GSS Exam 2 Review Sheet GSS Leader Ezra Shoen This review sheet will cover the main key terms from the second part of the semester. While the terms and the definitions are good starts they should not be the only source of studying. In addition this review sheet is just a review sheet and may not cover everything on the exam. There may also be things on the review sheet that will not be on the exam 1. What is the definition of evolution? Is the same as natural selection? Change in Alleles frequency of a population. Through: Natural selection (larger population) Mutation Genetic Drift (smaller population) Gene Flow 2. What are the basic principles of natural selection? Can you name the other mechanisms of evolution? 1.) Struggle for survival 2.) Heritability 3.) Variation 3. Which mechanism is more common in small populations and which mechanism is more common in large populations? Why is this? 4. What is meant by the term fitness? ability to reproduce. 5. Provide some forms of evidence that support evolution. 1.) Fossils 2.) Homology (similarity) 3.) Vestigial Structures (whales still have a pelvis from ancestors don’t use it now) 4.) Biogeography anatomy matches where you live (cave fish don’t have eyes because they live in area where they don’t need to see) 5.) Biochemical 6.) Direct Observation 6. Briefly outline the milestones towards Darwinian evolution. Include as many scientific realizations and scientists as you can. Lamark suggests evolution Hutton the world is changing Cuvier extinction happens Lyell uniformitarianism Wallace and Darwin Natural Selection 7. A. A population of mice live in a green grassy field where predators are abundant. Camouflage is a useful defense mechanism that could mean life or death for each mouse. A specific individual has a mutation that leads to a more green coloring in the mouse’s skin. What type of mutation is this (Beneficial, Neutral, Deleterious)? Explain the reasoning for your answer. Camouflage B. Another mouse had a mutation that causes a small black spot on the underside of its belly. This spot is not visible to predators since it faces the ground. What type of mutation is this(Beneficial, Neutral, Deleterious)? Explain your reasoning. Neutral mutation (doesn’t help/hurt) o Will probably go away C. Another mouse has mutation that makes it more dark colored and more visible to predators. Once again what type of mutation is this(Beneficial, Neutral, Deleterious)? Explain your reasoning. Deleterious o They will get eaten so they will not be able to reproduce. 8. Do organisms evolve these different types of mutations on purpose? If so explain why, and if not explain what factors contribute to which type of mutation it is? Mutations do not happen on purpose Environment makes mutation either beneficial, neutral, or deleterious. 9. What is the difference between a dominant and recessive allele? Dominant allele: expressed in the phenotype (A) Recessive allele: hidden in presence of the dominant allele (a) 10. Two Heterozygous parents (Aa) mated with each other. Draw the punnett square that depicts the genotypes of their progeny. 10a. If Aa exhibits incomplete dominance what percentage of the above parental matings will show a pink phenotype? 50%10c. What is the phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid heterozygous cross (AaBb x AaBb)? 9:3:3:1 10. Briefly define a genotype and a phenotype. Genotype genetic makeup Phenotype what is expressed (physical) 11. If both of John's parents are heterozygous for sickle cell anemia and Sarah's parents are AA and Aa what are the chances that John and Sarah's child will have Sickle Cell Anemia? (Sickle Cell Anemia is an autosomal recessive disease) 1/12 11.a If John’s Mother has Sickle Cell Anemia and his father is Homozygous Dominant what are the chances that John and Sarah will have a child with the disease? (Assume same parental genotypes for Sarah from previous problem) 1/8 12. List the major differences between Mitosis and Meiosis. When are each of them used? Mitosis: o Diploid o 2 Daughter Cells o Clones Meiosiso Sex cells o 4 Daughter cells o Haploid o Different 13. On one half of this page draw out a simple diagram of mitosis, on the other draw out a simple diagram of meiosis. Make sure to label your diagram with important events in each. 14. Write out each of the steps in mitosis and meiosis and explain what happens in each one. Make sure you have an understanding of each. 15. What is the difference between a pair of homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids? Homologous are from mom and dad, they are separated, crossing over occurs. Sister chromatids are identical (mieosis 2) 16. What is meant by the term epigenetics? Why is this important when studying genetics? Epigenetics how the environment effects which genes are turned on. Like a switch. o Dna is wrapped around histones and can be tightly packed which causes the cell to not be able to produce that protein (transcribe)—turning that gene expression off 18. What is sexual selection? Natural selection to attract the other sex. 19. How is sexual selection an ideal example of a tradeoff? Can you give an example? Peacock is pretty to females but more likely to be eaten by predators 20. What are the two types of sexual selection and the differences between them? Can you give examples of each of them? Intersexual selectionbetween males and females o Ex. Intrasexual selectionbetween same sex o Male defending female 21. What is a sexual Dimorphism? Males and females look different from each other. Physical differences. 