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NYU / OTHER / CSCDUE 001 / Define Phonology.

Define Phonology.

Define Phonology.

Description

School: New York University
Department: OTHER
Course: Science of Language
Professor: Tara mcallister byun
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Linguistics, NYU, Language, and phonology
Cost: 25
Name: Science of Language: W-6, L-10,11 Notes
Description: Week 6 Notes L10 - Phonology II L11 - Phonology III
Uploaded: 03/03/2017
8 Pages 179 Views 1 Unlocks
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• How do different contexts trigger phonological alterations?




• Which sounds can combine, in what order?




• Where in the word/syllable can sounds appear?



Eun-Sung Chang Science of Language Week 6 Lecture 10 (2/27/17): Phonology II Phonology • Phonology – rule-governed patterning of sounds in a particular language Syllable Structure • Many phonological rules refer to a particular position in the syllable • Hierarchical Nature of Language o Phonemes o Syllables o (If you want to learn more check out edinboro university weather
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Metrical feet – not discussed in this class!) o Words • Lowercase Greek letter (σ) – symbol for a syllable Syllabification • In general (not always), speakers can agree on best syllabification for a  word o Ex.) Pas-ta, pa-sta, past-a; cac-tus, ca-ctus, cact-us; ca-noe, can-oe Syllable Nuclei • Every syllable must have a nucleus – typically a vowel • Syllabic consonants – some sonorant (vowel-like) consonants that also act  as nuclei; have feature [+syllabic] o Ex.) /l/ in riddle, /n/ in kitten, /r/ in hanger, /m/ in wrap ‘em up Syllable Codas • Rhyme (rime) – part of syllable that includes nucleus o Rhyme can also hold 1 or more consonants following the vowel ???? called coda consonants • Closed syllable – syllable with 1 or more coda consonantso Ex.) CVC syllable: /pip/ ???? peep • Open syllable – syllable with no coda o Ex.) CV syllable: /bu/ ???? boo • C ???? consonant • V ???? vowel Syllable Onsets • Onset – refers to 1 or more consonants that come before nucleus • English allows clusters of 2 or 3 onset consonants o Ex.) CCV syllable: /ski/ ???? ski o Ex.) CCCV syllable: /stɹeɪ ???? stray Phonological Knowledge • Syllable Shapes o Languages differ in what syllable shapes are permitted ▪ Hawaiian allows 1 onset consonant and no coda consonants • CV syllables only o Ex.) “Kalikimaka” (Christmas) ▪ English allows up to 3 onset consonants and 4 coda consonants • Up to CCCV(C), (C)VCCCC o Ex.) “Sprints”, “twelfths”, etc. ▪ Polish allows up to 4 onset consonants and 5 coda consonants • Up to CCCCV(C), (C)VCCCCC o Ex.) “Pstry” (gaudy), “nastpstw” (consequences) • Possible Clusters o Languages differ in which sounds can occur in consonant clusters and  in what order ▪ Russian words can start with clusters that are not possible in  English • Ex.) /mn/, /stv/ o Phonotactics – restrictions on possible sequences of phonemes ▪ Restrictions typically differ for onset vs. coda sequences• Ex.) Onset only clusters: br-, tw-, kl-, str-, sl-, sn-, etc. • Ex.) Coda only clusters: -ld, -lf, -nd, -mp, etc. Drawing Syllable Structures • N ???? nucleus • O ???? onset • Co ???? coda • R ???? rhyme • σ ???? syllable • For multisyllabic words, there are multiple methods ???? we follow a rule of  onset maximization 1. Label each nucleus 2. Find “the longest sequence of consonants to the left of each nucleus  that does not violate the phonotactic constraints of the language” ???? will all go in the onset 3. Mark any remaining consonants as coda consonants for preceding  vowel o Ex.) “Pecan”Lecture 11 (3/1/17): Phonology III Elements of Phonological Knowledge • Which sounds signal a meaningful contrast? • Where in the word/syllable can sounds appear? • Which sounds can combine, in what order? • How do different contexts trigger phonological alterations? Phonological Alterations • Chomsky – in certain environments, speech sounds undergo systematic  changes (phonological rules) • Alterations may involve o Assimilation of 1 sound to another o Substitution of 1 sound for another o Deletion of sounds o Insertion of sounds Assimilation • Assimilation – 1 sound changes to be more similar to a nearby sound • Assimilation for place of articulation – in English, nasal coda may take on  place of articulation of a following stop o Ex.) Can go ???? /kæŋ goʊ/ • Assimilation for voicing – English plural/past tense morphemes can be  voiced or voiceless, depending on voicing of preceding phoneme o Ex.) “Dogs” is pronounced “dogZ” even though it ends with “s” Substitution • Substitution – sound may be replaced by different allophone in particular  context o Ex.) Flapping in American English – alveolar stops share an allophone  that is intermediate between /t/ and /d/ ▪ Transcribed /ɾ/ – called “flap”/“tap” ▪ Very short duration ???? not fully voiced, not fully voiceless▪ Context for /ɾ/ – between 2 vowel-like consonants AFTER a  stressed syllable • Ex.) “Bottle” can be pronounced without traditional “t”  sound Deletion • Deletion – dropping certain sounds in certain contexts • Some dialects of English delete /r/ in certain contexts ???? example of a rule  that is sensitive to syllable structure ???? /r/ deleted when it occurs in CODA  position but NOT when it appears as ONSET o Ex.) British, Boston, New York, etc. Insertion • Insertion – adding certain sounds in certain contexts • Epenthesis – phonological term for insertion of sounds o Schwa epenthesis frequently occurs when speakers try to produce  foreign words containing clusters that are not legal in their native  language ???? we insert epenthetic schwa in between consonants to  make it pronounceable in our language ▪ Ex.) Russian names like “Dmitri”, “Mstislav”, “Ksenia” Vowel Features • All vowels are [-consonantal], [+syllabic], [DORSAL] • Vowels differentiate by [+/-high], [+/-low], [+/-back], [+/-round] Writing Phonological Rules • Rules are written in – X ???? Y / A _____ B o X – original/underlying sound o Y – output sound after application of rule o A _____ B – preceding/following context that triggers application of  the rule o X, Y, A, B are commonly represented by distinctive feature matrices• Ex.) Pronunciation of first morpheme in these words – inarticulate,  indefensible, immoral, imperfect, ineffective, impossible o Coronal (alveolar) nasal takes on labial place of articulation in context  before a labial stop o X (“in) ???? Y (“im) / (A) ___ B *(A is optional) ▪ in ???? im / __ perfect ▪ n ???? m / __ p, b, m ▪ *“n” becomes “m” when followed by “p”, “b”, “m” o Rule written in terms of distinctive features • Other conditioning contexts o #___ ???? word-initial position o ___# ???? word-final position ▪ It’s ok to use V or C instead of feature matrices to mean “any  vowel” or “any consonant” o Represent deletion/epenthesis using null sign (∅) ▪ Deletion – X ???? ∅ ▪ Epenthesis – ∅ ???? X o Ex.) Phonological alteration represented by ruleo Ex.) Rule indicating that a vowel becomes nasalized before a nasal  consonant ▪ V ???? [+nasal] / ___ {[+consonantal], [+nasal], ([+sonorant])} Stressed and Unstressed Syllables • Stress – production of syllable with relatively greater force or muscular  energy o Compared to unstressed syllable, stressed syllable typically has longer duration, higher pitch, greater intensity/loudness o In English, word must have at least 1 stressed syllable o Which syllable(s) are stressed is a property of word that has to be  memorized ▪ Ex.) COW-boy vs. po-LICE • In transcription, indicate stress with raised mark BEFORE stressed syllable o Ex.) Mu’seum, ‘eagle, pa’rade, in’tense, ‘calendar, etc. Primary and Secondary Stress • Some words have only 1 stressed syllable o Ex.) ‘Canada, pa’jamas, con’vention, etc. • Some words have multiple stressed syllables o Ex.) ‘Abso’lutely, ‘conver’sation, ‘Hallo’ween, etc. • When more than 1 syllable bears stress, we distinguish between primary  and secondary stressed syllables o Primary – most prominently stressed syllable o Secondary – any syllable that does not have primary stress but does  not have a reduced vowel (schwa) Schwa • Schwa – /ə/ pronounced “uh” • Mid-central vowel – tongue body is in its most neutral position in center of  oral cavity • Unrounded [-round]• Only vowel that is [+reduced] ???? occurs as consequence of vowel reduction  in unstressed syllables o Unstressed syllable has very short duration; little time for tongue to  reach its articulatory target ???? instead, tongue remains in more  central/neutral configuration (schwa) • Can be spelled with virtually any vowel letter o Ex.) TOledo, bAnanA, bElugA, sUblime, etc. • Stress can shift around as root morpheme that combines with different  derivational affixes

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