Final Exam Study Guide - Nutrition 101
Final Exam Study Guide - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 919 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/23/15
Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 Six Classes of Nutrients o Carbohydrates macronutrientprovide energy organiccontain carbon 0 Proteins macronutrientprovide energy organiccontain carbon 0 Lipids fats macronutrientprovide energy organiccontain carbon 0 Vitamins organiccontain carbon 0 Minerals inorganic 0 Water inorganic Any nutrition calculations that we have covered in class Go back over the nutrition calculations assignment for practice LAST PAGE Dietary Reference Intakes nutrient reference values developed to serve as a guide for good nutrition and provide the scientific basis for the development of food guidelines 0 Upper Limit UL to caution against excessive intake of nutrients like Vitamin A that can be harmful in large amounts 0 Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine to meet the requirements of 975 of healthy individuals in each life stage and sex group 0 Adequate Intake AI where no RDA has been established but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group Best Source of Nutrition Information 0 Qualified nutrition professions registered dietitians some physicians Dietary Guidelines 0 Variety of fruits vegetables whole grains and fat free and lowfat milk products lean meats poultry seafood legumes eggs seeds and nuts low in saturated and trans fats cholesterol salt sodium and added sugars stays within daily energy needs for recommended body weight MyPlate current nutrition guide published by the US department of Agriculture a food circle depicting a place setting with plate and glass divided into 5 food groups Food Groups 0 Grains 6 oz fruits 2 cups vegetables 25 cups meat 55 oz milk 3 cups Nutrition Facts Labels and Nutrition Claims on Labels 0 Serving size on label does not always match USDA food patterns look at serving size first then calories then sugars etc Daily Value oo on label is based on 2000 calorie diet health claims must meet FDA definition reduces risk of breast cancer must have evidence to back this statement Anatomy of Digestive Tract o Mouth process of digestion begins in mouth Chewing and crushing food pieces fluids from foodbeverages and from salivary glands blend with food for easy swallowing Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 0 Esophagus upper esophageal sphincter opens and food enters the esophagus food moves through and passes through hole in diaphragm lower esophageal sphincter opens to allow food into the stomach o Stomach food particles enter stomach upon the opening of the lower esophageal sphincter transfers from upper portion of stomach to lower portion juices are added to food and ground into semiliquid mass called chime 0 Small Intestine cyme enters into small intestine as the pyloric sphincter opens only allows small portion of food at a time to pass by chyme bypasses the opening of the common bile duct which drops fluid chyme travels through duodenum jejunum then ileum 0 Large Intestine colon remaining contents enter through the Ileocecal valve large intestine withdraws water as intestinal contents pass to the rectum leaves semisolid waste rectum and anal muscles hold back waste until rectal muscles relax and 2 anal sphincters open Movement of Food through the Digestive Tract peristalsis sphincters o Peristalsis wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push the contents occurs continuously o Sphincters circular muscles surrounding able to close a body opening Absorption most occurs in small intestine fibers are not absorbed and continue through the digestive tract carry some minerals bile additives and contaminants out of the body helps exercise GI muscles and keeps them strong to perform peristalsis typically occurs by diffusion Structure and Characteristics of Lipids Proteins and Carbohydrates o Lipids have carbon hydrogen and oxygen like carbs have more calories because they have more carbon and hydrogens characterized by the insolubility to water methyl group and an acid group with a chain of carbons and hydrogens in the middle 0 Proteins made up of amino acids contain nitrogen Side group carbon hydrogen and oxygen have central carbon vanes atom hydrogen atom acid group COOH amino group H NHZ side group varies with each amino acids Amino Hquot C OH group H H Acid group Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 0 42715 Carbs monosaccharides single sugars simple