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OLEMISS / Psychology / PSY 320 / How is information stored once it moves into long-term memory?

How is information stored once it moves into long-term memory?

How is information stored once it moves into long-term memory?


School: University of Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Mervin matthew
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 25
Name: Exam 2 day 4 notes
Description: exam 2 day 4 notes Dr. Mervin Matthew, this will cover the first half of chapter 6, the next half of chapter 6 will be discussed next class.
Uploaded: 02/28/2017
4 Pages 88 Views 2 Unlocks

Chapter 6  

How is information stored once it moves into long-term memory?

Retrieving memories from long-term storage

∙ Aspects of long term memory

o Capacity

 Can take two tiny chunks and make it into one  big chunk

 With long term memory, once its in there, its in there

 You never run out of room

 Can always add new stuff in

o Coding

 acoustic, visual, and semantic

 once info moves into long term memory, it is  mostly stored semantically.

 You will occasionally mistake for something  

that has similar meanings (you might be  

talking about one of your uncles, but you call  

him the name of another uncle

 If you originally code it visually or acoustically,  it will eventually turn into semantic

What is the difference between proactive and retroactive reference?

o Duration

 Is infinite, it will never disappear

 Once it goes into long-term memory, it will  

never leave

 Proactive vs. retroactive interference

∙ Retroactive interference

o New information is causing you to  

forget the old information

o Retrieval cues got reassigned

∙ Proactive interference

o Old information is blocking you from  

learning the new information.

o Retrieval cues are pulling old  

information because they have not  

reassigned to receive new  


∙ Mnemonics

What are the sub-divisions of long-term memory?

We also discuss several other topics like How was the republican coalition in the south easily broken?

o method of loci If you want to learn more check out Is it innate or developed through experience?

 Based on visual or acoustic coding

 In terms of remembering the order that  

something occurs, attach it to a place.

o Method of Interacting images

 Visual coding Don't forget about the age old question of What is parietal lobe responsible for?

 When you can visualize two terms together, it  makes them easier to remember

o Powered method

 Take something that you are trying to  

remember, and connect it to a term that  

rhymes with it.

o Mediating phrases

 Visual coding

 First letter of each word of a sentence is going  to remind you of the first letter of the word that you are trying to recall.

∙ Other principles- context-dependent and state  dependent

o Context dependent

 Deals with what is going on around you.

 The more similar the environment, the easier it is to remember that info. You learned from that  exact environment

 It is best to go to multiple places to study, that  way your memory wont get locked on to one  

exact environment

o State dependent

 Internal state matches the internal state of the  information that you were trying to learn (ex.  

Remember when the drunk guy walked into  


merv’s class and made a B while he was drunk. He did this because he was drunk while he was studying)

o Spacing effect

 Deals with how long you are studying the info.  If you do a long massive study session, you will have a hard time remember the info

 Studying in shorter spans over a period of time  will make you remember the information Better  When you have longer spaces between study  sessions, you will remember the info. Even  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the basis of the muller-lyer illusion?


o Testing effect

 If you are testing yourself, it will help you even  more

∙ Type of test will not matter (multiple  

choice, short answer, etc.)

∙ Will help you remember later on, no  

matter how you do on the practice test.

∙ This happens because we remember the  

mistakes that we made on the practice  

test, so we will not make the same  

mistakes later on.

∙ Subdivisions of long-term memory

o Semantic memory vs. episodic

 Semantic memory

∙ Memory for facts

∙ Ex. The state capitol of California is  If you want to learn more check out How was the first hypothesis tested?


 Episodic memory We also discuss several other topics like What kinds of changes occur during metamorphism?

∙ Memory for events

∙ Not only understanding what happened,  

but HOW it happened.

∙ Ex. 1996 world series was won by new  

York Yankees


o Merv remembers cutting class to get  

the parade, this is merv remembering

HOW it happened.

∙ Explicit vs. implicit

o Explicit

 Deals with info. That you can easily recall

 Ex. Yankees have 16 world championships

o Implicit

 Not aware of remembering information, but can still use it.

∙ Declarative vs. procedural

o Declarative

 Described in words

 Ex. I play basketball

o Procedural

 Shown by actions

 Ex. I can shoot, but I cant explain HOW I can  shoot.

 We tend not to learn them by directions, we  see how others do it and learn from that

 The better you understand something, the  

harder it is to explain to somebody.


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