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ECU - PHIL 1110 - Philosophy 1110 Study Guide Exam Two - Study Guide

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ECU - PHIL 1110 - Philosophy 1110 Study Guide Exam Two - Study Guide

School: East Carolina University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to Philosophy
Professor: Henry Jacoby
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: philosophy and Studyguide
Name: Philosophy 1110 Study Guide Exam Two
Description: There are lot of pages and questions but they are very simple and an overview over all of the lectures after the last exam.
Uploaded: 03/02/2017
0 5 3 19 Reviews
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background image Sociology 1110 Richard Miller Exam 2  What is the original meaning of religion?                                                                             ­What binds people together What were the two main factors that bound ancient communities together?                     
­Shared rituals and common ancestry
In the West, what do we currently think binds people together into a common religion?    ­A shared belief Orthodoxy                                                                                                                           
­Correct belief
What does belief in orthodoxy lead to?                                                                                ­Exclusivism What really bonds people together?                                                                                   
­Having blood ties, being related to each other, not common shared beliefs
The beliefs and practices of my community a                                                                      ­The beliefs and practices of my community are good. Other faith communities are bad. The beliefs and practices of my community are the best. Other faith communities are 
good but less good.                                                                                                       
­Inclusivism The beliefs and practices of all major faith communities are equally god. Mine is only 
best for me not objectively best for everyone,                                                                    
­Pluralism Is there more inclusivism in in Eastern religious tradition or Western religious tradition?  
­Eastern
What were the Ancient Pagan gods like?                                                                            ­Superheroes When did people become dissatisfied with ideas like the gods being like superheroes?   
­The Axial Age
What was strategy one to fix these gods concepts?                                                            ­Revise the concept of these anthropomorphic gods by making them wiser, more 
powerful and (especially) morally good.
background image What was strategy two to fix these gods concepts?                                                           
­See the universe itself as Divine. Endow nature with infinite wisdom, power and 
goodness. Who accepted strategy one?                                                                                              
­The Jews
Who was Yahweh originally?                                                                                               ­He was originally just one of many gods with a physical form and finite powers. He 
even had a goddess wife­­ Asherah
When did Yahweh become the one and only God with infinite powers?                             ­During and after the Babylonian captivity Who adapted strategy two?                                                                                                
­Greek Philosophy
What happened when Greek Philosophy adapted strategy two?                                        ­The divine attributes of power, wisdom and goodness were attributed to the universe 
as a whole. The ancient pagan gods were seen as less and less real and more and 
more just divine symbols of these attributes. How could a Greek Philosopher maintain orthopraxy?                                                       
­By respecting the religious traditions
What did the Abrahamic Religions do?                                                                                ­They took the Jewish way and the Greek way and merged them. They wanted the 
concept of God as a supreme, very powerful person, who pulls everything to the good 
but it did not work out perfectly What happened in Chinese Religions?                                                                               
­They had a concept very similar to the Greeks going on. They beleived the Dao, a real 
fundamental force was holding the world together and they also believed in heaven. What is a Theist?                                                                                                                
­Somebody who would say they know or have a very good reason to believe this 
traditional God exists What is an athiest?                                                                                                             
­Somebody who knows or has a very good reason to believe that this traditional God 
does not exist
background image What is a nontheist?                                                                                                            ­Someone who has problems with this traditional concept of God, they just have a 
concept that God is nontraditional in some way
What is Fideism?                                                                                                                 ­I'm not going to say they exist, but I believe it without evidence. Agnosticism                                                                                                                        
­We don't know that God exists, we don't have good evidence and I can't prove that 
they exist so I don't believe it What may someone who is spiritual but not religious believe?                                          
­They may believe in that God, but not that orthodox traditional God. Maybe they view 
God as having some limited powers. They view themselves as spiritual not religious. What is the flying spaghetti monster argument?                                                                 
­The people are saying that the belief in the flying spaghetti monster is just as ridiculous
as believing in God. If you have no evidence then there is no reason you should believe 
in it.
Is the flying spaghetti monster argument valid? Why or why not?                                       ­No, the concept of God is much more complex than a made up flying spaghetti 
monster, they are just substituting an insult for an argument. We can view this as a 
strawman fallacy. This argument is only as strong as the analogy, it is a very bad 
argument.
What is the Ultimate why question?                                                                                     ­Suppose you are an explorer wandering a strange part of the land and in the middle of 
the desert you come across this giant stone cube. You ask the locals where it came 
from and they say its not from natural causes nor did anybody build it, it's just there.
Would you accept that answer or want to figure out where it came from?
What are the two most popular arguments for God?                                                           ­The Design Argument and the Cosmological Argument The Design Argument                                                                                                         
­Somebody had to make the cube
Cosmological Argument                                                                                                       ­There must be something outside the cube that explains the cube
background image What was the Old Design Argument?                                                                                  ­This argument argues for an intelligent creator of the world therefore it supports the 
Jewish personal God
The Old Design Argument focuses on what key points?                                                     ­Traditional emphasis was placed on the marvelous functional detail of animals and 
plant and their close dependence on their environments. Other examples were how the 
human eye is like a telescope but much more sophisticated. Something of that level 
must be planned, it must be designed.
How was Darwin's theory of evolution a big blow to the Old Design Argument?                 ­He gave a good naturalistic argument of how something such as the eye could come 
into existence without a plan or a planner
What is a contingent being?                                                                                                ­A being whose existence must be explained by something else What is a necessary being?                                                                                                
­A being whose existence is not explained by anything else; a self explanatory being
What is the Cosmological argument?                                                                                  ­The existence of any contingent being implies that there exists a necessary being (God
is a necessary being).
What is another explanation for the Cosmological Argument?                                            ­There is a sufficient reason for everything (Principle of Sufficient Reason). Contingent 
beings exist.
What is the first objection? What does it prove?                                                                  ­Who created or caused God? This argument proves the existence of a necessary 
being. A necessary being by definition is self­causing or self­being.
What is the second objection?                                                                                             ­Science has proven that God didn't create the universe. The Universe began with the 
Big Bang approximately 13 Billion years ago.
Is the Big Bang a contingent being or a necessary being?                                                  ­A contingent being, we still need an explanation outside of the Big Bang. If it was a 
necessary being then it would explain itself.
What is the third objection?                                                                                                 ­Why couldn't a regress of contingent beings explain every contingent being?

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School: East Carolina University
Department: Philosophy
Course: Intro to Philosophy
Professor: Henry Jacoby
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: philosophy and Studyguide
Name: Philosophy 1110 Study Guide Exam Two
Description: There are lot of pages and questions but they are very simple and an overview over all of the lectures after the last exam.
Uploaded: 03/02/2017
16 Pages 45 Views 36 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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