Study Points- Emotions AS ALWAYS, BE ABLE TO APPLY ALL OF THESE CONCEPTS TO YOUR LIFE! 1. What are the differences between emotion, affect, and mood? Emotion- a specific evaluative reaction to some event. We are aware of emotions (conscious). Fear of alligWe also discuss several other topics like data mining midterm
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ators. Because it is conscious, it is a slow process Mood- general disposition or state. Very broad. Not linked to any one event or situation. Affect- Valence of evaluation toward an event. Very fast. Negative affective response to alligators. 2. How does affect motivate behavior and why does it do this? Plays pretty key role in telling us what to avoid or approach. Duck is okay to approach but snake is not. 3. Are affective responses automatic or controlled and what are the implications of this? Are affective responses weak or strong? Automatic. Affect helps you with quick decision making before emotion kicks in. helps you avoid danger and make good decisions. Affect responses are strong 4. How does affect contribute to learning and decision making? How does the Iowa Gambling Task study demonstrate this? Learn to avoid risky decks. The control participants had certain affect towards each deck of cards based on how much money they win or lose. Brain damaged patients did not learn to avoid the risky decks and ultimately lost money. 5. What were the different theories of emotion discussed in class? How does each of them explain how we reach our emotions? Which is the currently accepted theory and why? James-Lange: See a stimulus leads to physiological arousal which helps us determine emotion (see zombies, dry mouth and sweating, determine that you are afraid). CRITICAL FLAW- multiple emotions have the same physiological arousal Cannon-Bard: Stimulus causes physiological arousal and emotion simultaneously. FLAW- does not allow for any cognitive appraisal Schacter-Singer: Stimulus leads to physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal simultaneously. Cognitive appraisal effects physiological arousal and physiological arousal effects cognitive appraisal (snake at a zoo or climbing stairs before interview). This then leads to emotion. This is the best of the three theories.6. What is misattribution of arousal and what were the methods and findings of the study examples we discussed in class? Credit arousal to the wrong thing (climbing stairs before a job interview causes you to feel anxious even though you weren’t worried about it because it was your back up job). Men run in place for 15 or 120 seconds, then shown a video of an attractive or an unattractive woman in video. How attracted were they to the woman in the video? Men who ran 120 seconds were more attracted to the attractive woman than men who ran 15 seconds (more aroused from running). Not true for unattractive woman. Bachelor dates cause physiological arousal which causes them to fall for each other. 7. What is the domain specificity theory of emotions? Effect of emotion on behavior is dependent upon specific emotion. Emotion serves to motivate our behavior (most of the time…) 8. What are the specific functions of specific emotions discussed in class? Guilt about lying might motivate you to tell the truth. Anger might motivate you to get someone to change their behavior. Disgust helps us avoid disease. Sadness helps us seek social support. Sexual arousal helps us find a romantic partner. Love helps us maintain relationships. 9. What were the methods and findings of the study on attention and love? Think about a time when you were happy vs in love. Hooked participants to tracker and showed them images to see how direction was directed. People who wrote about a time when they were in love spent significantly less time looking at photos of attractive people of the opposite sex. Helps maintain relationships by causing you not to cheat. 10. How do we know that emotional expressions are universal and automatic? Blind people still make the same expressions and so do people around the world. 11. What factors affect how we perceive emotions? What factors affect how we express emotions? We are not good at identifying emotions of different species. Stereotypes/expectations can cause us to perceive emotions that may not be present. 12. What are the gender differences in emotion, if there are any?Study Points- Attitudes and Behavior AS ALWAYS, BE ABLE TO APPLY ALL OF THESE CONCEPTS TO YOUR LIFE! 1. What are attitudes? How are they different from beliefs? Attitude is overall evaluation. Belief is just a simple fact or opinion (not necessarily true) 2. What were the sources of attitudes covered in class? How does each source affect attitude formation? • Classical conditioning- pair something we already like or dislike with something neutral, and previously neutral stimulus is associated with good or bad feelings • Operant conditioning- develop a positive attitude toward behaviors that are rewarded (praise for good grades=pos. attitude towards good grades) • Social learning-learn attitudes through observation (see others having fun playing a game, you think you might like it too) • Feelings/affect- like or dislike? • Cognition-based on people’s beliefs about the