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UTD / Biology / BIOL 108 / What are the large veins?

What are the large veins?

What are the large veins?

Description

School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology With Lab II
Professor: Wen yu
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM and Circulatory System
Cost: 50
Name: Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover material on the circulatory system as well as the lymphatic system.
Uploaded: 03/03/2017
12 Pages 37 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


Blood vesel AO


What are the large veins?



eltic Nnant

responsible

for elasticity

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elastic membrane

(intonal).

intima

endothelium, elastic fiters

+ renohne

#tunica media

media

sroon muscles, elastic fibers (external)

+ P. g TMC.

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solo

bers. Snoon


What are the medium veins?



tunica

collagen

Contract / relax to charge veres dometer

exha Collagen elk

☆ inuens, externa is thicker than media

edy soup

weak tibers aneurysm

stue

Large vein (large)

sup. lint venacara bruch in abdominopelvic &

но гъtic carts mediun vens (medium) -2-9 mm diameter


What is venule?



thin tunica media venule (small)

50mm We also discuss several other topics like Explain why innovation matters?

no tunica meilia * Valves in SML

of them

inc presive could butt

Elastic cun large)

few smooth musc...

lots of elastic fibers 2 Muscular artery (medium)

0.4cm diameter mort sroon most than elaste fibers Arteriole (small)

30 AM paar turen ex incomplete snoon mosc.

trana media layer

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Бир

Other problems Darteriosclerosis -

.cat in tunica media

hardened carteries 2) atherosclerosis -

lipid plaque in tunica

பட்ட * obstruction des stulo Don't forget about the age old question of What is the tradition of kalinga?

diameter of arteries

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Timo carents

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@stay pulmonary go through lange

2) systemic go through brain, Kidneys.

(84% spleen, stomach, G I timmt, dysoup blood vol liver, senada, lower loss, Opper limbs

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Fetal

Circulation

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placenta

! Umbilical vein

in

R.+L. umbilical arterips.

-) Study Soup

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internal ilian arts Don't forget about the age old question of What is oxygen binding capacity?

- ductus venous in liver

(Shots bloed Straight

closest

a int. vena cava) nound ligament after birth (R.ABLA

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common ikal arts

descending Gorth

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foranen

Ovale DR...

R.A to Rv to putrony trunk OR... normal adult parmway

dutus SOUP arteriosus aorta trunk

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heart change at birth

lungs will expand so.

ductus 1) blood flows into lungs (less resistance) → inc. Oz arteriosus 2) pulnsory vessels exped now there's pulmonry cia. - constricts If you want to learn more check out What is metaphysical theory?

inc. pressure in L.A - foramen ovale closes

ligatum

Jako sum up Types of capillaries:

con Knvous and 2) fenerated 3) sinusoids

- continuous

• Small parts

gaps in endothelium endothelia

in endothelium

large proteins pass through ex: mudiko me

thin non-existent baserat Nebrar allows hypottal to

ex liver, bone marrow, spleen, pituitary release hiemones

secreted plura proteins enterblood * also in absorptive bert

parts of GI tract &

filtration in Kidneys * tight junctions foom ORE We also discuss several other topics like What is primary treatment and secondary treatment?

myharic at beachta a tu

omotion ) PILNU) = Cup Ltd w

utw

9 astriovenou GRAMoss Smoonus prt-up sphincter lors blood flow Sypes and be

stu

a

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Sty

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Vein)

low pressure system

Wie valves!

broken/deformed can't overcome granity

valves, weatured

Vein walls lead to varicose veins Vus siues:

(hemorrhoide is type of varicose veins) aorta-2.5 en diameter venn CAVA->3 cm diameter We also discuss several other topics like An attractive “profitable” industry when there is?

capacitance ressels expand easily @ ABUT capillaries have biggest

(2/3) veins have better capacitance than

low pressure

cross-sectional area (5000 m2) (3) arteries Stool vol us. BP Vsi pre svals:

explotye Cin tou levens v 160 ->5-A VO

A stretch easily ) aorta - 10ommitys

henorrhage (blood lows) veins o mattg (2 mm Hy@vena cava) is capillary pressure dit Ananason

unomoter center (medulla oblong.) - 35 rolling @ arteriole end

stim syrp. nerves of medium veins - 18 mming@venue beginning

V oboconstrictton 2) venous reserve Blood distribution

shift blood out blood shift Blood pressure

Vems, into

from liver, pulmonary circ. = 9.

