I. austral realm : Australia and new Zealand share very little
1. temp decrease from north to south..different than US (ours decrease south to north) bc southern hemisphere
2. Australia: 2/3 of climate is dominated by arid climates (deserts) low brush, dry air, etc….less than 20” of rain a year
3. population: limits population, contains pop. growth and most is around the coastal areas
4. 1/3: varies… east coast: has a rain forest (Daintree rainforest: receives 180” of rain per year) in north east part of Australia along the coast..has higher precipitation a) rain created by orographic precipitation
5. New Zealand: has one climate because of its size, the variety is limited..in New Zealand they are impacted by westerly windbelts while Australia is impacted by Easterly Windbelts
a) gets a rain shadow, everything falls on west of southern alps
b) difference btwn north and south: heavier rain in south island, less concentration in the north…so topography: tends to be flatter in north Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of egypt and the indus valley?
c) temperature: as you move south the temp is colder and colder
(1) in southern new zealand there are glaciers
(2) colder temp: more snow fall, southern island will have skiing
(3) summer is winter there…
B. Adaptation in the Outback
1. cattle, free roaming unless needed..
2. live underground, they dig out their own house
3. adapt social networks: by using distance education..the school that services the outback is “alice springs school of the air” bc. it was created in 1950s and only means of communication btwn teacher and student was radio
4. 1995: got rid of old tech, and brought in satellite and internet communications a) school covers 500,000 squ. miles of the area and claim to be worlds largest classroom
b) total kids: 100
5. doctors: planes to get places and travel
a) runways can be dangerous
b) 24 hour care
II. physiographic regions
A. relative location of australia: In center of indo australian plate: continent is fairly stable ( no earth quakes, volcanos etc…reason you can build underground)
B. new zealand: on fault line, mainly northern island is more geological activity C. australia: 3 realms
1. eastern highlands: great dividing range and oceans (bounding) We also discuss several other topics like Why genes on the same chromosome violate independent assortment?
a) mountains: 3 sisters, used for navigation
b) called great dividing range bc. dividing flow of water…low points on either side and mtns. in middle..whatever is east will flow east to ocean, and same with west to interior of continents
c) highest point: mount kosciuszco (7300 ft. high) highest elevation in australia… 2. interior lowlands: impacted by glaciers, therefore now they have good farmland a) lowest point in continent
b) similar to interior lowlands of United States (midwest)
c) lake eyre (pink from algae bloom) sits 49 ft. below sealevel, grows and contracts with seasons…when lake is full it has similar salt make up as ocean.. (1) bc. of ebb and flow the salt levels are rising, Don't forget about the age old question of What pertains to the process of gradually adding more of the same types of skill?
(2) in dry season: salt beds are found .. when new water comes it brings more salt in addition to the left over salt beds and it adds up: problem with wildlife and plants and fish
d) beneath interior lowlands: great artesian basin
(1) covers 23% of the continent
(2) primary fresh water source
(3) some of the water is so old that it hasn't seen sunlight in 2 mil. years… measured by certain compounds in water
(4) water varies : over 200 degrees to 86 degrees
(5) artesian basin: under pos. pressure: when you drill down to water, it comes up by itself
(6) problem with sustainability, as population and industrialization increases, more people are tapping into water source and its not filling up as much as it used to
3. western plateau: “outback”, occupies 2/3 of continent
a) home to mines
b) desert landscapes We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of hydrogen bonds in biochemistry?
c) very little of the desert has sand dunes, wind comes and sweeps away fine grains and theres mainly desert pavement from rocks etc
d) uluru: ayers rock
(1) weather resisted rock
(2) indigenous people believe in : “dream time” a different plane of existence, these people left uluru from when they came and shaped the earth and left uluru If you want to learn more check out What are symptoms of depression?
(3) wandjina: cave painting of being, brought fertility and punished if you made them angry. some cave paintings people are afraid to be near
(a) “the lightning man” is one they are afraid to be around (namarragon) lived in highest level of atmosphere and gain energy from sun god…one time a year he would come to lower levels of atmosphere and look to see how people were doing, if they were good and praising him then he would give
prosperity…if they angered him then he would strike you with lightning etc.
(b) how the aboriginal explained seasonality
D. south island of new zealand: break in plates, less geological activity 1. relies on tourism..when its summer everywhere else, its winter there for skiing 2. also colder in temp Don't forget about the age old question of What is the nebular theory of solar system formation?
3. glaciers exist
E. northern island lies on plate
1. dont have to import goal, use geothermal energy
2. warmer and volcanic soils
B. concept of masculinity in australia: