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UA / History / HY 102 / What is the revocation of edict of nantes?

What is the revocation of edict of nantes?

What is the revocation of edict of nantes?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: History
Course: Western Civilization from 1648
Professor: Janek wasserman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: HY102, Midterm 1 Studyguide
Description: Studyguide for Midterm 1, with notes concerning the material for the essays, not actual outlines.
Uploaded: 03/02/2017
15 Pages 42 Views 25 Unlocks
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Short Answers: You will be given nine (9) terms, and you will complete six (6). You will be expected to identify and then clarify their significance for the study of our subject. These answers should be about a paragraph in length (3 or 4 sentences). The significance is the most important part of these answers. Please be as concrete as possible. 


What is the revocation of edict of nantes?



1) Edict of Nantes- The Edict of Nantes​ was signed by King Henry IV of France granting the Huguenots rights, even though France was still Catholic. In the edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity. Separated civil from religious unity and opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights. It marked the end of the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes(1685)

● Lead to protestants fleeing France

2) Versailles- Started being built in 1661, when Louis XIV turned 18. They moved in in 1682. ○ There were 36,000 workers


Who is jean-baptiste colbert?



■ The building required them to divert a river

○ Housed 15,000 residents

○ Louis XIV ruled from 1643-1715, longest ruling monarch, and he had power from the age of 5 in 1648.

● France was the model absolutist state

○ Because of the wars, French nobility was impoverished, and Louis saw an opportunity to centralize power and co-opt the authority of nobles by giving them new offices.

○ Louis grants wealthy people nobility for money, which he uses for state structures ■ This new noble court is moved to Versailles

3) Louis XIV- Louis XIV was the model absolutist ruler Don't forget about the age old question of What does a plant require to undergo aerobic respiration?

Louis XIV ruled from 1643-1715, longest ruling monarch, and he had power from the age of 5 in 1648.


Who is napoleon bonaparte?



● France was the model absolutist state

● Louis XIV and his mixed legacy

○ France had large debts, a weak army, and he discredited absolutism

4) “What is Enlightenment” (Kant)- 

Immanuel Kant

○ Revolution in ethics and theories of knowledge

■ How we live, act in world, moral behavior, how we judge things

● New interpretation of how we understand the world

○ What is Enlightenment(1784)

■ “Dare to know”, motto of the Enlightenment

■ Challenge yourself, educate yourself, and allow yourself to be educated

5) Baron Montesquieu

Baron de Montesquieu and modern political theory Don't forget about the age old question of What are the financial intermediaries?

○ 1689-1755

○ Spirit of the Laws(1748)

■ Advocated for separation of powers and influences the Federalist Papers, which in turn influences America

■ Banned by the Catholic Church within a year of publication

■ Expressed concern over radical government of all forms

■ One of the first to say that we need to separate areas of government and lay out what each section of government would do, including checks and

balances.

6) Triangular Trade

The Atlantic System

● Trade network that, post 16th century, added a plethora of novelties to European diets ○ Sugar, chocolate, coffee, tea, and bananas

● Economic changes wound up dictating political change

● There were changes in the daily lives of Europeans, starting with their diets ● Were the changes actually signs of progress, considering the exploitation required? ○ 11 million slaves were imported from Africa, and that’s just the number that survived If you want to learn more check out What is the major benefit of written vs oral communication?

● Trade network connecting Europe with the Americas, Africa, and Asia ○ Goods from Europe purchased slaves in Africa

○ Slaves were transported to Americas and plantations

○ Money from slave trade bought American goods

○ Goods are sent back to Europe, processed, and distributed world wide ■ This is triangular trade

7) Mercantilism- 

○ Jean-Baptiste Colbert

○ Government intervention in economics to increase national wealth

○ Purpose is to strengthen national growth instead of personal growth

○ Established monopolies and trading companies so French could get direct profits ○ Protectionist tariffs to prevent imports from outweighing exports. Balance of trade was super important.

