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PURDUE / Psychology / PSY 12000 / define trichromatic theory

define trichromatic theory

define trichromatic theory

Description

School: Purdue University
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Professor: Erin ward
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Psy120, Psychology, and Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 120 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is a filled out study guide of all of the learning objectives pertaining to Exam II
Uploaded: 03/01/2017
26 Pages 240 Views 2 Unlocks
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What is meant by absolute threshold and difference threshold?




How does the Necker cube illustration the distinction between sensation & perception?




What are sense organs and sensory receptor cells?



CHAPTER 5 : 1. What are sense organs and sensory receptor cells? (lecture) Sense organs – organs that receive stimuli (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin) Sensory receptor cells – specialized cells within the sense organs that send neural  impulses to the brain 2. Be abDon't forget about the age old question of rutgers ethnicity
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le to define the terms “sensation” & "perception" (lecture & book) Sensation – information coming in to your brain; elementary components of an  experience Perception – processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations (Your sensations are the basic physical feelings and your perception is what you choose  to think about what those physical messages mean) 3. How does the Necker cube illustration the distinction between sensation & perception?  (lecture/book) The sensation that you perceive is simply that there is a pattern of lines and colors and a  dot. Your perception is that these colored shapes form a cube. It is clear that this is a  matter of perception because some people see a cube with a dot in the back and some  see the dot as the front face of the cube – the sensory inputs were the same, but the  perceived image was different 4. What is meant by absolute threshold and difference threshold? (lecture/book) Absolute threshold – the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected Difference threshold – the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli (Ex: you must apply a certain amount of weight to be able to notice a difference) 5. What is Weber’s law as applied to the idea of a difference threshold? (lecture/book)The difference threshold between two things depends on the strength of the original  stimulus (the stronger the original stimulus, the bigger the changes must be in order for  them to be noticed, yet changes in weak stimuli are very noticeable) 6. What is meant by sensory adaptation? (lecture/book) Sensory adaptation – the perceived weakening of a sensation due to prolonged  exposure to the stimulus  (Ex: you “get used to” cold water) 7. What is the definition of light? (lecture/book) Light – a form of electromagnetic energy composed of waves that make humans able to  see 8. What is meant by hue, brightness, and purity? What determines hue/brightness/purity?  (lecture/book) Hue – the wavelength of light (physical distance from one energy cycle to next) gives us  color Brightness – intensity of light – changes in amplitude, determined by amount of light  falling on object Purity – complexity of light (gives pure versus paler colors); determined by “mix” of  wavelengths present (influences saturation or richness of perceived colors) 9. Does the human visual spectrum represent a small or large part of the entire electromagnetic  spectrum? What wavelengths (in nanometers) make up the human visual spectrum?  (lecture/book) The human visual spectrum represents a very small portion of the entire EM spectrum – only about 400 to 700 nm. 10. Be able to identify where the pupil, cornea, lens, iris, retina, and fovea are in a diagram of the  eye (lecture/book). Be able to describe what each of these parts of the eye are, and what they  do.Cornea – light first passes through the protective coating on the surface of the eye; participates in the focusing process Pupil – Light next travels through the opening of the iris Iris – the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters Lens – the transparent portion of the eye behind the pupil that focuses light onto the retina; focusing happens by changing lens shape (muscles contract and lens is thicker and rounder when an object is close, and the lens becomes longer and thinner when an object is far away) Retina – images fall here, sensory receptor cells are here; thin layer of tissue covering back of eye Fovea – the central spot in the retina where the cones are concentrated 11. Be able to describe the process of light first entering the eye through the cornea and projecting  an image onto the retina. Understand how the above parts of the eye are involved in this  process (lecture/book). Light goes through cornea ???? pupil ???? iris ???? lens ???? retina ???? fovea The image is taken in and reflected upside-down onto the back of the eye in the retina 12. What is accommodation as it relates to the lens? (lecture/book) The lens will shape itself to focus appropriately on an image – it will become long and  thin for objects that are far away and short and thick for objects that are closer 13. Be able to describe how receptor cells in the retina then translate the electromagnetic energy of  light into the inner language of brain (electrochemical impulses). Specifically, what is  photopigment and what does it do? (lecture/book)Light reacts chemically with photopigments in receptor cells. The optic nerve receives  these signals, and carries the visual neural messages to the brain 14. Rods & cones are two types of receptor cells located in the retina. What sort of vision do "rods"  provide? What about "cones"?