carbs Glucose energy source for all cells 6 sided ring Fructose intensely sweet flavor 5 sided ring Galactose no sweet flavor part of every disaccharide Functions of the Macronutrients O Lipids part of every cell membrane energy insulation of body temperature protection of vital organs in food gives flavor and aroma transport fatsoluble vitamins provide kcals triglyceride Proteins building blocks of muscles blood and skin major structural component of all cells hormones messenger molecules that elicit response to restore normal condition ex insulin amp glucagon carry nutrients and molecules in the body s fluids defends the body against disease source of energy and glucose proteins are sacrificed during times of starvation or insufficient carb intake gluconeogenesis Carbs primary energy source for cells glycogen storage blood glucose rises after a meal excess glucose molecules are combined by condensation to form glycogen when blood glucose falls the liver cells break down glycogen by hydrolysis body can only store a small amount of glycogen Digestion process of each macronutrient O Carbs mouth salivary enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch into smaller molecules stomach no new enzymes are introduced to break down CHO small intestine pancreatic amylase continues breaking down polysaccharides final digestion takes place on outer membranes of intestinal cells mostly glucose molecules remain large intestine fibers remain and attract water bacteria in GI tract ferment some fibers generates water and gas fibers do contribute a small amount of energy for the colon Protein mouth proteins are crushed and moistened stomach partial breakdown of protein through hydrolysis hydrochloric acid uncoils proteins small intestine polypeptides enter the SI pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them into smaller peptide chains and single amino acids peptidases on the intestinal wall split most dipeptides and tripeptides into the single amino acid Lipid mouth some hard fats melt stomach muscles contact to propel contents toward pyloric sphincter lipid particles broken down by gastric lipase small intestine when fat enters cholecystokinin CCK is released which signals the release of bile from Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 the gallbladder bile acts as an emulsifier so the enzymes can act on the fat most fat digestion occurs here Macronutrients and how they affect health 0 Protein protein energy malnutrition slowed growth impaired brain and kidney functions poor immunity heart disease protein in excess especially animal proteins that are high in saturated fats cancer high intake of red meat that is high in saturated fat osteoporosis high intake of protein 9 calcium excretion increases kidney disease may accelerate kidney disease but does not cause 0 Lipid cardiovascular disease LDL cholesterol accumulates in arteries until blood flow is slowed or stops saturated and trans fats appear to be associated with a rise in LDL recommended lowering saturated and trans fats by decreasing animal fats high fat meat choose leaner cooking methods low fat milk cancer may promote growth evidence not strong recommended to reduce red meat obesity more fat more calories 0 Carbs sugar intake is excessive in the US recommended 30tsp120 grams per day weigh more with high intake of added sugar may increase risk of chronic diseases 100 300 kcalday sugar should make up no more than 25 of your kcal Recommendations for each macronutrient AMDR o Carbs 4565 of kcal 25 grams or more of fiber for women 35 grams or more of fiber for men Actual intake averages at 1112 grams per day At least half of grains should be whole grains eat more fruits and vegetables consume lowfat milk products consume more legumerich meals reduce intake of added sugars 0 Protein 1035 of kcal 50175g of protein One ounce of protein contains about 7 grams of protein recommended serving of most animal proteins are 34 ounces each week seafood 20 meat poultry and eggs 70 nuts seeds and legumes 10 o Lipids 2035 of kcal 300mg or less of dietary cholesterol AI 510 calories from linoleic acid amp 0612 of calories from linolenic acid Characteristics of Vitamins and Minerals 0 Vitamins vita vital need for life amin amino acids nitrogen component to vitamins single unitstructure contains carbon can be destroyed need in small amounts 0 Minerals inorganic CANNOT be destroyed can be lost variable bioavailability major greater amounts in body need to consume more trace need to consume less Know difference and