○ North American expansion to get supplies without having to purchase them ○ New economic models

■ More international trade in the form of mercantilism, which eventually became capitalism

8) Absolutism- 

● Not the same as totalitarianism, because every facet of human life isn’t controlled

● French

○ Louis XIV was the model absolutist ruler We also discuss several other topics like What is behavioral genetic?

○ Absolutism and constitutionalism developed in response to crises of the mid 17th century

■ Questions around the legitimacy of the rulers

○ Absolutism was an attempt at justifying why certain people could rule ■ Divine right, natural law, social contracts

○ Absolutism started in 1648 at the end of the 30 years war

9) Tennis Court Oath- 

○ Pledge to represent the nation and not to disband until concrete changes occur and a constitution is established

10) Admiral Lord Nelson- Admiral Lord Nelson

● Bothered Napoleon since 1790

● Task was to keep the French and Spanish navies from rendezvousing with the invasion force

● After months of pursuit, Nelson cornered the French/Spanish fleet off Cape Trafalgar, Spain

○ British are outnumbered 3-2

○ NElson must adopt unconventional tactics in order to counteract the enemy's fleet ○ His ships line up in lines at sail at the French and Spanish fleet, so his ships couldn’t fire, but the French/Spanish ships could Don't forget about the age old question of What is gas?

○ The French-Spanish fleet has bad aim and misses, then when the British ships pass through them, they are at point blank range to take down the French-Spanish ships

● Nelson dies

11) Oliver Cromwell- 

■ Key figure in leading the New Model Army to fight off Charles and in the Battle of Naseby(1645), Charles is apprehended

■ Charles is executed in 1649

12) Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary)-Dissolution Austro- Hungary

● Deformation under Franz-Josef

● Defeat and nationalities question transform map

○ Compromise of 1867 and Magyar ascendancy

■ Leadership in Vienna divides empire in two because of nationalist groups ○ Problems of Dual Monarchy: Pan-Slavism

■ Hungarians aren’t majority in Kingdom of Hungary

■ Other ethnic groups emerge that want power-- dissent eventually tears empire apart.

13) Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen- Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

○ Turn against divine right We also discuss several other topics like What is hominin?

○ Does not acknowledge women, slaves, free blacks

○ Equality does not apply to those listed above

■ Leftists are upset at these blind spots

14) Spinning Jenny

Clothing manufacturing-- investigating the textile production

15) Napoleon Bonaparte- A new hero in Napoleon

○ Leader of the army

○ Seen as one that can solve issues in France

The Napoleonic Empire (1803-1815)

Rise of Napoleon

● He’s not technically French, he’s from a poor family, and he’s brilliant ● Born in 1769, he had joined the Revolution early on

● He won a series of battles for the Revolution, gaining a reputation of military prowess ● He takes his army to Egypt to disrupt British trade, to gain favor in France, and to free the Egyptians.

○ In Egypt his troops discover the Rosetta Stone

● After winning decidedly in Egypt, he rode his troops into Paris and forced the Directory to dissolve

○ This was a coup that took place on November 9th and 10th of 1799.

○ Napoleon is in power now

Napoleon’s Plan for France

● Concludes that centralized leadership is imperative

● Facing a new, anti-French alliance between England, Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire

○ He succeeds in defeating the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo in 1800 ■ Results in the Treaty of Ameriso of 1801, declaring tentative peace

● His domestic reforms appear egalitarian and in line with the ideas of the revolution, but ar more absolutist than they are Enlightened.

● Reconciles with the Pope, bringing a kind of national religion to France ● Napoleon calls all the shots, distancing himself from the values of the French Revolution that go against absolutism

People got sick of Napoleon in general, because he was a dictator

● The Napoleonic Invasions lead to the rise of nationalism

● Napoleon spread the idea of revolution, so people thought that they deserved human rights.

16) Declaration of the Rights of Women-

Written in 1791 by French activist, feminist, and playwright Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. By publishing this document, de Gouges hoped to expose the failures of the French Revolution in the recognition of sex equality, but failed to create any lasting impact on the direction of the Revolution. 17) Jacobin Club- The Sans-Culottes mobilize and gather into Jacobin clubs to debate and to advance the cause of the Enlightenment

18) Reign of Terror- Maximilien Robespierre and the committee of Public Safety ○ Revolutionary armies and courts

○ Rules by executive order

○ Want to reduce public dissent

○ “The war of liberty against the enemies”

○ Kind of totalitarian in actions and executive of those that don’t agree

○ “Looking out for and representing the state”

○ Wanted everyone on board with them and behind a single idea

19) Adam Mickiewicz- Adam Mickiewicz

● 1798-1855

● Famous liberal, romantic, wanted a healthy Polish commonwealth

● Exiled due to radical views

● Went to Paris, wrote poems, trying to celebrate a free Poland

● Incites revolt in Poland by Aristocrats against Habsburgs in 1946

● Revolt fails because peasants won’t join

20) Toussaint L’Ouverture

The best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. He saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791. He first fought for the Spanish against the French; then for France against Spain and Britain; and finally, for Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti)'s colonial sovereignty against Napoleonic France. He then helped transform the insurgency into a revolutionary movement, which by 1800 had turned Saint-Domingue, the most prosperous slave colony of the time, into the first free colonial society to have explicitly rejected race as the basis of social ranking. 

21) Louis XVI

Wanted to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility didn’t like it. Louis deregulated the grain market, resulting in an increase in bread prices. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt. 

The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to his unpopularity. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution.

Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led people to view him as a symbol of tyranny and his popularity deteriorated progressively. He tried to flee in 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. Louis XVI was extremely indecisive and looked at in a negative way by many of the French people. 

22) Salons- Salons

○ Middle/Upper class people get together to gossip and debate.

○ Importance of women

■ Madame Lafayette

● Early best selling author

23) Voltaire- Voltaire

○ 1694-1778

○ Letters on the English(1734)

■ Positive outlook on organized religion

○ The Jean Calas Case (1762)

■ Negative outlook on organized religion

24) Romanticism

Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature.It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, and while for much of the Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism, its long-term effect on the growth of nationalism was perhaps more significant. 

25) English Civil War- 1642-1651

○ Government is constantly changing at this time

● Charles I goes to war against parliament

○ English parliament wouldn’t approve everything Charles wanted

○ He wanted total control of Scotland and Scotland started rebelling, and parliament wouldn’t give him the funds for war, so Scotland goes free

○ Convenes parliament in 1640

■ Short parliament, lasts less than 8 months before Charles dissolves

parliament

○ Charles needs money again, so he convenes parliament and they don’t give it to him, which causes conflicts over the King’s rights against parliament,and around the legitimacy of everything occurring.

■ Cavaliers supported the king

■ Roundheads supported parliament

○ Oliver Cromwell

■ Key figure in leading the New Model Army to fight off Charles and in the Battle of Naseby(1645), Charles is apprehended

■ Charles is executed in 1649

26) Contract Theory of Government

Social contract theory is the view that a person’s moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. Social contract theory is rightly associated with modern moral and political theory and is given its first full exposition and defense by Thomas Hobbes. After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known proponents of this enormously influential theory, which has been one of the most dominant theories within moral and political theory throughout the history of the modern West. 

27) Ringstrasse

Vienna

● Expands rapidly, incites epidemics of tuberculosis and cholera. Becomes a symbol of Habsburg opulence.

● Rethinking the city

○ Cities as symbols of national prosperity

■ Ringstrasse in Vienna, Boulevards of Paris

■ Testament to new money, but displaces a lot of people

○ Top-down planning

■ Emphasis on grandeur, not urban need

28) Otto von Bismarck

German unification: Blood and Iron

● Prussian domination of the project

○ Bismarck (1815-1898) an architect

● A conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states, significantly and deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. 