(lecture/book) Rods – receptor cells that are more sensitive to light; they do not need much light to  generate visual signals; they are located toward the corners of the eye, and dim images  are better seen out of the corner of the eye for this reason Cones – receptor cells that require more light; focus on fine detail 15. What is a receptive field? (book) Receptive field – the portion of the retina that, when stimulated, causes the activity of  higher order neurons to change 16. What is the optic nerve? Where is it located in a diagram of an eye? Understand why it creates a  biological blind spot. Do most people experience a hole in their visual field as a result of this  blind spot? Why/why not? (book/lecture) The optic nerve conveys visual neural messages to the brain. It is a bundle of fibers  located at the back of the eye and produces a blind spot in vision that is not perceptible  to humans, as our vision automatically fills in the holes. 17. What is dark adaptation? (book/lecture) In lots of sunlight, photopigments in our cones become bleached. When we walk into a  dark room after being in a bright light, the eye needs time to process new photopigment  for the bleached receptors. 18. What are feature detectors? (book) Feature detectors – cells in the visual cortex that respond to very specific visual events,  such as bars of light at particular orientations 19. What is the trichromatic theory of color vision? (lecture/book) Proposes that color information is extracted by comparing the relative activation of  three different types of cone receptor. The three primary colors of light in these cones  were blue, red, and green; color blindness was said to be a result of one of these cones  being filled with the wrong photopigment20. Are the three primary paint colors that you grew up learning in art class different from the three  primary light colors that we discussed in the trichromatic theory of color vision? What are the  primary colors for light vs. paint? Why does mixing primary paint colors produce a different  result than mixing primary light colors? (lecture) Yes – in art, the primary colors are red, blue, and yellow. In light, they are red, blue, and  green. This is because paint utilizes absorption of light to make the colors we see, but  light itself does not do this. 21. How does the trichromatic theory of color vision explain color blindness (lecture/book) The three primary colors of light in these cones were blue, red, and green; color  blindness was said to be a result of one of these cones being filled with the wrong  photopigment 22. What is opponent-process theory? (lecture/book) What is meant by an after-image? It proposes that cells in the visual pathway increase their activation levels to one color  and decrease them to another when perceiving color; states that colors come in pairings  in which one is see more than another (blue with yellow, green with red, and black with  white); an after-image is when we stare at a color for a long time, and when it moves we  see the color of the opposite end of the opponent-process theory 23. What is meant by top-down and bottom-up processing (book/lecture). Bottom-up – the actual physical message that the eye receives Top-down processing – the knowledge, beliefs, and expectations we have are used to  organize and interpret what we see 24. Be able to identify images that demonstrate top-down processing at work (book/lecture). 25. Be able to describe & identify examples of the 5 Gestalt principles of organization (book/lecture) • Proximity – objects close together in space are grouped • Closure – incomplete figures are seen as complete • Similarity – similar things are seen as being related• Continuation – images are seen in ways that produce smooth continuation • Common fate – objects moving together are grouped together 26. What is meant by the figure ground concept? (book/lecture) When we see something, we separate an image into a figure and a ground; whatever is  the center of our attention is the figure, and whatever is in the background is the  ground 27. Know/identify examples of the 4 monocular cues of depth perception (and know what is meant  by a “monocular cue”) (lecture/book) 1. The brain knows that distant objects produce smaller images on the retina 2. Linear perspective: parallel lines receding far into the distance converge on a point. Closer  together lines must be farther away. 3. Far away objects look blurry/slightly blue-ish 4. Can tell distance based on whether one object casts a shadow on another 28. Know/identify examples of the 2 binocular cues of depth perception (and know what is meant  by a “binocular cue”) (lecture/book) 1. Convergence – both eyes angle inward as an object gets closer to us 2. Retinal disparity – because each retina is a few inches apart, they have slightly different  images and this helps with depth perception 29. What is meant by perceptual constancy? Specifically, know/identify exams of brightness, color,  size, and shape constancy (lecture/book) Perceptual constancy – perceiving the properties of an object to remain the same even  though physical properties of the sensory message are changing • size constancy- size does not change • brightness constancy – we understand the brightness of an object does not  change even when the object is dimly lit • color constancy – we understand that colors do not change despite different  conditions of light • shape constancy – shape does not change 30. Understand how the Ames room, Ponzo, and Muller-Lyer optical illusions work. Why does the  brain see certain objects within these pictures as bigger than others, when they really are not??  (lecture/book) **See slides** 31. Know the definition of sound, and how sound is different from light (lecture/book)Sound – The physical message delivered to the auditory system; a mechanical energy  that requires a medium such as water or air in order to move; unlike light, this is  mechanical energy 32. What shape does sound take? (Lecture/book) Moves in waves 33. What is meant by pitch and what is meant by loudness, and what quality of sound determines  each of these things? (lecture/book) Pitch – how high or low something sounds; determined by wave frequency Loudness – pressure amplitude of wave 34. Pinna, tympanic membrane, middle ear, cochlea, basiliar membrane, auditory nerve – be able  identify where they are in the ear, and describe what they all do. Be able to describe the  process of a sound first entering the ear and producing a neural impulse. Understand how the  above parts of the ear are involved in this process (lecture/book). pinna (sound enters here, captures sound) ???? tympanic membrane(responds to sound  by vibrating) ???? middle ear(contains three small bones that intensify vibration pattern) ???? cochlea(sound energy gets translated into a neural impulse) ???? basilar  membrane(base for sensory cells of hearing; tiny hairs called cilia are bent through  movement of this membrane, receptor cells fire) ???? auditory nerve(neural impulses  generated by the hair cells leave the cochlea along this nerve) 35. Be able to describe place theory and frequency theory (lecture/book). Place theory – we hear a particular pitch because certain hair cells are responding  actively; place refers to location of activated hair cells on basilar membraneFrequency theory – pitch is determined by frequency of neural impulse traveling up  auditory pathway; brain relies on rate at which cells fire neural impulses, not just  location of activated cells; higher rates of firing, higher pitch 36. Be able to describe and identify examples of the figure-ground concept as applied to sound, and  the idea of top down processing as applied to sound (lecture/book). Similar to light, the brain focuses on one main auditory signal as the figure and makes all  the other noise into background noise, or the ground. We use top-down processing,  just like with vision, to bring certain organizational rules and expectations into our  perception. When we hear sounds, we try to make sense of their meaning even if they  have none. 37. What produces the sensation of touch? (lecture/book) Based on pressure, messages are delivered mechanically. Cells in the skin are deformed  due to pressure, and this sends a neural impulse. 38. What produces the sensation of temperature? (lecture/book) Cold and warm fibers respond to cooling and heating of skin by increasing neural  impulse production- not based on actual temperature of the object 39. Is experienced temperature just dependent on the actual temperature of an object?  (lecture/book) No, it is based on our thermoreceptors. We respond to temperature changes, not the  temperature itself 40. What is pain? (define?) Lecture/book Pain – adaptive reaction that the body generates in response to a stimulus causing  tissue damage 41. Understand the gate control theory of pain (lecture/book) There are neural gates (our endorphins) that control the transmission of pain impulses.  These gates can be open or closed, and critical pain signals can be blocked from  reaching higher neural centers when necessary (for example, in times of extreme stress  the pain receptors are blocked and one may feel “superhuman”) 42. Understand how “gating errors” could contribute to chronic pain conditions (lecture)Sometimes due to underlying serious bodily damage; sometimes there are gating errors  in which the gates never fully close 43. What is meant by phantom pain and how is it often treated? (lecture) Amputees often report still feeling pain in their severed limb. It is often treated with  mirrors, allowing amputees to see the limb as if it were there so that they can address  the pain 44. What is meant by olfaction? (book/lecture) Olfaction – smell; airborne molecules enter the nose and generate a neural impulse 45. Be able to describe the fishy smell studies, and what they demonstrate about how smell  influences interpretation of social environments, and how our interpretation of social  environments influences what we smell! (lecture) Pumping a fishy smell into an environment made test subjects report feeling more  suspicious; smells can bring up certain memories or associations 46. What are the four basic tastes? (lecture/book) Sweet, salty, bitter, sour 47. What is a super taster and what is thought to make some people supertasters? (lecture) Super tasters have relatively more taste buds than non tasters, and therefore have a  more sensitive sense of taste Chapter 6: 1. Be able to define “consciousness.” What is it? (lecture/book) Consciousness – subjective awareness of internal and external events 2. What is consciousness good for? (lecture/book) We use consciousness to develop strategies for our own behavior, to think about what  we say or do, to imagine how something in the future will turn out, and to imagine what  other people are thinking or predict their behavior3. What is attention and how does it relate to consciousness? (lecture/book) Attention – the internal processes used to set priorities for mental functioning; we are  only consistently aware of what we pay attention to 4. What are the typical results of a dichotic listening task? How do they demonstrate the ability to  attend to things selectively? (book/lecture) Different messages a presented separately and simultaneously to each ear; many  people fully comprehended the message in one ear, while entirely neglecting the other  showing selective listening 5. Does our ability to attend selectively mean our brains have totally shut out all other information  entirely? (lecture/book) We have not entirely shut out the rest of the world (the cocktail effect) 6. Know what is meant by the cocktail effect (lecture/book) This refers to the ability to focus on one auditory message while ignoring others. The  subconscious continues listening to the surroundings, which is why you may hear your  name in a crowded room even if you were talking with someone else 7. Know how results of a dichotic listening task where message suddenly switches ears  demonstrates that the brain is not actually shutting everything else out when it attends  selectively (book/lecture) When ears were suddenly switched, often times half of the opposite message was  repeated, but many times the message that made sense was still repreated. 