130/80 120/78, 10/10.100/0

Tungs, skin to ♡ - 77

Al cir. rest in systemic

30-40 young

adult

180 lb 5

VG30 Roken: fark 13

chy Chyt in sules

resul diameter Cepat -7%

blood pruut = arterial peut MS 19%

copiary hydrostate

A prisut

force caused by fluid purstang against

Op was Blood flow

venow preuve pressure in weins ? bloed

t e

pulse presunu SP-DP Per unit time atfected by

mea contenen pessure DP+ Prestressthan

Effects on resistance diameter & length SF (Breased pressure=i.flou)

мъ съ x+y+ hvn tsu ѕоf thе к matect in leg with irrege swirling blood

hisatting

permen bistance with apple to pe - Personalrtm

ar suje 4 Cicut legity, takende)

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K

R

T bugger rates a les rexime FOT" (bigger radinit better flow).

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respiratory of

Venous return wisted by

1 skelmul squeezing veins (locked knees, standing straight leads to faint 2 inhalation bood into vena cava

during inhalation pump

Lexhalation blood into RA

thoracic cavity expande thorail cavity compressed

- nepreure in plevral cavity Cap. exchange vin

positive pressure

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Hous

hysteric

(watering

driven by blood con

I diffusion through remisines, channels, theated caps., sinusoids I filtration

hydrostki near arteriale end (pressure is highest tire)

t driven by hydrostatic pressure caused by blood pressure 3) riassorption - rear verule end,

driven by blood colloid osmotic pressure (stays around 25 anto) 85% by cap beds

- caused by plasma proteins than 15% by lymph veurs

& net filtration pressure (AFP) theid evenainy Regulation returned to bloodsheen (cap. hytostatic p - blood colloid osro.p.)

1) actores in cap beds

NEP - 10 mmHg @ arteriole end

-1 maig @ venue beginning (LBP) (dilate when 0.6/PHI, our

@ NFP o filtration shifts to reabsorption parayop - No) released, H, KP.

Onitrit temp inc.

when prostaglandins / thromboannes constriction pushed blood from rens to runed & platelets clump @wand

Orkes → mi.ge or timp dec.

-Cutilitation of venous reserves) SyrpN NE, E released

Vafomotor tone

keeps wertoles partially constricted) 2) neural ND ACL NJE E

SC Cu-:-LV-3mur Oswers 3 retlex - baroreceptor & chemoreceptor

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.wotic mus + Aortic Sinus Senseint.

• RAW

BP

den Voutput cas lahy inc. Vas aktresu

crrokd bodies

nortu bidity aysoul + pedulas Valevolor respanies

inco in venous

output

&

Stim e exitory

response

+ int VOCOS Lock

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Lymphatic System

part of immune sys (call cells involved in

immunens BUT not all Response asgunst: celus invened in lymph sys)

-pathogens

home values (* lymphxcyles 2 -toxins

lymph frow

reach intestitial abatan Cits (ck Chawe) C

furid + venous

1) start in lymph caps blood via

2) flow through lymph Immunity defenses

уре ѕуѕ

Vessels

(superficial + deep) 1) innate asnspecific

3) vessels converge into sto genoalized attack

Lyoph trunks 2 adapture / specific

4) trunks empty into lymphocytes

Lymph Caps we

thorante duct *antisodio + Tuus

largec, thime Lymphocytes (20% 10%)

Irregularly shaped

R. lymph duct

podatts (no tubes) Tcus (75%) - 20-30 ya

* lacteals special

thart

lypoph caps and Cybe toxic - direly attack VNDU

Cvelf in ninets ARROW

Selata) sf helper - activente TB cells

wpea lipids

Cisterna 9 Suppress-inhibit T+ Edelssou

absorbed by GI tract

Chyli 5 te SACK)

Note! undir cisterna Chylly

(extends up VIA memory - respond to potentigeno

Text is collected and ONLY

thomic cluct) Sup 13 alls (10-15%) 4-20 yrs

GOES UP THORALLC DUCT Oily lymph I become platmen cells

(e. lymph duct will have clearlymph) sty

phocluce Ab Cimmunogloblins) Lyr-phopoiesis #homers wanity

Starts inced bone marrow

O WKCN (5-10%)

as hemocy to blasts,

become lymphoid stem cells study inay granular lymphocytes immune Nrveillance

mort to thony

I find a small

B. NK tes cents perform

trymonis produce

from Groups sem cells

cally helpp ) ( from Group 2 s4

I make cytokine interiecka? cells

whith from B cells isolated from outide by

blood thym beden

Cell-mediated)

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Lyophyid tissuese no capsule

& germinal center central zone of

1) nodules

nodule, has drithing. hold densely-priked lymphocytes

lymphocytes Love in sp trait, diave tract, ungliny u reproductive

in intestines, aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches) 2) tonsils : large lymph nodules Sin humans

3)MALT Xarophy adensid/pharyngeal

other in resp, GI, wrinay, reproductive tracts after puberty RotL. palatire

mucosa potects epithelia valyso RIL lingual

apodixi to siis

Appendix holds fused lymphad noduce mass Pharyngeal

Lymph nodes assou T inywh!

cervical, axillary, inguinal, gut, tracke a

(nodes can't

( fight cancer, 99% antigns - filters

Caur Cut travel soulin lymph are Deus activate immune response

in lymph Anti dies made by celu + plasma Calls 1) lymph nodes

Lymphadenophy: soolen noda - mostly in neck,

infection, Gaur harmone love

armpira, groin

ex com infection killary noches swell om enus ettertaturels +

+ le

leginkcho laguinal nouus incul hilus whephentes ettert wu

inte veins

celis winged -medulla B cells, plann cells

to formed MULJK4 11 capsule: has tabletke

Lymph Organs

renovca in

e throat

deep torx: Tulis

Sup

DAR COLX B celts, D CALLS

BAVUSIES

Supowa

Sines holds ocells antiga prishtin L ectspoost

den utstreantells

REC basic idea & study in wonen: thyroton Roca in contex som medula carpackie Jo h aniture,

secrete thy honors Cnci-cut blood

WOLLY in Cortex АЧ (Sload чруз агено CREC don't know study

40,24

12g@soylo

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Thymus

encircled by

-lobules divided by

septa

Hassallis corpuscles?

in r iotinum

behind Sternum

• capsule surrounds itt delova 2 obes montut I you enter bloodstream

or sy ut no BIOWY bure du

Hell's corpulcescuro of a medalla Tehmigrare a

pinaka here when they rinture, CRECI

Recherophages CORT

con metur epinevia cen (REC)

3) Spleen

biggest collection of lymphoid tissues

here!

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Stur

phagocytosis

remove abnormal blood

in red pulp (RBCs here) ; recycle RBCs. store Fe* from old RBCs J -

- mit Opt илух (труде см)

+ lymphocytes initiale immune response via. Tt B cells i t

immune sys in white pulp (like lymph nodules)

- hne lymphocytes, macrophages, D elis

blood flow dysour c ental arteries

in hrough here; splenit a. hilus chile pole

contain lymphocytes red pulp a white prie

+ Caps

- hilus Splenic acid

haus sprenis vein Splenic vein (comes from celine tuak)

Sohle

pule

m

usel

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Nonspecific defenses

physical barriers - Sko, hair, mulus, acid

.

