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MSU / History / HI 1073 / Explain the meaning and purpose of using black codes.

Explain the meaning and purpose of using black codes.

Explain the meaning and purpose of using black codes.

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: History
Course: Modern U.S. History
Professor: Niklas trzaskowski
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: history, midterm, Studyguide, Midterm Study Guide, UnitedStates, and Mississippi State University
Cost: 50
Name: Modern U.S. History Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide has all 50 ID's written out. Enjoy.
Uploaded: 03/02/2017
11 Pages 149 Views 8 Unlocks
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Modern U.S. History Midterm Study Guide


What is black codes?



Black Codes

∙ Who: Former Slaves

∙ What: Allowed slaves to own property to keep tabs on them. Legalized marriage for revenue  purposes. If they refused to sign they could be arrested and basically sent back into slavery. ∙ When: 1865­1870 

∙ Where: The South

∙ Significance: Legalized marriage for revenue purposes. If they refused to sign they could be  arrested and basically sent back into slavery.

XV Amendment to the United States Constitution

∙ Who: African American Males

∙ What: Allowed men to vote not based on race

∙ When: 1870

∙ Where: U.S.


What is the platt amendment?



∙ Significance: Congress was worried if a democrat won then that people wouldn’t be able to  vote because of their race.

Platt Amendment

∙ Who: Between relations with U.S. and Cuba. Written by Senator Platt. ∙ What: Amendment to Cuban constitution that allowed the U.S. to intervene with Cuban  military if they felt the need to.

∙ When: 1901

∙ Where: Cuba

∙ Significance: U.S. wouldn’t recognize their independence until they signed it. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle

∙ Who: Sinclair

∙ What: Book that criticizes unsanitary conditions in restaurants

∙ When: 1906 If you want to learn more check out What is cell division?

∙ Where: Chicago


What is upton sinclair’s the jungle?



∙ Significance: Prompted FDA

Zimmerman Telegram

∙ Who: Relations b/w Germany, Mexico, and U.S.

∙ What: Germany tried to get Mexico to fight America.

∙ When: 1917

∙ Where: Germany, Mexico, U.S.

∙ Significance: Britain helped to keep Mexico from attackingIf you want to learn more check out What is middle range research?

RMS Lusitania

∙ Who: Britain and Germany

∙ What: British ocean liner that Germany sunk (128 Americans died)

∙ When: 1917

∙ Where: Atlantic Ocean

∙ Significance: Brought America to war

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

∙ Who: President Woodrow Wilson to United States Congress

∙ What: Peaceful terms after first world war

∙ When: January 1918

∙ Where: Washington D.C. If you want to learn more check out What is ethnoarchaeology?
If you want to learn more check out What are the four island types?

∙ Significance: To establish an agenda for peace talks after the war. LON was proposed but  U.S. Wouldn't be a part of it

The Dust Bowl

∙ Who: Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico

∙ What: Onset of unusually dry weather created by poor agricultural practices ∙ When: 1939

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Displaced over 1 million farmers.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

∙ Who: Franklin D. Roosevelt and young men

∙ What: Public work relief program for unemployed

∙ When: 1933­42 We also discuss several other topics like What is social exchange theory?

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: To make jobs

Huey Long’s “Share the Wealth” Plan

∙ Who: Gov. of Louisiana and U.S. Senator, 3rd party candidate in an election ∙ What: Socialist plan to share wealth to nation’s people

∙ When: 1934

∙ Where: Broadcasted on national talkshow Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?

∙ Significance: To counter FDR’s New Deal Plan

Dawes Act

∙ Who: Native Americans

∙ What: Divided up different Native American lands and was distributed back out to the tribes. ∙ When: 1887

∙ Where: U.S., Out West

∙ Significance: To Americanize Native Americans

Scopes Trial

∙ Who: John Scopes, high school teacher from Tennessee

∙ What: Tennessee forbid scopes to teach because he was teaching evolution ∙ When: 1925

∙ Where: Tennessee

∙ Significance: Scopes loses. Rift between old America and new America due to new scientific ideas. 

Jim Crow

∙ Who: African Americans

∙ What: Racial caste system that cut taxes. Failure of Populism. Closed some hospitals and  asylums. African American schools suffered the most.

∙ When: 1877­1960’s

∙ Where: The South

∙ Significance: To limit the freedoms of the African Americans

Grandfather Clause

∙ Who: Poor whites in Louisiana

∙ What: Men that can’t fill out voter registration because they are uneducated ∙ When: 1898

∙ Where: Louisiana

∙ Significance: They still get to vote even though they can’t read the ballot. XIX Amendment to the United States Constitution

∙ Who: Women in America

∙ What: Amendment stating that the right of U.S. Citizens should not be denied due to gender ∙ When: June 4, 1919­1920

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Equality

Booker T. Washington

∙ Who: Former slave

∙ What: Wanted African Americans to use their skills they learned while enslaved to produce  jobs to create an industrialized South

∙ When: 1895­Atlanta Exposition Address

∙ Where: Tuskegee, AL

∙ Significance: Tried to decide how to best deal w/ newly freed slaves. Created trade schools  for African Americans.

W.E.B. DuBois

∙ Who: Free man, educated

∙ What: Didn’t agree with Washington. Felt like newly freed slaves should pursue education. ∙ When: Post Civil War

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Tried to decide how to best deal w/ newly freed slaves.

New Nationalism vs. New Freedom

∙ Who: Teddy Roosevelt (Nationalism) and Woodrow Wilson (Freedom) ∙ What: New nationalism­ issue argued was that gov protection of human welfare and property rights

New Freedom­ promoted antitrust modification and tariff reduction

∙ When: 1913

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: To lay out vision of progressive Gov in America

Henry Cabot Lodge

∙ Who: Senator from Massachusetts. Roosevelt’s friend.

∙ What: Disagreed with Wilson on L.O.N. because it takes away U.S. Ability to declare war ∙ When: Late 1800’s­early 1900’s

∙ Where: Massachusetts 

∙ Significance: L.O.N. still formed but without its drafter/charter member Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

∙ Who: Factory workers

∙ What: Fire. Deadliest industrial disaster in U.S. History

∙ When: 1911

∙ Where: New York City

∙ Significance: Poor labor practices

Treaty of Versailles

∙ Who: Germany and the Allies.

∙ What: Ends World War 1. Made Germany pay for damages. Essentially led to World War 2 ∙ When: 1919. Signed in 1921

∙ Where: Versailles, France

∙ Significance: To frame post war Europe

1912 Election

∙ Who: Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Roosevelt, Debbs. Wilson won.  ∙ What: Rare 4 way election

∙ When: 1912

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Extreme opposites ran for election.

Gunboat Diplomacy

∙ Who: Teddy Roosevelt

∙ What: Allowed U.S. To intervene in other countries which created puppet dictators. ∙ When: Early 1900’s

∙ Where: U.S. And countries in the Caribbean 

∙ Significance: Explicit use of military power

Populism

∙ Who: Populists, people’s party

∙ What: Platform that included ideas that they wanted to be embraced, wanted to do work and  recognize new modern technologies, but did not succeed.

∙ When: Late 1870’s­1890’s

∙ Where: U.S., started in Texas and spread to 43 other states

∙ Significance: Racists did not realize common grievances among tenant farmers XIII Amendment to the United States Constitution

∙ Who: African Americans

∙ What: Makes slavery illegal except as punishment for crime.

∙ When: passed on Jan. 31, 1865; ratified on Dec. 6, 1865.

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Official written end to slavery.

XIV Amendment to the United States Constitution

∙ Who: American Citizens and Immigrants

∙ What: Defined national citizenship and forbid states from restricting basic rights of citizens  or other persons.

∙ When: Ratified in 1868.

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Citizenship.

Equal Rights Amendment

∙ Who: Former suffragists, labor leaders, politicians, and women

∙ What: Legal equality; economic opportunity.

∙ When: 1922

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Paul­ For doing away with discrimination against women. Kelley­ Against separate governing (held to different standards).

XVIII Amendment to the United States Constitution and the Volstead Act

∙ Who: Everyone in the U.S.

∙ What: Defined strict limits on alcohol. Volstead Act provided for enforcement of the  amendment.

∙ When: Enacted in 1919; Took effect in 1920

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Prohibition

Hoovervilles

∙ Who: Homeless people

∙ What: Shanty towns built by the homeless during the Great Depression ∙ When: During the Depression; roughly 1930’s

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Showcased what state America was in. Blamed Herbert Hoover for the  Depression.

Lynching

∙ Who: Whites and African Americans

∙ What: Extrajudicial action used to inflict intimidation and maintain Jim Crow ∙ When: 1883­mid 20th Century

∙ Where: Mostly the South, U.S. in general

∙ Significance: Kept Jim Crow intact

Plessy v. Ferguson

∙ Who: Homer Plessy, John Ferguson, U.S. Supreme Court

∙ What: Landmark constitutional law case of U.S. Supreme Court that upheld state racial  segregation laws under doctrine of “separate but equal.”

∙ When: 1896

∙ Where: Louisiana

∙ Significance: “Separate but equal”

Sharecropping

∙ Who: African Americans, Landowners.

∙ What: System where the landlord allowed a tenant to use the land in exchange for a share of  the crop.

∙ When: After Civil War.

∙ Where: Mostly in the South.

∙ Significance: Basically debt slavery.

Freedmen’s Bureau

∙ Who: Former slaves

∙ What: Created by Congress to aid former slaves and poor whites in the South after the Civil  War

∙ When: 1865

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Without this many recently freed African Americans and poor whites would  have died from starvation, illness, or lack of shelter.

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

∙ Who: U.S., Europe, Latin America

∙ What: Basically states that the U.S. Can intervene in the affairs of an American republic  threatened by seizure of a European country.