8. Multi-tasking: Can you typically perform two tasks at once in the same amount of time as it  would take to perform each of them one at a time, one right after the other? What is meant by  switching time cost? (lecture). No – the switching time cost makes it so that you cannot perform tasks as quickly when  multi-tasking. This is the time that it takes for the brain to fully switch over from one  activity to another and adjust its attention 9. Are self-described “good multi-taskers” better or worse than people who say they are bad at multi tasking at performing tasks that come with constant distraction? (lecture)Worse – they believe they are capable of performing multiple tasks at once but are consistently  worse at doing so in testing 10. Be able to describe all the implications of the multi-tasking research for driving while cell-phoning.  Describe the 5 points we went over in class (lecture). • Can drivers multi task o not well; bad switching time o similar to being legally drunk • It it worse than talking to a passenger o Yes, passengers will adjust their conversation in case of events in road • Is hands-free ok o No, research shows it is just as distracting • Is it ok to do at stop lights o No, switching time is up to 27 seconds before focus is fully regained • Most confident multi-taskers ???? most dangerous drivers 11. What is automaticity? (book/lecture) Fast and effortless processing that takes little or no focused attention 12. How do divided attention tasks demonstrate whether something is automatic? (lecture/book) Participants are given two tasks, and it is then recorded whether performance in one  task is affected by the addition of another 13. What are subliminal influences? Does the research show that the influence of subliminal  messages is probably strong or weak? (book/lecture) These are messages that are so hard to detect, they bypass conscious awareness.  Research shows the effects are minimal or nonexistent 14. What is visual neglect? (lecture/book) Visual neglect – the tendency to ignore things that appear on the left side of the body;  people are completely unaware of the left side of their body 15. What is ADHD? (book/lecture) ADHD – Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; general difficulties in concentrating;  many argue that it is over-diagnosed16. Is sleep considered to be an altered state of consciousness? (lecture/book) Yes 17. What is a circadian rhythm? (lecture/book) Circadian rhythm – biological activities that rise and fall in accordance with a 24 hour  cycle (ie sleeping) 18. Be able to describe the characteristics of the 4 stages of sleep. Know what is meant by theta  waves, alpha waves, sleep spindles, and K complex. Understand what happens to the body  during each of these stages (book/lecture) • Stage 1 – lightest sleep, some claim to be awake but drifting; theata waves  begin, which are lower in amplitude and more irregular than the alpha waves  experienced during drowsiness • Stage 2 – somewhat more deeply asleep but brain still reacts to things like loud  noises; sleep spindles occur (short bursts of activity interrupting theta waves); K  complex occurs (sudden, sharp, intermittent wave forms) • Stage 3 – deep sleep; confused if woken up; delta waves (more synchronized  slow wave); heart and breathing are slow and regular • Stage 4 – deepest sleep; nearly 100% delta waves; blood pressure and brain  activity are at lowest point in 24 hour period• REM sleep – “rapid eye movement,” intense brain activity, increase in blood  pressure, heart rate, respiration, etc. 19. Know how far into sleep REM sleep typically happens, and understand the basic characteristics  of REM sleep (lecture/book) Usually follows stage 4; internally, blood pressure increases, heart rate and respiration  rate increase; externally, the body appears calm, but eyes dart around, large muscles  become paralyzed, and dreaming occurs in 80% of people. It is during this time that the  brain conducts consolidation of learning and memory 20. Understand the basic pattern of sleep cycles during a typical night’s sleep. How much time is  typically spent in REM sleep? (lecture/book) Each full sleep cycle is about 70 to 90 minutes, ad about 20-25% consists of REM sleep 21. What are some theories about the function of sleep (repairing/restoring, survival value)  (lecture/book) • Repairing and restoring – put body functions in order, repair disorganized  circuits, consolidate learning/memory • Survival value – we aren’t efficient at night, which prevents us from going out  into the night and putting ourselves in danger 22. What happens when people are sleep deprived? (lecture/book) • Difficulty concentrating • General irritability • Decrease in cognitive functioning • impairs learning • long-term health effects (immune system impairment) • technically could be fatal • causes many accidents and fatalities (ex: people falling asleep while driving) 23. What is REM rebound? (book/lecture) After a period of REM sleep deprivation, intensity and length of REM sleep increases,  often associated with nightmares. 