characteristics between fatsoluble and water soluble vitamins Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 0 42715 Fatsoluble Vitamins A D E and K needed to maintain good health will not be lost when the foods that contain them are cooked Megadoses of these can be toxic and lead to health problems Water soluble B vitamins help with energy metabolism process may have nerve transmission amp Vitamin C Know basic functions of all vitamins and minerals O Vitamins do not yield energy when metabolized many assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbohydrates fats and proteins Minerals put together in orderly arrays in such structures as bones and teeth found in fluids of the body which influences fluid balance and distribution do not yield energy Know RDAAI for O O O O 0 Vitamin C men 90 mgday women 75 mgday smokers 35 mgday Folate 400 mcgday Vitamin BlZ 24 mcgday Vitamin D 15 mcgday 20 mcgday if over 70 Vitamin A men 900 mcgday women 700 mcgday Calcium 1000 mgday adults and older men age 5170 1300 mgday adolescents Iron men 8 mgday women of child bearing age 18 mgday Sodium 1950 years old 1500 mgday Know major food sources of all minerals O O 0 Sodium processed foods table salt occurs naturally in some foods Chloride abundant in foods as part of NaCl amp tsp of NaCl meets needs for both Na amp Cl Potassium whole foods meats milk fruits vegetables grains legumes Calcium milk amp milk produces vegetables greens broccoli spinach tofu almonds Phosphorus animal foods meat fish poultry eggs amp milk Magnesium nuts amp legumes whole grains dark green vegetables seafood chocolate amp cocoa Iron Heme iron 25 absorbed red meats fish poultry eggs legumes nuts seeds dried fruits iron fortified foods Nonheme iron 17 absorbed plants and animal sources Zinc red meats poultry shellfish whole grains Iodine iodized salt seafood bread dairy products Fluoride drinking water fluoridated tea seafood Selenium associated with protein in foods seafood meats whole foods fruits and vegetables influenced by soil content Copper seafood nuts grains seeds legumes Manganese nuts whole grains leafy vegetables tea Chromium unrefined foods whole grains Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 Know major food sources of all vitamins o Thiamin Vitamin Bl grains pork products 0 Riboflavin Vitamin B2 milk amp milk products grains green leafy vegetables 0 Niacin Vitamin B3 meat poultry fish grains legumes vegetables mushrooms potatoes and tomatoes 0 Biotin coenzyme grains soybeans egg yolks o Pantothenic Acid meat poultry liver egg yolk grains vegetables 0 Vitamin B6 meat poultry fish soy products fortified cereals legumes Noncitrus fruits vegetables potatoes amp other starchy vegetables 0 Folate legumes fruits vegetables dark green leafy fortified grain products 0 Vitamin B12 milk fish other animalderived foods fortified grains or soy products for vegans o Choline milk eggs peanuts 0 Vitamin C fruits citrus strawberries vegetables broccoli 0 Vitamin A milk amp milk products eggs liver beta carotene dark green leafy vegetables deep orange fruits and vegetables 0 Vitamin D fortified milk margarine and butter beef and liver fatty fish herring salmon and sardines egg yolks 0 Vitamin E vegetable oils margarine and salad dressings 0 Vitamin K liver dark green leafy vegetables vegetable oils Know UL for 0 Vitamin C 2000 mgday 0 Vitamin A 3000 mcgday 0 Sodium 2300 mgday 0 Calcium 2000 mgday Functions of water in the body 0 The body uses water in all its cells organs and tissues to help regulate its temp and other bodily functions because your body loses water through breathing sweating and digesting its important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water Water recommendations 0 Men 13 cups 3 liters a day 0 Women 9 cups 22 liters a day Electrolytes salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions Process of carbohydrate protein and fat metabolism in the body Alcohol recommendations and metabolism 0 Women get drunk faster than men women produce less of the dehydrogenase enzyme 9 women consume more alcohol Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 0 Drinking on an empty stomach can also affect absorption rate fasting causes body to breakdown proteins alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme is a protein 0 Only consume 1 drink per hour liver can only metabolize 1 drink per hour alcohol will continue to circulate until the liver enzymes are ready to process it o Digestion alcohol needs virtually no digestion reaches brain within a few minutes Waist