Chapter 3 Terms: ∙ Conception ∙ Zygote ∙ Blastocyst ∙ Implantation ∙ Placenta ∙ Umbilical cord ∙ Embryo ∙ Neural tube—brain ∙ Fetus ∙ Age of viability Key Points: ∙ The 3 periods of prenatal development (If you want to learn more check out What does explicit cost refer to?
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zygote, embryo, fetus); associated time frame and main events that take place during these periods ∙ Brain development during prenatal development ∙ Prenatal environmental influences terms: ∙ Teratogens ∙ Sensitive period ∙ Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) ∙ Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) ∙ Partial alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS) ∙ Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) Key points: ∙ Four factors that affect the nature and extent of harm associated with any given teratogen ∙ Explain the importance of the concept of “Sensitive Period” during prenatal development ∙ Facts related to common teratogens and prenatal development, I.e., drugs, tobacco, alcohol, radiation, environmental pollution, and maternal disease. Childbirth key terms: ∙ Apgar scale ∙ Preterm vs. small-for-date infants Key points: ∙ What risks are associated with oxygen deprivation and with preterm and low birth-weight infants Key Terms ∙ Heredity, environment & behavior: a look ahead terms:∙ Behavioral genetics ∙ Concordance rates ∙ Heritability estimates ∙ Canalization ∙ Genetic-environmental correlation o Passive correlation o Evocative correlation o Active correlation Niche-picking ∙ Epigenetic framework Key Points: ∙ Identify and describe the measures/indexes used to infer the contributions of heredity to human characteristics, i.e., heritability estimates; concordance rates ∙ Describe how nature and nurture work together; i.e., canalization and genetic-environmental correlation ∙ Identify and describe three types of genetic-environmental correlations. Give an example of each. ∙ Explain the epigenetic framework Chapter Four: The organized Newborn: reflex and states of arousal terms: ∙ Reflex ∙ States of arousal ∙ REM sleep ∙ NonREM sleep ∙ Sudden infant death syndrome ∙ Neonatal behavioral assessment People to know: ∙ T. Berry Brazelton Key points: ∙ Describe the believed functions of a newborn’s reflexes ∙ Identify and describe various newborn reflexes (i.e., eye blink, rooting, sucking, swimming, Moro, palmer grasp, tonic neck, stepping, Babinski) ∙ When and why do some of these initial reflexes disappear? What is the importance of assessing reflexes? ∙ Identify and describe infant’s states of arousal. ∙ Describe the sleep pattern of infants, and explain how it Is similar or different to that of older children and adults. What is the believed function of REM sleep in infancy? ∙ Why do babies cry?∙ Describe the use of the neonatal behavioral assessment The organized newborn: learning capacities Terms: ∙ Learning ∙ Classical conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) o Unconditioned response (UCR) o Conditioned stimulus (CS) o Conditioned response (CR) ∙ Extinction ∙ Operant conditioning o Reinforce o Punishment ∙ Habituation o Recovery o Novelty preference o Familiarity preference o Recent? Memory o Remote? Memory ∙ Imitation Key Points: ∙ Identify and describe infant learning capabilities. Discuss the conditions under which they occur, and be able to cite and explain various applied examples of infant learning. Specifically, describe how learning takes place through: o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Habituation o Imitation Motor Development in Infancy: Terms: ∙ Gross motor development ∙ Fine motor development ∙ Cephalocaudal trend ∙ Proximodistal trend ∙ Dynamic systems theory of motor development ∙ Pre-reaching ∙ Ulner grasp ∙ Pincer grasp Key Points:∙ Describe how the development of motor skills support the development of other domains, e.g., social and emotional development ∙ Define gross motor development and fine motor development. Give examples of each ∙ Describe the general trend in motor skill development (i.e., cephalocaudal and proximodistal tends) ∙ Describe the dynamic systems theory of motor development. Identify the factors that contribute to the development of various motor skills ∙ Which motor skill plays the greatest role in infant cognitive development? Provide an explanation. ∙ Identify the four major milestones of voluntary reaching Perceptual development in infancy terms: ∙ Statistical learning capacity ∙ Visual acuity ∙ Depth perception o Visual cliff o Motion o Binocular depth cues o Pictorial depth cues ∙ Contrast sensitivity ∙ Size constancy ∙ Shape constancy ∙ Object identity ∙ Intermodal perception o Amodal sensory properties ∙ Differentiation theory o Invariant features o Affordance Key Points ∙ Provide two reasons why researchers study infant perception ∙ What particular challenges do researchers face when studying infant perception? ∙ Describe infants’ sensory capabilities of touch, taste, and smell ∙ Describe infants’ hearing capabilities o To what extent can a newborn differentiate between sound patterns? o To what extent can a newborn perceive sounds not found in their native language? o What characteristics of human speech are preferred by infants? o What is meant by an infant’s impressive statistical learning capacity? ∙ At birth, which sense is the least developed? Explain ∙ List the changes in visual system during an infant’s first year ∙ Describe Gibson’s and walk’s studies using the visual cliff. What was the focus of this research, its findings and limitations? ∙ Name and describe the 3 cues for depth in the order that they develop ∙ Describe the relationship between crawling and depth perception ∙ Describe what intermodal perception is and give an applied example to demonstrate your understanding of this concept ∙ What are amodal sensory properties? Give examples ∙ Explain the differentiation theory of perceptual development ∙ What is meant by affordances, and what roles does this concept play in perceptual development? Early deprivation and enrichment: is infancy a sensitive period of development? Key points: ∙ Describe the research findings on young children adopted from Romanian orphanages who were later placed in adoptive families ∙ Discuss how research on early deprivation and enrichment sheds light on the question of whether infancy is a sensitive period of development Chapter Five: The course of physical growth terms: ∙ Distance curve ∙ Velocity curve ∙ Cephalocaudal trend ∙ Proximodistal trend ∙ Growth hormone ∙ Secular trends in physical growth Key Points ∙ According to your text, what is the adaptive function of human’s prolonged physical immaturity? ∙ In general terms, describe the typical rate of physical growth across the basic developmental stages of infancy, earl and middle school, and adolescence ∙ What is the difference between distance curve and velocity curve? ∙ Average age for growth spurts among boys and girls ∙ Describe the exception to the proximodistal trend of physical growth noted during adolescence ∙ Influence of growth hormone in physical growth ∙ Understanding of worldwide variations and secular trends in physical growth and possible explanations Brain Development Terms: ∙ Neurons ∙ Synapses∙ Neurotransmitters ∙ Programmed cell death ∙ Synaptic pruning ∙ Glial cells ∙ Myelination ∙ Cerebral cortex ∙ Brain plasticity ∙ Experience-expectant brain growth ∙ Experience-dependent brain growth Factors affecting physical growth Terms: ∙ Catch up growth ∙ Marasmus ∙ Kwashiorkor ∙ Obesity ∙ Growth faltering ∙ Psychosocial dwarfism ∙ Key points: ∙ Identify and discuss factors affecting physical growth (i.e., heredity nutrition, infectious disease, emotional well being The psychological impact of pubertal events Points: ∙ Contemporary view on adolescence being a time of turbulence ∙ Puberty change: moodiness, sleep schedule, parent-child relationship