29) Adam Smith- 

○ 1723-1790

○ Theory of Moral Sentiments(1759)

■ Advocates for free trade, division of labor, international exchange, and education

○ Wealth of Nations(1776)

■ Invisible Hand

30) bourgeoisie

In Marxist philosophy the bourgeoisie is the social class that came to own the means of production during modern industrialization and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital, to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society. 

31) proletariat- 

 In Marxist theory to name the social class that does not have ownership of the means of production and whose only means of subsistence is to sell their labor power for a wage or salary. 32) Glorious Revolution- 1688

● Glorious Revolution

○ Installation of William and Mary

○ Dutch Republic plays a role in the creation of the Bill of Rights(1689) because they already had them, and it inspired England

33) Congress of Vienna- Congress of Vienna

● What did “restoration” mean?

○ Negotiated peace in Europe

● Metternich and the balance of powers

○ New kingdoms (Poland and the Netherlands), German Federation, and a Holy Alliance

● Want to prevent any country from taking total control-- prevent another Napoleon ● Bourbon Restoration

34) Copernican Revolution 

35) Revolutions of 1848-Sicily in January; France in February

○ Liberal reforms and national workshops

■ Putting people back to work

○ Conservative backlash by middle class and landholders

■ June Days and Louis-Napoleon

Revolution in Southern Europe

● Liberal (and radical) phase, then backlash

○ Inability to reconcile nationalism and liberalism, liberalism and socialism ○ Lack of national unity

● Italy: revolts throughout, Habsburgs ousted

○ Pope? King? Federation? Habsburgs and Louis-Napoleon?

■ Question of who will be in charge

■ Habsburgs and order restored with help of Louis-Napoleon

Central European Revolutions

● Germany

○ Small, only german people option

○ Large, all lands with germans in them option

○ Limits of liberalism; minority question

● Hungary: revolts forced out Metternich

○ Magyar minority and national tensions

○ Habsburgs regrouped with Russian aid=

36) Consumer Revolution- Consumer Revolution

○ Escape from subsistence, able to do more than just grow enough food to survive 37) Peace of Westphalia- Peace of Westphalia(1648)

● Economic Shifts

○ Economic stagnation during and afterwards, up to 400% drop

■ Less goods, bad harvests, famine, but the banks are doing great because they profited off of the war

○ Demographic downturn

■ ¼ of people in the Holy Roman Empire die

■ But, the Netherlands and England benefitted from the war, and the

Atlantic slave trade kept them going

○ 1694

■ Bank of England established, a financial and middle class are established 38) Irish Potato Famine- Irish Potato Famine causes waves of immigration 39) Baron von Hausmann- New Bonapartism

● Curious hodgepodge: Economic liberalism, authoritative, imperialist ambitions ● Modernization

○ New roads, public works, expos, and finance

○ Walter Benjamin, “Hausmann or the Barricades”

40) John Snow- Typhus, cholera, and other “diseases”

■ Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister, Ignaz Semmelweis

■ John Snow

■ There’s something in the air (bad air) that makes people sick- Louis

Pasteur discovered germs and contaminants that result in illness.

Microorganisms are what cause fermentation and rotting and developed vaccines and germ theory. Joseph Lister discover sterilization of surgical tools. Ignaz Semmelweis- Hungarian doctor at University of Vienna,

determines that cleaning hands and tools used for delivering babies stops women from dying after giving birth. Put into sanitorium for his ideas on germ theory.

Essay: Two of the following three essays will appear on the exam. You only have to do one. Your essay will be assessed on its argument, clarity of thought and organization, and its use of information from both lecture and readings. An essay that does not refer to primary sources will be inadequate. You do not have to quote from the books we have read; you merely have to reference them. 

1) While the terms “nationalism”, “liberalism”, and “socialism” are still a part of the modern political vocabulary, these terms carried a somewhat different meaning between the years of 1815 and 1848. In this essay, explain the meaning of these terms during the years of 1815-1848, using specific examples from the lectures, textbook, and course readings. Be sure to acknowledge any overlap between “isms”, and identify key groups that represented these particular ideologies. (Textbook, p. 559) 

Nationalism

A Revolutionary (or Napoleonic) Legacy

■ Push for state boundaries to be congruent with linguistic or ethnic ones ■ Challenge to imperial structures-- Habsburgs, Ottomans, and Russians ● ‘Young’ Nations movement (Mazzini)

■ The German Problem

Liberalism

Not today’s liberals

○ Not democrats

● Influence the Scottish Enlightenment

● Political, economic, and philosophical

● Birth of the Economist

○ Pro-business, pro-free trade, pro-capitalism

● Weaker on the continent; links with nationalism

○ Commitments to civil liberties, freedom of expression

● Focus on individual autonomy

Socialism

Not just Marxism

● Critique of liberalism

○ Liberalism is too restrictive, too elitist

● Proposals

○ Model towns/garden cities and communes

○ Factory democracy

● Impact: Chartism and Unionism

○ Male right to vote (fails)

● Marx on the fringes

○ People aren’t listening to him yet

2) The Industrial Revolution has had its share of praise and criticism and is often considered, for better or worse, a turning point in Western civilization. What did Europe look like before? After? What are some of the benefits associated with the Industrial Revolution? What are the criticisms? Who would have praised and who would have criticized and why? Be sure to cite any significant 

technological advances, as well as people, places, events and ideologies that were shaped by the Industrial Revolution. 

A revolution of time and space

○ Railroads and machinery

● Impact on society, culture, and politics

○ Emergence of the working class

○ Romantic anti-capitalism

● Increased production equal to progress?

Invention

● Trying to enhance efficiency, production, and durability of things on farms and in factories

Beginnings of Industrialization

● Two key components to Revolution

○ Industrialization

○ Urbanization

● England is 1770’s and 1780’s

○ Textiles and railroads

Inventions

● James Watt’s steam engine (1775)

● Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame in 1760’s

○ Clothing manufacturing-- investigating the textile production

● Mechanical loon in 1780’s

● Birth of the factory system

○ Changes social relations

Why England?

● Population growth of 18th century

● Expanding supplies through Atlantic system

● Pragmatic scientific inquiry

● Larger workforce after agricultural revolution

Railroads

● Steam-powered locomotive

● From canals to railroads

● Massive building projects (public/private)

○ First wealthy people that aren’t kings emerge due to railroad barons

● “Engine” of growth

○ Exponential growth because each invention speeds up the invention of the next ● Iron, coal, and cotton output soared

Costs

● Health and hygiene concerns

Revolution moves eastward (slowly)

● Belgium and Prussia; later Austria

○ Twenty year lag behind Great Britain

○ Because of serfdom and agricultural demands

● Factories employes a minority of workers

○ This means there isn’t a surplus of labors

Emergence of “working class”

● Population growth and urban factory system produce a new socioeconomic environment ● Sense of solidarity with factory workers and their need for reform and advocacy ○ This is a time without rules or regulations for factories

● People faced hardships

○ Long workdays

○ Short lifespans

■ Factory worker life expectancy is 17 years old, a non factory worker’s life expectancy is 40

■ “I charge the English Middle Class with mass murder, wholesale robber and all the other crimes in the calendar.”- Engles

Industrialization and its discontents

● Government inquiries into conditions

○ Focus on women and children

● Factory Act of 1833: Working class victory?

○ No children under the age of 9 can work unless in the lace or silk industry ○ 9-13 year olds can only work 9 hours a day

○ 13-18 year olds can work 12 hours a day

○ After 18, hours are limitless

○ An inspector should enforce these rules, but it doesn't happen

○ Does next to nothing

○ Nothing for disability or worker protection

● Ten hour workday for women in 1847.

Perils of Urbanization

● Massive population influx from countryside

○ Crime, poverty, and hunger

● Overcrowding and epidemic disease

○ Two baths a year in Paris

○ Cholera outbreaks of 1830-2 and 1847-51; Tuberculosis

● Social tensions

○ Answering the social question

■ Religious reform

● Temperance and bible groups; Sunday school

■ Education

■ Moral training for women

● Ideology of domesticity

■ Slavery

3) What were the most important values of the Enlightenment and how did non-elite—“elite” meaning white, European, and male—groups use them to advocate for their own positions? Were these Enlightenment radicals successful or unsuccessful in their efforts? Please consider two of the following groups: women; people of color, or; the working class. You should draw from our lectures and especially our readings in addressing this prompt. 

Key Ideas

● Human reason will better society

● Confidence in human reason

○ John Locke’s tabula rasa or blank slate

● Importance of individual autonomy

○ People thinking for themselves

○ Criticism of traditional authority

■ It’s okay to challenge religion and leaders and human society

■ Liberal education to teach the ability to question and challenge authority ● Ambition to reshape the world

○ Using new invention and though to better the world

Methods of Enlightenment

● Collecting and classifying knowledge

○ The encyclopedia and the emergence of modern social science

● Criticism of Traditional authority

○ Organized religion, despotic rule, social inequality

○ Importance of regional variation

● Popularization

○ Responsibility to the public and to reform the business of the Enlightenment and new forms of sociability

■ Essentially the responsibility of getting information to the masses

Collecting and Classifying Knowledge

● Encyclopedia values light and reason

○ Banned in France before it was even finished and had to be smuggled from country to country

○ Meant to be radical and potentially offensive to right thinking conservatives ○ Meant to call out authority in its actions, but wound up being hypocritical in some areas.

■ Ex. Condemning the slave trade but still defining black people as inferior to white people

○ Sexism and racism were major key figures

Baron de Montesquieu and modern political theory

○ Spirit of the Laws(1748)

■ Advocated for separation of powers and influences the Federalist Papers, which in turn influences America

■ Expressed concern over radical government of all forms

■ One of the first to say that we need to separate areas of government and lay out what each section of government would do, including checks and balances.

 Jean Calas on the Wheel

● 1762

○ Jean Calas’ son is found dead, presumed murdered in his family's home ○ Rumor has it Jean is the culprit because he was a protestant and both of his sons had converted to Catholicism

○ Creates a firestorm in France because of the religious wars

○ Jean Calas is put on trial, tortured, and executed without evidence, due process, a fair trial, or a confession.

Criticism of religion and punishment

● Voltaire

○ Letters on the English(1734)

■ Positive outlook on organized religion

○ The Jean Calas Case (1762)

■ Negative outlook on organized religion

● Casale Baccaria

○ On Crimes and Punishments(1764)

■ Wants punishments to fit the crimes

■ Maximum amount of good for maximum amount of people

Criticism of Philosophy, Science, and Economics

● Adam Smith

○ Theory of Moral Sentiments(1759)

■ Advocates for free trade, division of labor, international exchange, and education

○ Wealth of Nations(1776)

■ Invisible Hand

● Immanuel Kant

○ Revolution in ethics and theories of knowledge

■ How we live, act in world, moral behavior, how we judge things

● New interpretation of how we understand the world

○ What is Enlightenment(1784)

■ “Dare to know”, motto of the Enlightenment

■ Challenge yourself, educate yourself, and allow yourself to be educated Importance of regional differences for criticism

● France vs England

○ Radical is different for each place, free trade is radical in England, but not in France

● The Netherlands and Spinozism

○ Conversation about the material world

○ Can we work without god, ideas of atheism

● Switzerland

○ Jean Jacques Rousseau

■ Called out inequality

■ “If man is free why are they still in chains?”

■ Democracy and republican virtue

William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft

● Radical Enlightenment

○ Mary Wollstonecraft

■ Educated

■ A Vindication of the Right of Women(1792)

● Calls out the lack of education for women and the social

conditioning of women and holds men accountable

● Says all humans deserve education

■ Modern feminism

○ William Godwin

■ An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793)

● Doesn’t like the lack of equality, and says that marriage upsets

equality by making women property

■ Modern anarchism

● Their daughter is Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein

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