Retrieving memories from long-term storage
∙ Aspects of long term memory
Can take two tiny chunks and make it into one big chunk
With long term memory, once its in there, its in there
You never run out of room
Can always add new stuff in
acoustic, visual, and semantic
once info moves into long term memory, it is mostly stored semantically.
You will occasionally mistake for something
that has similar meanings (you might be
talking about one of your uncles, but you call
him the name of another uncle
If you originally code it visually or acoustically, it will eventually turn into semantic
Is infinite, it will never disappear
Once it goes into long-term memory, it will
Proactive vs. retroactive interference
∙ Retroactive interference
o New information is causing you to
forget the old information
o Retrieval cues got reassigned
∙ Proactive interference
o Old information is blocking you from
learning the new information.
o Retrieval cues are pulling old
information because they have not
reassigned to receive new
o method of loci
Based on visual or acoustic coding
In terms of remembering the order that
something occurs, attach it to a place.
o Method of Interacting images
When you can visualize two terms together, it makes them easier to remember We also discuss several other topics like Who si rutherford hayes?
Don't forget about the age old question of Is it innate or developed through experience?
o Powered method
Take something that you are trying to
remember, and connect it to a term that
rhymes with it.
o Mediating phrases
First letter of each word of a sentence is going to remind you of the first letter of the word that you are trying to recall. Don't forget about the age old question of Which part of cerebral cortex is responsible for visual context?
∙ Other principles- context-dependent and state dependent
o Context dependent
Deals with what is going on around you.
The more similar the environment, the easier it is to remember that info. You learned from that exact environment
It is best to go to multiple places to study, that way your memory wont get locked on to one
o State dependent
Internal state matches the internal state of the information that you were trying to learn (ex.
Remember when the drunk guy walked into
merv’s class and made a B while he was drunk. He did this because he was drunk while he was studying)
o Spacing effect
Deals with how long you are studying the info. If you do a long massive study session, you will have a hard time remember the info
Studying in shorter spans over a period of time will make you remember the information Better When you have longer spaces between study sessions, you will remember the info. Even
o Testing effect
If you are testing yourself, it will help you even more
∙ Type of test will not matter (multiple Don't forget about the age old question of When does sensory adaptation happen?
choice, short answer, etc.)
∙ Will help you remember later on, no
matter how you do on the practice test.
∙ This happens because we remember the
mistakes that we made on the practice
test, so we will not make the same
mistakes later on. Don't forget about the age old question of How was the first hypothesis tested?
∙ Subdivisions of long-term memory
o Semantic memory vs. episodic
∙ Memory for facts
∙ Ex. The state capitol of California is
∙ Memory for events
∙ Not only understanding what happened,
but HOW it happened.
∙ Ex. 1996 world series was won by new
o Merv remembers cutting class to get
the parade, this is merv remembering
HOW it happened.
∙ Explicit vs. implicit
Deals with info. That you can easily recall
Ex. Yankees have 16 world championships
Not aware of remembering information, but can still use it.
∙ Declarative vs. procedural If you want to learn more check out How do geologists classify metamorphic rocks?
Described in words
Ex. I play basketball
Shown by actions
Ex. I can shoot, but I cant explain HOW I can shoot.
We tend not to learn them by directions, we see how others do it and learn from that
The better you understand something, the
harder it is to explain to somebody.