24. About how much sleep do people need each night? (book/lecture)This depends on age. While the average statement is 8 hours a night, infants and young  children sleep about 16 hours a day, ages 6- puberty have a set sleep schedule, and  adolescents base their sleep patterns off of their schedules 25. What are the differences between REM dreams, non REM dreams (lecture/book), and Lucid  dreams (just lecture)?  REM dream – continually dream during REM, dreams are more story-like, usually more  vivid and emotional Non-REM dream – less frequent, less memorable Lucid dreams – a dream in which the individual is aware they are dreaming and can  control the content of their dream 26. Know the 4 reasons why psychologists think we might dream (lecture/book). Be able to identify  examples of each. • Wish fulfillment – to satisfy forbidden urges and desires (Sigmund Freud) • Activation-Synthesis – dreaming is a consequence of random brain activity; the  brain creates a story to make sense of random, unrelated sensory inputs it  receives • Problem-Focused Dream Interpretation – dreams are for solving real-life  problems, like practicing • Dealing with threats – evolutionary psych; dreams are for practicing/simulating  dealing with a real threat 27. Are people certain of which theory of dreaming is correct? (book/lecture) No. 28. Specifically, for Freud’s theory of wish fulfillment, make sure you know what is meant by latent  content and manifest content (lecture/book). Be able to identify examples of Freud’s idea of  dream interpretation. Manifest content – the content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer Latent content – the underlying meaning or message of the dream 29. Know what is meant by dyssomnia and parasomnia (lecture/book) Dyssomnia – problems connected with the amount, timing, or quality of sleep Parasomnia – problems connected to disturbances during sleep30. Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following dyssomnias: insomnia,  hypersomnia, narcolepsy. (lecture/book) • insomnia – inability to fall asleep and stay asleep consistently; must be chronic;  may be due to stress, drugs, emotional issues, medical conditions • hypersomnia – getting too much sleep, being tired all the time; may be due to  genetic factors, medical issues, or sleep apnea • narcolepsy – “sleep attacks;” sudden extreme sleepiness that causes the  individual to enter directly into REM; most likely genetic 31. Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following parasomnias: Sleepwalking,  night terrors, nightmares (lecture/book), and sleep talking (just lecture). • Somnambulism/Sleepwalking – partial arousal from stage 4; sleeping person  gets up and walks around without fully awakening • Night terrors – happens during partial arousal from stage 4; usually begins with  a piercing scream; most common in children • Nightmares – frightening dreams occurring during REM • Somniloquy/Sleeptalking – occurs during any sleep stage, more frequent among  children 32. What are psychoactive drugs and why do people take them? (lecture/book) Psychoactive drug – any substance that affects behavior and mental processes through  alterations of conscious awareness o Taken to relieve pain/discomfort o Alter consciousness o Psychological escape o Recreationally 33. What are depressants? What do depressants do in low and high doses, and what are some  examples of depressants? (lecture/book)  Slow the ongoing activity of the central nervous system; examples: alcohol, valium,  Xanax, barbituates; low levels may reduce anxiety, high levels can cause insensitivity to  pain and other senses 34. What are stimulants? What do stimulants do in low and high doses, and what are some  examples of stimulants? (lecture/book)Increase central nervous system activity; examples: caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, crack;  low levels may increase confidence, cause euphoria; high levels cause anxiety, extreme  jitteriness 35. What are opiates? What are some examples of opiates? (lecture/book) Reduce anxiety, lower sensitivity to pain, elevate mood; sub-category of depressants;  examples: opium, heroine, methadone; works by mimicking endorphins 36. What are hallucinogens? What are some examples of hallucinogens? (lecture/book) Disrupt normal mental and emotional functioning; disorients perception and alters  reality; examples: LSD, mushrooms, peyote, marijuana; reactions vary widely 37. What is hypnosis? Is hypnosis the same as sleep? Are “weak minded” people more easily  hypnotized? What are the two theories that explain heightened suggestibility (dissociation and  role playing)? (book) Hypnosis – a form of social interaction that produces a heightened state of suggestibility  in a willing participant; participants are extremely relaxed and highly impressionable;  two main theories: • Dissociation – a splitting of conscious awareness; one stream of consciousness  follows hypnotist while the other follows the participant’s own mind as the  hidden observer • Social role playing – acting out suggestions 38. What is meditation? What are some benefits of meditation? (book) Meditation – a technique for self-induced manipulation of awareness; promotes  relaxation and self-reflection; may improve the immune system, lower blood pressure,  and improve general sense of well-being Chapter 7: 1. What is the definition of learning? (lecture/book). Be able to identify from examples what is  learning and what is not learning. Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior, or potential behavior, the results  from experience Ex: learn that crying in a grocery store is wrong Not and ex: your behavior changes for a few days when you are sick2. What is meant by orienting, habituation, and sensitization? (lecture/book) Understand how  these concepts are all related to the process of how people notice a stimulus in the environment  and learn to ignore it. How are habituation and sensitization both adaptive? Orienting – an inborn tendency to notice and respond to something novel or surprising Habituation – the decline in tendency to respond to an event or stimulus that has  become familiar due to repeated exposure; makes us able to concentrate Sensitization – increased responsiveness, or sensitivity, to an even that has been  repeated, such as a baby crying; this provides an adaptive advantage because it forces  us to tend to necessary needs 3. Understand that classical conditioning refers to a process by which people notice a stimulus in  the environment and learn WHAT IT SIGNALS OR PREDICTS, or a process by which people learn  relationships between events that occur outside of their control (lecture/book). Be able to  identify examples of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning – a set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn  about the signaling properties of events 4. Be able to describe Pavlov’s dog studies. Understand how they are an example of classical  conditioning. (lecture/book) Pavlov trained dogs through classical conditioning. He utilized certain stimuli to  condition a dog to expect food after receiving a certain stimulus 5. In classical conditioning, know the shorthand for US, UR, CS, and CR and be able to identify the  various stimuli in an example i.e. UnConditioned Stimulus = US, Unconditioned Response = UR,  conditioned stimulus=CS, conditioned response=CR, Etc. (lecture/book) • Unconditioned stimulus (US) – stimulus that can elicit an unlearned, or innate,  response • Unconditioned response (UR) – unlearned or innate reaction to the US • Conditioned stimulus (CS) – stimulus that elicits a response as a result of being  paired with a US • Conditioned response (CR) – response that is similar or identical to the UR that  is elicited by a CR 6. In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus should function as a _____?______that the  unconditioned stimulus is about to occur (lecture/book) Signal7. Know the 4 things necessary to form the CS-US connection in classical conditioning  (lecture/book). Know what is meant by simultaneous conditioning, backward conditioning, and  blocking, and understand how these terms relate to what is necessary to form the CS-US  connection (lecture/book) • CS must provide useful information about the arrival of the US • CS must be presented before the US (simultaneous – both CS and US at the  same time- and backward conditioning – US before CS- usually don’t work) • US must follow CS closely in time • CS must provide new information about the US – blocking occurs when  something prevents somebody from learning that a CS is paired with a US) 8. Understand how the Little Albert experiment worked and know what the experiment  demonstrated (lecture/book). Know what the US, UR, CS, and CR were in this experiment. A white rat was paired with a frightening noise in an effort to condition the baby to be  afraid of white rats. The US was the loud noise, the UR was the fear response, the CS  was the white rat, and the CR was the fear response 9. Why does classical conditioning work? What was the early theory and what is the current  cognitive view? (lecture/book) Early theories stated that we just shift our UR over to the CS, neglecting the old US, nut  this theory was later replaced by the cognitive view, which stated that we learn about  relationships between events, and therefore can learn the occurrence of one event may  signal another 10. Know what Second-order Conditioning is and be able to identify an example (lecture/book) A procedure in which an established conditioned stimulus is used to condition a neutral  stimulus; for example, if in the little Albert experiment the rat was paired with another  object, Albert may be conditioned to also fear that object 11. Be familiar with stimulus Generalization and stimulus discrimination and know how they apply  to classical conditioning (lecture/book) Stimulus generalization – responding to a new stimulus in a manner similar to the  response produced by an established CS (ie assuming that two stimuli are similar  enough that they should elicit the same response)Stimulus discrimination – responding to a new stimulus differently than how one  responds to an established CS (ie recognizing that two stimuli may be similar but are not  the same) 12. What is Extinction as it relates to classical conditioning? (lecture/book) Extinction – Presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in a  loss of responding; the associated between the CS and US is unlearned 13. What is conditioned inhibition? (book/lecture) Conditioned inhibition – learning that an event signals the absence of the US 14. Know the meaning of Spontaneous Recovery (book) Spontaneous recovery – the recovery of an extinguished CR after a period of  nonexposure to the CS; at least some of what is learned remains over time 15. What is counter conditioning? (just lecture) Counter conditioning – the process of reversing classical conditioning by pairing the CS  with a new, positive US to produce a positive (instead of negative) CR (Ex: pair the rat  with cookies in the Little Albert experiment) 16. Know what is meant by operant conditioning and the law of effect (lecture/book) Operant conditioning – a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the  consequences of their own voluntary actions Law of effect – If a response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying  consequence, it will be strengthened. If a response in a particular situation is followed  by an unsatisfying response, it will be weakened 17. Make sure you know how operant conditioning is DIFFERENT from classical conditioning (I.e.  think about learning what an event PREDICTS versus learning about the consequences of our  OWN BEHAVIOR (lecture/book) Classical conditioning is learning that an event or environment trend signals something.  