properties of an object • Behavior- based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object • Self-perception theory: people don’t know how they feel until they see how they behave 3. What is the mere exposure effect and what were the methods and findings of the study on it that we discussed in class? Favorability increases with greater exposure. Participants exposed to novel ideographs over and over. Then asked to pick which character they liked best. The participants picked the ideograph they were repeatedly exposed to 4. What is attitude polarization? Know the studies (methods and results) from class about this concept. Attitude polarization- attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves they are right • LaPierce (1934) • Traveled with Asian couple • Expected anti-Asian attitudes would produce discrimination, yet the vast majority of hotels allowed them to stay • Wrote hotels months later, asking if they would accommodate Asians?• 90% said “no” • Wicker (1969) – meta-analysis • Lord, Ross, & Lepper (1979) • Participants were extremely pro- or anti-capital punishment • Read 2 studies – one pro- and one anti-capital punishment • Did they change their views in face of mixed evidence? 5. When do attitudes affect behavior? Know the studies that demonstrate that attitudes affect behaviors. Regan & Fazio (1977) o Housing crisis at Cornell o Some students in permanent housing vs. some in temporary housing o Both groups had neg. attitudes toward housing crisis o Did they act on it? Fazio & Williams (1986) o 1984 election (Reagan vs. Mondale) o Measured how quickly people rated candidates o 4 months later – who did you vote for? o Quicker responses = more accessible Attitude is strong o Vested interest o Accessible Measured at same level of specificity Other influences on behavior minimized 6. What are implicit and explicit attitudes and how do they differ? Is it possible to have opposing implicit and explicit attitudes? Explicit- controlled and conscious evaluative responses Implicit- automatic and nonconscious evaluative responses 7. How does social desirability affect our ability to measure attitudes? Weak relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes /react-text • Possible reasons: /react-text • Social Desirability /react-text - people will change the way they behave to conform to those around them.8. What are some ways that we discussed in class that researchers measure attitude driven behaviors “under the radar”? Those were the methods that were more subtle in trying to measure explicit attitudes. These were methods like the lost letter set up, wrong phone number, and looking at how close people sat to outgroup members 9. What is the Implicit Association Test and how does it work? A computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words. 10. When are implicit vs. explicit attitudes formed? Implicit attitudes stem from past (likely forgotten) experiences during childhood /react text Explicit attitudes stem from recent experiences 11. What is cognitive dissonance and what are the effects of it? -an unpleasant psychological state -effect: we can either change behavior or attitude to change dissonance /react-text (ex: cheating/smoking) -easier to change attitude! 12. How does insufficient justification affect cognitive dissonance effects and what was the study that demonstrated these effects (know methods and results)? -P's turn knobs for an hour /react-text • Paid $1 or $20 to tell next person that study is interesting (or no lie - control group) • Measured P's attitude toward knob turning /react-text • Already did behavior (door knob turning) so it is easier to change attitudes. $1 is just enough justification. $1 - why did I do that. $20- I did it for the money (behavior) 13. What effect does attitude salience have on attitudes predicting behavior? (from the book) Our attitudes do predict our behavior when other influences on what we say or do is minimum, when the attitude is specific to the behavior and when attitude is potent. • attitudes and behaviors are both subject to influences. Our attitude does predict our behavior when influences such as what we say and do are minimal when the attitude is specific to the behavior and when the attitude is potent. o ex. Social influences should be limited. 14. How does the attitudes-follow-behavior principle relate to morality? (from the book) • If we want to change ourselves in some important way, its best to not wait for insight or inspiration. The phenomenon is not irrational or magical. That which prompts us to act may also prompt us to think. • Attitude toward behavior/subjective norms/ and perceived control determine ones intentions which determine behavior 15. What does the book say about comparing cognitive dissonance and self-perception theories? Be able to differentiate between the two. (from the book) • Cognitive dissonance- tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance might occur when we realize we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another • Self-perception theory- the theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes , we infer them much as would someone observing us (by looking at our own behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs