20th Century World History Class notes week 8
17. Between the World wars on the Way to WWII
A. Europe and Nazi Germany
1933 Hitler comes to power as chancellor
collective security: a liberal order, a diffusion of aggression or an awakening depending on the people. Falls apart in the 30s.
We must not turn history into a chance to express our moral judgements, that is not the purpose
They didn’t just wake up and decide to kill all of the Jews
Why did Nazism happen? Why was it so accepted at first?
Mussolini’s selective violence towards those who will fall before him
Mussolini was offering simple answers to complex questions
Nazis come to power after WWI
Peace settlement is unfair in the eyes of the Germans. They are blamed for a wr that they see as being everyone’s fault
We also discuss several other topics like What is a testable possible explanation of an observation?
German government after the Kaiser has to clean up his mess
1923 hyperinflation We also discuss several other topics like Who was the longest-reigning ruler in european history?
Political unrest, refusal to accept legitimacy of the republic
Great DepressionHitler takes advantage of fear due to economic collapse and the lower confidence in Capitalism
Some wondered if communist Soviet Union was a better option, a preferable alternative to the failure of capitalism
Some are hostile to communism, but also democratic states
Armistice was a great day of national disgrace
Germany was functionally a military dictatorship during WWI
General antiSemitism is already present
The military made Germany, so any problems can’t be their fault, so they blame the Jews: a parasitic people, a convenient target. They run the banks, so any economic issues are their fault
There is the Aryan ideology within the context of the great depression
Nazism’s success rides on how Hitler attracts the populace by manipulating the leaders to do what he wants, and through the general hatred of everything about the Paris Peace Conference
Hitler dismantles Democratic institutions of the Weimar party and makes himself invulnerable with ruthless intimidation and skillful propaganda
The Nazi part policy seems to be helping economy, even though civil freedoms are squelched Don't forget about the age old question of What happened when demeter withdrew into her temple at eleusis?
Hitler’s Fascism surpasses that of Mussolini
Where do you draw the line?
German people could not expect the Holocaust, but they were accepting things in society that would lead to it. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the form of colonialism where foreign people move into an area & imperial power overseas those people?
Hitler repeats himself loudly and often, and is thus gradually accepted
He wants to restore Germany’s selfrespect
Political parties are outlawed, but they didn’t help much anyway
Hitler wants to destroy conflicting powers
The international world is falling short of Woodrow Wilson’s promise Italy invades Ethiopia and League of Nations can’t do much about it.
Germany and Japan position themselves as protectors against the communist threat, others against Fascism
Transcending national loyalties
Insulate the Spanish crisis so it doesn’t become war
Discredited international communications
Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations We also discuss several other topics like What was john winthrop's city on a hill about?
He builds up the armament, occupies reimland (I’m not sure what this was), and forms an alliance with Austria If you want to learn more check out What is a flat line called?
Czech crisis 1938, Hitler demands land from Czechoslovakia, ethnic Germans are living there
Hitler wants Sudeten land because the German people there are being harmed by the native residents (in his mind at least)
He only wants to bring Germans into Germany
Munich conference Sep. 1938
British and French don’t want war, general public opinion was dread of another war. They still force the Czechs to give in to Hitler’s demands, but they welcome any peaceful settlement. Czechoslovakia is not a great power, so they don’t even go to the conference British and French are relieved by the peaceful settlement
Then in March 1939, Hitler just takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
War is increasingly expected
Czech army can’t do anything, they are not strong enough
Poland gets military guarantee from Soviet Russia
Poland needs soviet union’s help, but Stalin is not ready to give it
HitlerStalin Pact Aug. 23, 1939, a nonaggression pact
Vicious propaganda, dividing the spoils of the west
Sep. 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland and defeats them after three weeks WWII France falls in June 1940
Occupied Western Europe, no alternative to German occupation
The French are willing to turn over their Jews
Hungary and Romania have many Bolshevik Jews
B. Japan at home between the wars
Meijing political system
1890 Mejing constitution
Evolving towards a western democratic model
Male suffrage 1925, parties mature and become competitive, social tensions are growing Marxist labor movement
Ultranationalist groups who attack western models
Militant and unilateral approach
Zaibutsu massive industrial clusters
Need to secure raw materials for material economy
19211922 Washington Conference
After WWI: Japan and U.S.
China, Japan and U.S. expanded trade during and after the war
WWI proved Europe’s loss of prestige
Japan given a seat in the League of Nations
Shantung peninsula is taken by Japan from Germany. At Paris Peace Conference, China wants their peninsula back, but they don’t get it, they are merely protectors of it. Racial Equality clause is rejected by the League, white European powers say ‘nope’ Australia doesn’t want Asian immigrants
Arms limitation and peace movements in many countries
Japan is accepted as a ruling power, and they start following the rules Washington Naval Conference 192122
5 Power Treaty: Arms limitations, battleships destroyed
4 Power Treaty (no Italy): territory respect, communicate when there are threats 9 Power Treaty (plus China and more): powers would uphold China’s territorial integrity, free trade, denounce unilateral actions at China’s expense.
For the first time, countries are promising mutual cooperation
Trying to reset international relation after WWI
Success! But will it last? Welp, WWII, so no.
Driven by economic and cultural diplomacy
Japan becomes China’s best trade partner, and they invest in China
Japan is seeking to secure its interests and influence
China is encouraging cultural contact with Japan
Developments in Japanese politics, they create a civilian run government Agreed upon international system
1920s U.S. influence in Japan goes up
Japanese earthquake, U.S. gives aid
Relationship faces problem of race
Immigration Act 1924: forbade immigration to races denied the right of naturalization: Asians (especially Japanese)
In the U.S. go after the Japanese and you will be elected because of the fear of the people towards the Japanese
Capital investment in Japan, and influence of U.S. culture: Hollywood films are very popular, silent so there is no language barrier, Charlie Chaplin adored. Jazz and American style very popular as well. The urban educated Japanese embrace the American material culture.
Things seems promising, but the Great Depression hits and Hitler and his Nazis benefit from it.
An element of Japan rises to power: people who oppose capitalist liberalism 193036: Japan has significant political violence, many assassinations
Civil society is in trouble
Militarism is growing in Japan, fear of China
Nationalism in China, Shang Kai Shek, becoming strong, unified and nationalistic Railroads, businesses, factories, Japanese and Korean settlers
Japan is alarmed and feels the need to act
Military activists decide to undermine civilian leadership
Japanese bureaucracy is outside of the government’s rule
The Depression makes things worse
AntiWestern rhetoric in China’s imperial efforts
Western liberal democracies are going bad
There is no longer a need to base Japanese foreign policy on Western Imperial powers: they are too weak from the Depression, and have instilled protectionism Establish a new order led by the Japanese
1931seize Manchuria (all of it), rename it Manchukuo and set up a puppet government with the boy emperor. Japan wants more space, and Manchukuo provides resources too. They are not abiding by the 9 Powers Treaty
Everything begins to crumble in the 30s
Establish a new East Asia
Japanese government supports the vision of dominant Japan
1932 Japan leaves League of Nations, no need for international cooperation PanAsian movement: Japan seeks to place Asia in the hand of Asians. What do the Chinese think? Most Asians reject this.
Majority of Asian populace must acquiesce or oppose
This leads to Asians fighting Asians
1937Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing, SinoJapanese war
Japan seizes the Eastern hub of China
This leads to the internationalism of the war
Shek’s wife raises U.S. support
1939WWII breaks out in Europe
Dutch colony in Indonesia is seized
1941 Japanese problem of being bogged down by war in China who has Western support Solution: fight the Western support, bring WWII to everyone
Japan calls it the Great East Asia war, fighting for Asian liberation
1530 million people dead in the East
Immense devastation in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia
Summer 1945, war ends, but not the conflict
U.S. power no goes across Western pacific into the East
Long conflict with colonial powers and colonial peoples
The Americans force the Dutch out
Other Asian countries emerge as significant factors
They are more visible and insistent that their voices be heard June 1945United Nations is formed
Endorses the principal of racial equality
Decolonization and the Cold War are approaching