Feb 6, 2017 “Gossip and the Brain” Key Terms: 1.Fu Manchu- an orangutan lived in Omaha Alaska, have hard times using tools in a sophisticated way, had a wire would use it to unlock and get out during nights, kept and hiWe also discuss several other topics like Define Logical (Boolean) Expressions.
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d the lock pick so he could get out every night 2. Theory of Mind- realization that the stuff in my brain isn’t the same stuff that is in someone else’s brain 3. Neocortex- squish looking stuff(wrinkles) on one’s brain, if you have a powerful neocortex you have power to get others to do things for you, as the neocortex gets bigger the social groups get bigger 4. Dunbar #- the number of people that one can show empathy to Bipedalism, Brains and Tools- - Can relived trace bipedalism or big brains to tool use? No not really - Big brains aren’t necessary for tool use - We became bipedalism because we popped up right - Graham Richards” fact primate feet and arms are more complex than human’s arms, bipedalism doesn’t free your hands than your feet, your legs were more sophisticated, not just about making your hand nimble but also your feet, both feet and arms are useful - We lose our prehensile feet Theory of Mind- - Ability to know what someone else doesn’t know - False belief test- “where does someone else think the thing is” - Human brains are good at theory of mind and lying - Autism: the inability to ascribe different set of beliefs in someone else - Empathy- one can imagine what it’s like what another human feels - Theory of mind is directly tied to neocortex -strong correlation with language - What advantages does Theory of mind have? -Social alliances The spark- - Evolutionary advantages of theory of mind? - Complex alliances -only can grow group size as neocortex gets bigger Group size- - Apes have social groups of about 50-60 - Humans have social groups of about 150, we can only give 150 people empathy and no more than that -Dunbar number- the significant number of people that one can fully care about - Neolithic farming villages - hutterite communities - military company (under a captain) Bonding mechanism- - Monkeys and apes send about 1/5 of their day grooming -touching/grooming/massages creates endorphins takes away the stress and is a relief -vervet screams -gelada attacks- groomed the least within the community - As the size of the group grows it induces the stress in the brain - Bigger social groups=more stress Grooming time- -Threshold of efficiency - predation risk -protect food - conversation -4-person max -2-3 X grooming groups - how we use language Feb 8, 2017 Taming Nature Natural Selection- - Reproduce and eat Artificial selection- - Domestication: humans (not nature) set conditions for survival and reproduction - We are choosing the traits that emerge for the species - Agriculture: production of and reliance on domesticated plans and animals for substance - roughly 10,000 years ago, no longer rely on gathering and hunting and relay on domesticated plans - once the human has control of the plant the plant no longer has to depend on the mother nature(rain), can relay on the humans and being feed and taken care of - over time humans select the mutations in the wheat Global acts of plant domestication Animal domestication Taming nature- - humans are undoubtedly the agents of domestication - domestication of plans and animals fundamental to later developments cities, governments, writing and empires rest on domestication 99.99% of 21st century American diet domesticated foods - why and how did it happen? Progressive view: it was a step forward, done deliberately. - When did it happen? Progressive view: it happened when humans had accumulated the critical knowledge to do so Wednesday quiz questions: 1. What was Jared Diamond's thesis in the "the worst mistake in the history of the human race" - judged in terms of leisure time and health, hunting and gathering was a superior way of life relative to farming (agriculture) 2. In the tradition view, what did human gain by converting to an agricultural lifestyle versus hunting and gathering? - Food procurement was more regular and easier - Agriculture created the conditions necessary for the development of art and architecture 3. Based on studies of present- day hunting and gathering societies and on predomestic fossil evidence, Diamond an argues that agriculture was actually detrimental to human life in what ways? - Hunting and gathering provides more and leisure time - Hunter and gathers were taller than groups that adopted agriculture - Hunter and gatherers lived longer than groups that adopted agriculture 4. If detrimental, then why did humans almost everywhere around the world adopt agriculture, according to diamond? - Because agriculture enables a more dense population 5. Bulliet first argues that we must abandon traditional narratives of why and when animal domestication demonstrates that the process need not be exclusively tied to the contexts of farming? - Dogs 6. How does the case of peccary challenge Jared Diamond’s argument that the big mammals that could be domesticated were - The peccary can be easily tamed in experiments but native Americans did not domesticate them 7. When in captivity, which trait among the gray rat population proved to be the most advantageous for passing on an individual’s genes - Low fight or flight instinct ( small adrenal glands) February 10 Quiz 1. According ot