∙ When: 1904 State of the Union Address

∙ Where: U.S., Latin America

∙ Significance: Justified American intervention throughout Western Hemisphere. Flappers

∙ Who: Young Women

∙ What: A fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself by wearing short skirts,  bobbing their hair and listening to Jazz.

∙ When: 1920’s

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Challenged conventional standards. Caused social change for women. Social Security Act

∙ Who: Workers

∙ What: System of benefits for workers, victims of industrial accidents, unemployment  insurance, and aid for dependents.

∙ When: August 14, 1935

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Social insurance program for the unemployed and retirees. Works Progress Administration

∙ Who: Unemployed People

∙ What: One of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs. Employed millions of unemployed people to  do public works projects.

∙ When: 1935

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Gave jobs to people who would not have had one otherwise. Pellagra

∙ Who: Poor people who mainly ate corn.

∙ What: Disease caused by a lack of niacin. Many poor farmers and people in general relied  heavily on corn to eat, but lack of variation in their diets caused Pellagra. ∙ When: 1930’s­1940’s

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Killed a lot of people. Reason why niacin is added to corn now. Espionage Act of 1917

∙ Who: Applied to everyone in the U.S.

∙ What: Outlawed Anti­war Speech and Literature

∙ When: 1917

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Set severe consequences for anyone found guilty.

The Great Black Migration

∙ Who: African Americans

∙ What: Relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the South to cities in the  North, Midwest, and West.

∙ When: 1915­1960

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Provided opportunities for African Americans.

League of Nations

∙ Who: Some European and Asian Countries

∙ What: Origins in Wilson’s 14 points. Became United Nations in 1945. ∙ When: 1919

∙ Where: Switzerland

∙ Significance: Brought countries together in an attempt to maintain peace “Return to Normalcy”

∙ Who: Warren G. Harding

∙ What: Harding’s campaign promise in election of 1920 that promised a return to the way of  life before World War I.

∙ When: 1920

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Reflected conservative mood of the country. 

Panama Canal

∙ Who: Britain, France, U.S.

∙ What: Canal made to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for trade. ∙ When: 1914

∙ Where: Panama

∙ Significance: Allowed countries to trade more effectively because ships could cut through the canal instead of going all the way around the South America.

Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration

∙ Who: Companies.

∙ What: Horizontal­ merging of companies who produce item that are closely related to each  other. 

Vertical­ supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Each member produces a  different product or service to satisfy a common need.

∙ When: N/A

∙ Where: Both take place in most countries.

∙ Significance: Different ways of going about making and distributing a product. Chinese Exclusion Act

∙ Who: Chinese Laborers

∙ What: Law prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.

∙ When: 1882

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: First significant law that restricted immigration in the U.S. Good Neighbor Policy

∙ Who: FDR

∙ What: Policy of FDR administration put in effect to mend relations with Latin American. ∙ When: 1933

∙ Where: U.S. and Latin America

∙ Significance: U.S. no longer used military force to influence the region and allowed U.S. to  revise trade relations with major Latin American countries.

Neutrality Acts­1935, 1937, and 1939

∙ Who: FDR

∙ What: Laws passed to limit U.S. involvement in future wars.

∙ When: 1930’s

∙ Where: U.S.

∙ Significance: Tried to keep the U.S. from getting involved in WWII

Yalta Conference

∙ Who: Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, FDR

∙ What: The Big Three Allied leaders were brought together to discuss Europe’s postwar  reorganization.

∙ When: 1945

∙ Where: Yalta

∙ Significance: Re­establishment of nations conquered and destroyed by Germany. Bonus Army Conflict

∙ Who: Veteran Supporters

∙ What: 43,000 people marched at Capitol Hill to demand that veterans should have their  Army Bonus early.

∙ When: Summer of 1932.

∙ Where: Capitol Hill.

∙ Significance: Their requests were denied and the shanty towns they were staying in while  preparing for the marched were destroyed by tanks, which was ordered by President Hoover.

The Second Ku Klux Klan

∙ Who: Publicized White Supremacists

∙ What: Group that targeted Jews, Catholics, foreigners, and African Americans. ∙ When: At highest peak in 1915.

∙ Where: Across the U.S.

∙ Significance: Fueled by hate and was a subject of fear amongst many different categories of  people.

Possible Essay Questions

In what ways did the domestic measures during the Progressive Era reflect  an attempt by the federal government and the private sector to rectify the  issues and inequalities that arose during the Gilded Age? When answering  

the question, draw upon and reference course-reader documents, and  material covered in lecture and discussion section.  

In what ways were the First World War and the Second World War linked?  How did the shortcomings of the aftermath of the First World War, and the  interwar years (1919-1939) establish a climate for the Second World War to  ensue? When answering the question, draw upon and reference course reader documents, and material covered in lecture and discussion section.  

It is often argued by historians that the political and economic realities of the 1920s are directly linked to the Great Depression. How is this so? How were  the political and economic realities of the 1920s directly linked to the Great  Depression? When answering the question, draw upon and reference course reader documents, and material (and AV material) covered in lecture and  discussion section.

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