24. What is meant by heterozygote advantage? Can you give an example of this that was given in lecture? Heterozygote has some advantage o Sickle sell anemia heterozygote advantage to resistance to Malaria 25. What is the formula for the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE)? Why is this formula important and what can it tell you? Formula can show us that evolution on population if observed frequesncy does not match experimental results P^2+2pq+q^2=1 AA=p^2 Aa=2pq Aa=q^2 P+q=1 26. Does the data from the HWE tell you specifically what type of evolution is occurring in a population? 27. In a population of 238 fish there are two main alleles for scale color. The dominant allele (B) codes for black fish while the recessive allele (b) codes for brown fish. When a dominant allele is present complete dominance is in effect. If B=.4 provide the following information: a. What b equals. B=.4 B=.6 b. The expected HWE for this population. .16+.48+.36=1 c. How many of the fish are estimated to be black and how many of the fish are estimated to be brown in the population. d. If the observed genotypic frequencies are .45+.20+.35=1 is the population in HWE? 28. If P=.1 Find Q and the expected Genotypic frequencies of the population. If the observed frequencies are .23+.41+.36=1 is the population in HWE?29. If 8 percent of a population has asthma (and asthma is an autosomal recessive disease) find the expected genotypic frequencies of the population. Asthma= aa 8%=.08 o q=.08^2 q=.28 o p=1.28 p=.72 29a. Using your answer from the previous part of the questions find the allelic frequencies of the population. 30. Find the allelic frequencies of the below population. Fill in the Genotypic frequencies to the table below before solving.
Number of Individuals
What is meant by the term fitness?
What are the basic principles of natural selection?
What is the definition of evolution?
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Genotype Frequency answer in decimals o 200/(total#)= genotype frequency AA=200/1194 Aa=340/1194 aa=654/1194 Allelic Frequency= (2(AA)+Aa)/2(total#) o A=((200)2+340)/((2)(1194))=.3130a. Why can HWE never be greater than 1? Can the allelic frequencies ever be greater than 1? 31. Describe what a pedigree is. How can this help in making genetic predictions? 32. Which of the following more commonly skips generation in a pedigree; An autosomal dominant trait or an autosomal recessive trait? Autosomal recessive skips generation 33. Is the below pedigree an example of an autosomal dominant or recessive trait?
34. Describe the continuous arms race between evolving pathogens and antibiotics? Bacteria is left over after taking antibiotics leaving bacteria behind to evolve which makes future use of antibiotics less efficiant because left over bacteria is now more resistant to the antibiotic. 34.a. In regards to virulence what are the two things that pathogens must do? Reproduce Transfer to another host 35. What is epistasis? One gene hides the expression of another gene o Ex. Golden retrievers 37. What is pleiotropy? One gene causing expression of multiple phenotypes. 38. If the allele for black hair prevents the expression of the allele for long legs is this more an example of pleiotropy or epistasis? 38. What is a conserved sequence? Sequence that’s been around for a really long time, hasn’t changed much 39. What is meant by polygenic inheritance? Can you give an example of a trait that is dictated by polygenic inheritance? Polygenic inheritance multiple genes cause one trait. o Skin color, hair color 40. What is meant by an allele that is based on an environmental influence? Epigenetics genes will be turned on and off based on environmental effects 41. Describe the effect of genomic imprinting? Trait determined by which parent it is received from.42. In a population of frogs the sex of a particular frog is based on the temperature that a from develops in the early stages of development. Is this an example of an environmental influenced trait or an example of genomic imprinting? 43. What is a vestigial trait and how does it serve as a proof of evolution? Traits left over from before evolution occured goosebumps 44. The size of a particular mouse is determined by weather it inherits a specific gene from its mother or its father. What type of genetic variation is this an example of? Genomic imprinting 45. What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance? Give examples of each of them. Example is A=red flower color, a=white flower color Incomplete dominant and recessive mixture o pink Codominanceexpression of both o red/white with spots 46. Two heterozygote flowers produce a progeny of 50% pink color. The dominant allele expresses a red color and the recessive expresses a white color. What type of genetic variation is this an example of? Incomplete dominance 47. What is meant by X Inactivation? Which sex does this occur in? (female) How can this lead to a genetic mosaic? Turning one x offo Female= xx o Male=xy Females will turn off an x