lecture on Friday, February 3, what led to the extinction of the Neanderthals. -they seem to have been killed by humans (homo sapiens) 2. February 15, 2017 “reading Hammurabi’ 1. World of Hammurabi- - The code of Hammurabi is a long form of several different laws that derived from a very particular geography and circumstance. - Earliest long form law, is found in the earliest form of domestication - Story of farming leads us stop foundations of civilization n, city of UR2. Foundations of civilization, city of UR, located between the tigress and Euphrates river - Can’t build a temple unless you have a state - Earliest city we have 3. Code of Hammurabi -Code was written around 1750 rounded up to 1800 BCE -law coded survived 1300 years ago -282 laws within the code of Hammurabi - written in Akkadian language in cuneiform script, laws were written on a rock quiz 1 According to the prologue, what was given Hammurabi the right to issue the law code? -he was chosen by the god(denatize) 2 In law #3, how is truth determined in this system of law? – by jumping in a river 3 in the laws, #7, and #9, we get a sense of how to conduct a legitimate economic transaction. How do Babylonian ensure that a transaction has been properly enacted? - conduct the sale in front of a witness 4 the law code has a number of provisions about slavery. One element of slavery dominates the early part of the code(15-20) however, what do these laws concern themselves with?- runaway slaves 5 who can sell alcohol(be a tavern keeper) in this society- Women 6 according to law #127, what happens to proven gossipers? – physically marked 7 what act seals a marriage in Babylonian society? - sex ( law #128) 8 February 20(Monday) “Uruk on the mind” Key Terms: 1.Mesopatamia- the area between two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, eventually lead to Persian Gulf and has the Zagros Mountains. Two rivers cutting into a desert 2.uruk- early city state, near where the Persian Gulf meet up with Euphrates 3.Long-Field- extremely rectangular lands that shoot off the canal 4.Thresing Sledge 5.Cuneiform 6.Behistun Inscription7.Pictographic Theory The State Problem: -Most pre-industrial people produced just enough to survive -emergence of states implies centralized ability to seize and use surplus food -**Lots of people not farming 1.How to generate surplus? 2.How to justify taking surplus? Mesopotamia: - the area between two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, eventually lead to Persian Gulf and has the Zagros Mountains. Two rivers cutting into a desert Uruk: -about 5500 BP -3500 BCE -around 3000BCE roughly 60k people lived in Uruk Eating Grass: Uruk is trying to figure out how to use this plant(wheat) States and Cereals: -Around roughly 3500 BCE, a technological package merged: --Irrigation- new kind of irrigation, we irrigate plants to make them bigger, one can control the water to control the seeds, water is harder to control. The state begins to manipulate the water, they begin building large canals. They move it through the field. --Long Field- Key Term --Seeding Planter --Clay Sickle- when our wheat plans get too tall, we cut them down and staking them up. The sickle is a huge plate to pick up the sickle, made to cut down the stock --Threshing Sledge- something that is done to the wheat plant, domesticated weed plants, the threshing sledge breaks the seeds away from the wheat. Put in with the states, to get more production Accounting: -little clay pallets that have marks in them, tax registers. Each rectangle is a “long field”, move one’s knowledge of the field to a written device. It shows the length, the width and the area. On the back, it shows his income. 1/5 of income end 2/3 of the income why?:ziggurat? -Ideological cohesion is cheaper and smarter -Make people pay taxes the epic of Gilgamesh: -a real king, king of Uruk -demi-god ruler of uruk - anticipate him being the king made him powerful, and his is a god - range from 2100 BCE to 1000 BCE, most famous devin king-oral stories (song we would sing about Gilgamesh) in time would get frozen and get written down on plates of clay, the stories are what goes through the minds of the people of Gilgamesh -what kind of stories do they tell? - - travails of the first city-god king, nature, sex,death February 22,2017- “Reading Gilgamesh” The epic of Gilgamesh- - demi god rule of Uruk - range from 2100 BCE to 1000 BCE - travails of the first city - god-king; nature;sex;death from tablets to epics: clay tablets for counting tools to literature In class quiz 1. In the opening lines of the epic of Gilgamesh, how are we introduced to our hero,Gilgamesh? - A description of uruk 2. What qualities define Gilgamesh’s kingship? -beauty and physical prowess 3. Upon his creation, what qualities define Enkidu? - he was a wild animal in appearance and actions 4. How did Enkidu lose his relationship with the natural world? - slept with shamhat 5. What is the initial source of conflict between Gilgamesh and Enkidu? - Enkidu blocks way to bridal chamber 6. What is the first adventure Gilgamesh and Enkidu go on? - to kill humbabi 7. How does utanpishtim survive the great flood? - he built a large boat 2/24/2017 “To the Written Word” Key Terms 1. Cuneiform 2. Behistun Inscription 3. Pictographic theory 4. Tokens 5. Ashkelon The development of writing systems -writing: a visual representation of verbal communication 1. Script(set of symbols) 2. Orthography (rules) 3. Spoken language 4. Physical