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UM / Psychology / PSY 210 / How is attitude defined in psychology?

How is attitude defined in psychology?

How is attitude defined in psychology?

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Chapter 5: AttitudesIf you want to learn more check out What is lenticulate?

• I. General discussion of Attitudes

• II. Attitudes and BehaviorWe also discuss several other topics like What does "commedia dell" arte mean?

• III. Persuasion

• IV. Resistance to Persuasion

• V. Cognitive DissonanceDon't forget about the age old question of What is the deepest layer of epidermis called?

I. General DiscussionIf you want to learn more check out How do you find a type 1 error in statistics?

• A. Definition: Attitudes are lasting general evaluations of people (including self), objects, or ideas

• B. Attitudes are Heuristics

        • They reduce information overload and simplify life (at a price.)We also discuss several other topics like Why water heats and cools slower than land?

        • Remembering that Heuristics: decision making rules a principle used to make

quick/easy conclusions or inferencesWe also discuss several other topics like What are the three concepts of production possibility frontier?

        Attitude = affect, behavior and cognition

        

• A valid attitude must have these 3 components

• C. The ABC Model

        • Affect → emotional component

        • Behavior → to do an action associated with the affect

• Cognition → being aware of your affect.

                • Eg: I have apples = must be a strong / positive affect.

• The ABC model = a true attitude has 3 components:

                Affect, Behaviour, cognition.

• Someone says they have a strong belief but they really don’t → trying to conform or

present themselves in a better way.

• D. How Attitudes form

        1. Some are learned indirectly

                • a. Classical Conditioning

                        Subliminal Conditioning

                • b. Operant Conditioning

                • c. Modeling = Observational ≈ Social Learning

        2. Some are gained by direct experience (still learned)

        • Attitudes can be learned by parents

        • Attitudes can be positively reinforced if it is good → mostly for children

• Most of what we learn from our parents is by observational or social learning

 3. Genetics plays a role

• Attitudes may be influenced by genetics

• Twin studies conclude 70% of variability in personality due to genetics.

• Personality influences attitudes

  • Suspiciousness, distrustful, fearful, trusting, relaxed

                • Nature vs. Nurture → debating the percentage of nature and nurture in our

lives.

                • large part of our personality is influenced by genetics

                • Heritability → applies to a group of people, not just the individual

        4. Function of Attitudes

        • a. Knowledge

        • b. Identity

        • c. Self-Esteem

        • d. Ego-Defense

        • e. Impression Management

• use your attitude to express identity and judge others identity

• we protect ourselves from thighs we don’t like

• We display/ talk about our attitudes.

II. Attitudes and Behavior

• A. The A-B problem (LaPiere in 1934) Professed attitudes don’t always match behaviors.

        • What you say isn’t always what you do.

• they say they'll do one thing but then do something else in practice

• Avoid demanding characteristics of the procedure → they do what they think you want

them to do.

• Direction of the question can change how people answer the question.

• B. Attitudes often do predict behavior

        ─ 1. Attitude specificity

        ─ 2. Social Desirability

        ─ 3. Attitude Strength

                ─ Extremity = vested interest,

─ Certainty = clarity, correctness and consensus

─ Personal Experience

─ 4. Attitude Accessibility

• The more specific the question the easier it is to predict an action / behavior

• Attitude Strength = easier to predict behavior

        • Attitudes shapes behavior → simple model

• Attitude strength is a variable

• we are studying the variable

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