii. Social-Cultural Influences  b. Controlling Pain  i. Placebos  ii. Distraction  3. Taste a. Mixture of: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (meaty)  b. Chemical sense  i. Tastebuds have a canal around it and a hair cell that  enters into that canal  ii. Canal fills up with substance and hair cells sends signal to  the brain about what kind of taste you are experiencing  iii. Tastebuds reproduce about a week or two, however, as you  age, there is a reduction of the production and the basis of whether or not you enjoy tastes of certain thins changes as  well.  4. Smell a. Is very closely related to taste  b. Is a chemical sense  c. Most basic sense- one that seems to be tied closest to emotion  and motivation  d. First thing noticed: pleasant or unpleasant? Then you identify it.  e. Each of your nasal cavities contains about 5,000,000 receptor  cells  f. Receptors replaced about every 30-60 days  5. Body Position and Movement  a. Kinesthesia: the system for sensing the position and movement of  individual body parts  b. Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position,  including the sense of balance C. Sensory InteractionChapter 7: Learning Process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors  A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice  or experience  If something can be learned, it can be unlearned.   If something can be learned, something can be taught    Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. I. Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning a. Classical conditioning (learning): a type of learning in which one learns to link  two or more stimuli and anticipate events  A. How Do We Learn?  1. Pavlov’s Experiments a. UCS- Unconditioned Stimulus  b. UCR- Unconditioned Response  c. CS- Conditioned Stimulus  d. CR- Conditioned Response  e. NS- Neutral (no) Stimulus  f. Acquisition: initial learning of the association  i. Child can learn to fear the doctor’s office. Every time  they go, they get a shot. They associate the pain of  the shot with the doctor’s office. The child will now  have a fear of that place  g. Extinction: is NOT UNLEARNING; but rather, BREAKING THE  ASSOCIATION It is the diminished responding that occurs  when the CS is repeatedly presented and not followed by the  UCS  i. If the tuning fork was rung and food stopped coming.  The association would be broken and the dogs would  stop salivating when it was rung.  ii. Go to the doctor’s office and NOT get a shot h. Spontaneous Recovery: the temporary reappearance of a  conditioned response after extinction has occurred.  i. Going to the doctor’s and getting scared again  i. Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been  conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to  elicit similar responses. j. Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability  to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimulus  similar to it.  k. Higher-Order Conditioning: pairing a second new stimulus  with the already conditioned stimulus can cause that second  stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus as well. Real life classical conditioning examples:  • If a child sees its parents act out in a certain way about certain things, then they will  also begin to act the same about those same things: prejudice, racism, bias  • Alcohol and euphoria— instead alcohol and something unpleasant (drug that produces  violent nausea) COUNTER-CONDITIONING  2. Pavlov’s Legacy  a. Applications of Classical Conditioning  TEST MATERIAL:  Chapter 3 (pg. 117), Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7 (Classical Conditioning) (pg. 289)Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind  I. Brain States and Consciousness  A. Defining Consciousness a. Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment b. Controlled processes: require focused attention  c. Automatic processes: require minimal attention B. The Biology of Consciousness 1. Cognitive Neuroscience  2. Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind a. Dual processing: the principle that information is often  simultaneously  C. Selective Attention a. Parallel Processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem  simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for  many functions 1. Selective Attention and Accidents a. Selective Attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a  particular stimulus. 2. Selective Inattention  II. Sleep and Dreams a. Follows a 24 hour clock, but occurs in stagesA. Biological Rhythms and Sleep  1. Circadian Rhythm 2. Sleep Stages  a. Stage 1 (Non-REM Sleep)  i. Shortest stage of sleep, lasting only a couple of minutes  1. Blood pressure goes down, heart rate decreases, etc.  b. Stage 2 (Non-REM Sleep)  i. Lasts about 20 minutes  1. Can be very easily awakened and particular brain wave  activity can be monitored (sleep spindles)  c. Stage 3 (Non-REM Sleep)  i. Deep sleep. Lasts about 90 minutes and then you go back to Stage 2  and then into REM Sleep 3. REM Sleep a. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep  ii. Heart rate and blood pressure go up  iii.Paradoxical Sleep (Sleep paralysis) 4. What Affects Our Sleep Patterns? a. B. Why Do We Sleep? a. Sleep protects: When it was dangerous to be awake during the night, our  bodies told us to sleep to be safer  b. Sleep helps us recuperate: helps restore the immune system and repair  brain tissue.  c. Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day’s  experiences: Moves memories to permanent storage in the cortex of your  brain  d. Sleep feeds creative thinking:  e. Sleep supports growth: Growth during deep sleep, the pituitary gland  produces and releases hormones  C. Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders  1. Effects of Sleep Loss a. Stress levels go up b. You become irritable  c. Easier to procrastinate  d. Reaction time slows down  e. Compromises your immune system 2. Major Sleep Disorders a. Dyssomnias: involve problems with the amount, timing, and quality of  sleep  i. Insomnia: persistent problems in falling or staying asleep  1. Inaccurate Treatment  a. Alcohol  b. Sleeping pills  2. Both will prevent sleep over time due to preventing  REM Sleep  ii. Narcolepsy: periodic, overwhelming sleepiness  iii.Sleep Apnea: pg. 111- stoppage of breathing during sleep  b. Parasomnias: sleep disorders that involve abnormal disturbances during  sleep  i. Night terrors: Experiences where a person is awoken from stage  3 sleep in a state of terror; not the same as nightmares; target  mostly children- can develop a second sleep disorder: insomnia.  not completely awake during them. No cure.  ii. Nightmares: happen during REM sleep 1. What We Dream  2. Why We Dream (113)  a. To satisfy our own wishes (freudian)  b. Sigmund Freud: father of dreams (?)  i. Dreams our places where we work out struggles that we can’t in  real life.  1. Dream analysis a. Two Parts of Dreams:  i. Manifest Content:The main part of the  dream  ii. Latent Content: Real meaning of the  dream; symbolic aspects of the manifest  content  ii. To File away memories  iii.(114) to make sense of neural static: brain imposes order on all  signals and makes sense of them through a dream  iv. To reflect cognitive development  TEST 2 MATERIAL  III. Drugs and Consciousness (Page 117)  a. Substance Use Disorder: continued substance craving and use despite  significant life disruption and/or physical risk (dependance as well)  b. Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 (DSM5): Contains the substance use disorder  c. Diminished Control  i. Uses more substance, or for longer, than intended  ii. Tries unsuccessfully to regulate substance  iii.Spends much time acquiring, using, or recovering from effects of  substance  iv. Craves the substance  d. Diminished Social Functioning  i. Use disrupts commitments at work, school, or home  ii. Continues use despite social problems  iii.Causes reduced social, recreational, and work activities  e. Hazardous Use  i. Continues use despite hazards  ii. Continues use despite worsening physical or psychological problems  f. g. Psychoactive drug: a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods  (alters the conversation between neurons) A. Tolerance and Addiction a. Tolerance: diminished affect of the drug with regular use, requiring  the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s  effect  b. Addiction: compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as  gambling) despite known adverse consequences B. Types of Psychoactive Drugs  1. Depressants a. Depressants: drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates (tranquilizers),  and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow body functions  b. Alcohol- is a depressant: depresses your inhibitions  i. Metabolized by your liver and then goes to every cell in the  body (amount that cant be processed)  a. Strong potential for abuse  b. Low doses: relax and sedate  c. High does: brings about unconsciousness and death  i. Slowed Neural Processing a. Confuses the conversations in the Cerebellum  b. Messes up the Thalamus  c. Affects the Medulla (heartbeat and breathing)  d. Affects the Cerebrum (4 parts of the brain, Judgement,  hearing, vision, motor skills) ii. Memory Disruption  iii. Reduced Self-Awareness and Self-Control  iv. Expectancy Effects  b. Barbiturates (Nembutal, Seconal, Amytal)  a. When combined with alcohol, the effect can be lethal b. Depressants- sleep help or to reduce anxiety c. Opiates (Morphine, Heroin)  a. Narcotics  b. Mimic your brains naturally occurring neurotransmitters  c. When you give your body opiates, you stop naturally producing  them- stops producing endorphins  2. Stimulants a. Speed up body functions and reactivity a. Nicotine a. Most widely used legal stimulant  b. Affects within 7-10 seconds after inhaling b. Cocaine a. Most powerful naturally occurring stimulant  b. Produces alertness  c. Crack cocaine is the most dangerous and most affordable  i. Produces a briefer high but one that is more powerful  and comes with a harder withdrawal.  c. Methamphetamine a. Leads to a decrease baseline of dopamine- sometimes  permanent depressed mood from Meth. d. Ecstasy a. Stimulant and mild hallucinogen  b. Lowers the immune system3. Hallucinogens a. Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sory  input  a. LSD a. Very unpredictable- causes a stream of fantastic pictures and  kaleidoscope colors b. Marijuana a. THC- causes people to misjudge events  b. Decreases immune system C. Influences on Drug Use a. Some people are genetically exposed to be more reliant on drugs if  they take them 1. Biological Influences  2. Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences a. Designated Drivers  3. The Nature of the Drug Itself:  a. The rate ate which the euphoria the drug produces occurs and the  intensity of it

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