circumference recommendations 0 Women over 35 inches greater risk of chronic disease 0 Men over 40 inches greater risk of chronic diseases Physical activity recommendations 0 2010 Dietary Guidelines increase physical activity decrease time spent in sedentary activities 0 ACSM 57 days of aerobic activity for at least 30 minutes 23 days of resistance exercise 27 days of stretching exercises Antioxidants substance that inhibits oxidation especially one used to counteract the deterioration of stored food products Free Radicals created by oxygen reacting with body s compounds other causes UV rays air pollution tobacco damage fatty acids DNARNA and proteins Pros and cons of dietary supplementation 0 Pros prevent or correct deficiencies nutrient deficiencies low calorie intake reduce disease risk individuals who omit certain foods meet needs during life stages where needs are increased 0 Cons toxicity energy drinks provide individuals with false sense of security prevent or cure disease provide energy enhance athletic performance marketing is often misleading evidence is insufficient for most dietary supplements Regulation of dietary supplements o Regulated by the FDA defined by the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 o DSHEA says labeling is required labels may make health claims but cannot be brand specific labels may claim to diagnose treat cure relieve common symptoms but not a disease all must include an FDA disclaimer Factors to consider when choosing a dietary supplement 0 Look at the label is it tested by an independent company to back up good manufacturing practices Is it safe Is it legal Is there evidence that proves its effectiveness Know the unique nutritional needs of pregnant women lactating women vegetarians and individuals with an eating disorder infants children and adolescents 0 During Pregnancy energy protein fat Omega3 folate iron calcium water Normal weight gain during 2323 lbs Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 0 Lactating Women energy for mother 500 additional calories per day fats vitamin D supplementation needed if exclusively breastfed water 12 cups per day 0 Vegetarians approx 4 of adolescents 11 report being vegetarian at some point during adolescence reasons cultural or religious beliefs health beliefs as a means to restrict calories or fat intake as a means to exert independence Adolescent vegetarians consume more fruits amp vegetables fewer sweets fewer salty snack foods less fat must monitor intake of protein calcium Vitamin D B6 and 312 More likely to report binge eating 2x more likely to report frequent or chronic dieting 4x more likely to report purging 8x more likely to report laxative use when compared to nonvegetarian adolescents 0 Individuals with an eating disorder 0 Infants weight gain energy needs protein intake fluoride vitamin D introduce food amp cup at 6 months 0 Children evaluating growth growth chartsBMI 13 of children are overweight or obese trends in dietary intake beverages contribute 2025 of calories decline in milk veggies and eggs increase in fruits fruit juices sweetened beverages poultry and cheese 0 Adolescents growth males weight gain and linear growth coincide females linear growth typically happens before peak weight gain overweight and obesity 34 o are overweight or obese 18 o are obese Nutrition 101 Final Exam Study Guide 42715 Remember Carbohydrate amp Protein both yield 4 kcalgram Fat yields 9 kcalgram 1 A slice of cheese is 100 kcals and has 3 grams of fat How many kcals in the cheese come from fat a 3g X 9 27kca 2 Calculate grams carbohydrate in a 1500 kcal meal plan if planning 60 of kcalories from carbohydrate can be done for all macronutrients a 1500 kcal X 6 kcal 900 kcal from CHO b 9004 225 CH0 3 You plan a 2000 kcalorie weight reduction diet plan for your healthy 35yo female client The diet you planned contains 55 kcals from carbohydrates 20 kcals from protein and 25 kcals from fat Calculate the kcals and grams of each macronutrient your client should be eating on this regimen 2000 X 55 11004 1100 kcals from Carbohydrate 275 grams Carbohydrate 2000 X 20 4004 4 0 kcals from Protein 100 grams Protein 2000 X 25 5009 5 0 kcals from Fat 5556 grams Fat 3 On a client s food record you note that he consumed an entire Totino s Combination Pizza nutrition facts abe below How many total Calories did he consume from the pizza a 740 kcal How many Calories from protein did he consume from the entire pizza a 24g Protein X 4 96 kcal Protein
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