media -Advantages? -First script you see, Cuneifrom**,ca.3200 BCE, it’s made with a stylist -How do you revive a dead script? -The behistun Inscription** Rawlason, the inscription itself was put out in 500 BCE, he wrote scrips in babaloyin, elamite, old Persian. - a parallel, was written in anglo-saxon futhore -Kish Tablet and Warka Vase 3400 BCE -origin- -where did it come from -who started it -Pictographic Theory** - first theory of how the script was developed, the scripts were drawn and used as abstractions -understanding the tokens** - the tokens are used to figure out how cuniform develops, starting showing up around 8k BCE, (cones,disks), each token had 1 to 1 semantic relationship, each specific token has its meaning -cone, large major of gain -sphere-small major of grain -found roughly 300 distinct kinds of tokens -tokens are origin of script -Mureybet -first token was found in mureybet about 8000 BCE, perscily the first sight of agriculture as well -from three to two dimensions- -everyone in mestophia knows about the tokens, so once everyone understands the logic of the system instead of having the envelops people started getting tablets that represents -From impression to cuneiform- -the symbols start changing from the token -instead of writing it starts getting to wedge forum -script system emerges out of tokens -2700 BCE -Queen of Uruk Puabi -the script started turning into words -writing system came from script and then turning into phanatics -the tokens lead to cunefirom Summary- - Btween 3500-2500 BCE, Mesopotamia had redistributive economy 1. Temple( meaning of the giving) 2. Elite( administered property (long fields) 3. Commoners provide surpluse - writing formed as a way to organize this econmy 1. from 3d accounting to 2D 2. agriculute, to state, to tokens to speaking ( evolution) how to conceptualize writing - all evidence of early writing conneted to states and religious programs - progress?- it was meant to code impression, to build a ziggarod Ashkelon shipwreck**- 740 BCE -writing systems itself were rare -the alphabet is very rare, invent only one time -story of the alphabet starts at askhelon shipwreck a amphorare- (big clay jar) - was found at the bottom of the seas - mass produced jars - who is carrying this merchandise superpowers- - these people were busy connecting people, not a great place for agriculture, - Phoenicia**- - 33000 gallons of wine the state that emerged in Egypt or around mestphania - making their living by connecting their super powers, moving wine and moving metal metallic empires- -kicking it with bronze age( powerful and full of energy), most expensive metal bronze -coopers easy, and easy to find - cooper and tin to make bronze -tin is hard to find on the surifce depost of the earth, western part of spain -how are they getting it?- from s Febuary 27, 2017 (World of Empires) Key terms: 1. Ahiram 2. Abjad 3. Sea Peoples 4. Axial Age 5. Turchin theory -The Phoenician Empire: height from 1200-800 BCE, the Phoenicians begin to set up colonies all around the Mediterranean, away from their home base. They did this because they need Tin -byblos- King of the city byblos makes a beautiful coffin for himself, sarcophagus of Ahiram, king (1000 BCE) -Sarcophagus of Ahiram- The coffin which tobaal, son of ahiram, king of byblow, made for his father on his ab(o)de in trinity (what was written onn his tomb) -Egyptian hieroglyph: pictogram and phonogram -hieroglyphic phograms(only) adoapted= Phoenician abjad -Phoenician abjad -no beginning vowels in west semitic (proto-canaainte) -all phonemes represent “consonants” -most importantly, entire script consisted of 22 symbols -Ahiram’s tomb is the first time we see purely phonetiC writing system in action WHY PHOENICIA? -what made byblow and its region a connective hub? They didn’t have agriculture, however the things they traded made them popular. These things include, the cedar tree, tin and bronze. Bronze age empires: -the bronze age was the age of powerful states -around the year 1200 BCE, a collamics collapse of all the states in the bronze age -an outside, nonstate force made all of these states formed in the bronze ag collapse -the non-state force is known as the invasion of the seas people --after the collapse of the bronze age, people stated to create tools with iron -this is known as the iron age -in addition to creating tools with iron, people began to think different in the iron age -before the iron age emerged was a dark age. Known as the axial age. What caused the axial age was the making out of the size of states territories, they reached threshold and collapsed -After the bronze age, the axial age began, in which mega-states formed an axial age between 8th to 3rd century BCE: -confucius, Buddha, arathusta, elija, Isia, homer and plato The age of empire; -brinding people together -tribe -villiage -state -empire: a system of interaction between two political entities, one of which exerts political control over the internal and external policy-the effective sovereignty- of the others the problem of power: -funamdentla problem: violence is hard and expensive -social contact to produce grater good?-free riders-turchin theory: shared ideas of mutual defense the key to mega-empire cohesion -eurasian steppe- (little rain, very hot,very cold, extreme kind place to live) no agriculture, large grass land that spreads,eople that live here are pastoral nomads(breading animals) in some way they are like hunter and gathers