Operant conditioning is learning that your own personal actions signal something. 18. Understand how BF Skinner used operant conditioning to train pigeons (lecture/book)He rewarded the pigeons for performing certain behaviors so that over time they would  learn that a certain response would give them a reward 19. Within operant conditioning, know what is meant by the stimulus situation, the discriminative  stimulus, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination (lecture/book) Stimulus situation – people learn that certain behaviors are rewarded in specific  situations Discriminative stimulus – the stimulus situation that sets the occasion for a response to  be followed by reinforcement or punishment Stimulus generalization – doing the behavior in a similar situation to the discriminative  stimulus and expecting the same response Stimulus discrimination – learning that in different scenarios, the same behavior may  not produce the same response 20. Within operant conditioning, be able to define punishment and reinforcement. In addition,  know the difference between positive vs negative punishment and positive vs negative  reinforcement. Be able to identify, from an example, which of these 4 things is going on  (lecture/book). • Positive reinforcement – an event that, when presented after a response,  increases the likelihood of that response o rewarding a child with candy for doing their homework • Negative reinforcement – an event that, when removed after a response,  increases the likelihood of that response o rewarding a child by taking away chores for doing their homework • Positive punishment – an event that, when presented after a response,  decreases the likelihood of that response o Increasing number of chores because child didn’t do their homework • Negative punishment – an event that, when removed after a response,  decreases the likelihood of that response o taking away a child’s phone because they didn’t do their homework 21. What is a primary reinforcer? (lecture/book?) Primary reinforcer – things that are innately reinforcing, such as food 22. What is a conditioned reinforcer? (lecture/book) Secondary reinforce – learned reinforcers, such as money or applause; learned through  classical conditioning23. What are some cautions to consider when using punishment? (lecture/book) • Do NOT rely on physical punishment, as this has been shown to create worse  behavior in children later on • Be careful about yelling – this may actually be a form of reward for the child as it  gives them desired attention • Make sure to instill the appropriate behavior with reinforcement – punishment  tell you what not to do, but not what you should do • Punish the behavior and not the person; stop punishment when the behavior  stops 24. Within operant conditioning, what is a continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement  schedule? (lecture/book) Continuous reinforcement schedule – rewarding a response after every occurrence (not  very realistic or manageable) Partial reinforcement schedule – reinforcement is only delivered some of the time 25. Know the 4 different partial reinforcement schedules of operant conditioning, be able to  identify examples of each, and know how well each one tends to work and why. What is meant  by a post reinforcement pause and how does this relate to a fixed ratio schedule? (lecture/book) • Fixed-ratio schedule – the reinforce is given only after a specified number of  responses o postreinforcement pause – when work and reward are incremented, it  is natural to pause after each increment • Variable ratio schedule – the reinforce is given after a varying number of  responses; gets rid of postreinforcement pause because the responder doesn’t  know when the next reward will come • Fixed-interval schedule – reinforcement is given after a fixed amount of time  instead of a fixed number of responses o not very effective because people just start to increase their responses  as the reward moment approaches • Variable interval schedule – the reinforce is given after a variable amount of  time; effective because responses are consistent because responders don’t  know when the reward is coming 26. What is meant by shaping? How did Skinner use shaping to train pigeons? (lecture/book) Shaping – Reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired  response. With pigeons, Skinner started rewarding pigeons just for turning their heads, slowly increasing the amount they had to turn to get a reward until he had trained them  to spin in a circle 27. Understand some of the biological constraints on learning (book) Certain responses are just too distant to be conditioned. For example, no matter how  much you try it is nearly impossible to associate the image of a rabbit with cleaning the  floors 28. What is meant by observational learning? (lecture/book) Observational learning – learning by observing and mimicking the experiences of others 29. What is meant by modeling? (lecture/book) Modeling – the natural tendency to imitate the behavior of significant others 30. What were Bandura’s Bobo doll studies and what did they demonstrate? (lecture/book) They demonstrated that children will often mimic the behavior of adults, especially if  they see the behavior of the adult be rewarded 31. What is meant by vicarious reinforcement and punishment? (lecture/book) We see others being reinforced or punished and learn through them what the desired  response is Chapter 8 Part 1  1. What is the definition of memory? (book/lecture) Memory – the capacity to preserve and recover information2. What is encoding? (book/lecture) Encoding – how memories are initially acquired 3. What is storage? (book/lecture) Storage – how memories are maintained 4. What is retrieval? (book/lecture) Retrieval – how stored memories are recovered and translated into performance 5. What is sensory memory? What is meant by an icon and an echo? (book/lecture) Sensory memory refers to the memories that the brain only briefly retains after the raw  sensations of a stimulus are removed. It is either • echoic memory – auditory memories that last for about 2 seconds • iconic memory – visual memories that last for about ½ seconds 6. Be able to identify examples of how iconic and echoic memory might be measured  (book/lecture) Iconic memory may be measured by displaying three rows of four letters each, then  quickly removing them. Most people cannot remember all twelve letters, but most can  remember one row, showing that this is the depth of their iconic memory. Echoic memory is measured by presenting a listener with a set of tones and asking them  to signal when the tone has ceased. People often hear the sound for longer than it is  actually occurring, which demonstrates their echoic memory 7. What is short-term memory? (book/lecture) Often called working memory, short term memory has a very limited capacity, or  memory span, that can take in about 7 chunks of information at a time for about 30  seconds. These memories are not an exact copy of environmental stimuli. These  memories can linger for longer by rehearsal, or internal repetition, and by chunking  items together. 8. What is meant by the inner voice vs. the inner eye, and how do these ideas relate to short-term  memory? (lecture/book)The inner voice refers to the voice we use to “say things in our head.” We read things  and then say them in our head, and if we misremember something it is often confused  for something that sounds similar, as opposed to looking similar. The inner eye refers to the visual images we conjure in our heads. These images often  follow the principles of normal visual perception, such as how it is easier to see detail  when we imagine something as up close rather than far away. 9. What is rehearsal? (book/lecture) Rehearsal – a strategic process that helps to maintain short-term memories indefinitely  through the use of internal repetition 10. What is memory span? Research has shown that short-term memory span is typically how many  items? (book/lecture) Memory span - the number of items a person can recall in the exact order of  presentation on half of the tested memory trials—is typically about seven, plus or minus  two items. 11. What is chunking? (book/lecture) Chunking – a strategy for increasing short term memory by rearranging incoming  information into meaningful or familiar patterns Example: CATFLYBUG is easier to remember as CA TFL YBUG, and even easier to remember as CAT FLY BUG 12. What is long-term memory? (book/lecture) Long term memories are those used to maintain information for extended periods of  time. There are three main types (episodic, semantic, and procedural). 13. What are episodic memories? (book/lecture) Episodic memories – memories consisting of events, or episodes, that happened to you  personally 14. What are semantic memories and procedural memories? (book/lecture) Procedural memories – knowledge about how to do things, such as ride a bike or walk Semantic memories – knowledge about the world, stored facts unrelated to personal  experience 15. What is elaboration? (book/lecture)Elaboration – an encoding process that involves the formation of connections between  to-be-remembered input and other information in the memory 16. What is visual imagery? (book/lecture) Visual imagery – the process used to construct an internal visual image 17. Know the 7 different methods for improving the storage of information in long term memory  (book/lecture)  • think about meaning of what you want to remember • notice relationships • notice differences • form mental pictures • space your repetitions • consider sequence position • test yourself 18. Thinking about “spacing your repetitions” (number 5 on the list from lecture). What are the  implications of this principle for late-night cram sessions? (book/lecture) This would mean that late-night cram sessions would be ineffective, as all of the  information is being taken in at once and spacing of repetitions is not possible 19. Thinking about number 6 on the list, “consider sequence position”, what is the primacy effect  and what is the recency effect? (book/lecture) Primary effect – people are more likely to remember what they hear first in a list Recency effect – people are more likely to remember the most recent thing they hear in  a list 20. What is a mnemonic device? What is the method of loci and the peg word method?  (book/lecture) Mnemonic devices - special mental tricks that were developed thousands of years ago  as memory aids Method of loci – start by choosing a well-known place or location—sometimes  called a “memory palace”—that’s easy to access and remember. In your mind, you then  place the material that you want to remember at various locations along the path or  within the locationPeg word method – a mnemonic device in which you form visual images  connecting to-be-remembered items with retrieval cues, or pegs 21. What is a flashbulb memory? Be able to identify examples of flashbulb memories. (book/lecture) Flashbulb memory - We tend to form rich records of the circumstances surrounding  emotionally significant and surprising events

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