no lymph cap in Cous

microglia instead

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epiter

microglia (CNS)

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2) phagocytes - pathogens

macrophage from monocytes

histiocy us (fixed)

NK sups Kupffer cells (liver Sinusoid)

1) recognize adhere to free/wondering

Abnormi cek Soup ex dost cells in creoli

2) Golegi app of NK cell reales "microphage from neutrophil eosinophi!

golgant 3 sereton of perforin sa 3) NK cells Virus Cancer

exocyuso lyses abnormal cells using perforing

A immunologie etape - ineffective against Sone chacer cells 4) Tokoferons - viruse 1 released by lymphocytes, macrophages, virus infected cells cytokine parkerint/endocrint hormont

& procured by macrophagest lymphocytes pand to local infections

"lex interferon, nirleuking, tumor necrons -a - produced by leukocytes & vinas-infected cells stim NK calls

hechas) B secreted by fibrocytes, slow inflammation

Served by TX + NK U, stiv.macrophus Akvity 5) Complement 545 – bacheca Stue

e s tim inflammation line, histamine by nastcells)

attruts phagocytes

aul Study

U studys

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pup

patins

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6) intlammation

due to mas h timine, he prison - swelling redness, heat, pain attract phagocytes

dilate shadwenen

release of ukines inc. blood flow

remove debris

fever benetto 7) fever

Loup of metabolism

repair tone > 37.2 (448)

PT te repare - controved by preoptoLaren Chypothal)

up will mobile antin

• Pyrogen suiterleukin- I Coelented by macrophages)

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Specific ladan) ditasks commediated/Ab-mediated

TCM) ( ) - innate present birth

specific resistances immunity

only develops after exposure 1) acrive needs exposure to antigen (indred via vaccination naturally equired through 2) pasove Ab is transferred to you

букск) -infection of Ab lindrad)

- passed down from mot (naturally acquired) Immunity is:

Specific use has memory

Immune response versatile tolerance om fruit

Wört spand GAFES

to Jon Anhaen

macrophinge nonspecific complement

ATTACKS

Carigen

Study

.

proteins to

vre

NXUN

Specific

Tew

Buis

- 113/

sum by

helper Tau

helper

Ag preshts via

foreign glycoprotein soup - MHCI MHLI Ag presenting alls

- macrophage - langerhans culis (skin)

dendritic ceno (lymph nodes),

+ spleen MHC

on all recented cells

inhibited by menon Bau Suppressor

memory +

cells

menarysalis plasma AS

145€ pluma ՄԻՋԻՆորայ if

ustiga bound sowie MHC

GՎ * Հ*օss c

Icely

Lant

stvo xcele cku Niro 2

perbaring die im Heck

lymphations)

Jure

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Play

all

paint on

surface

recognition to

him ER shippect to Golgi amornom picks up peptides cytoplasm

all surface recognition from Tall as foreign actantes Tcells.

cytoto Alt + form - perforin, lymphotoxin, cytokines Capophoses) remory Talis

Suppressor MHC-E devy membent disrupt

b > orton - cells

Mexyola + lymphoma) 2 ding STRES sphy ocykly by white byen a ty po wa NH- K L memory

helper i cells racturate B CD markus neided to attuate T cell

CHCO TARAF cena CD8 MHC 8 cylatomet suppressor Tulin n it e marker 004 - macro Lepa TNS

Tai reiptor

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Antibody-mediated immunity (B cells)

1) Seas HD

-antigers bind to Abs

antigens brought into cell - bind to MHCI Gokates vin helper T cell

a Lert Cyle Laws to active

3 CMA ANA TLEMS

2) activation

B cell differentiates into oup - Plasma can make Abs.

-memery Been differentiate into

plasma cens during second exposure Absichert

- cantigan's ep?tope (spectic port bind het

Haptens

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V

E

lec Molti.

hapten

Viant Omnia " heavy chain chains

held together via disulfiche bridges Types of Ab (I)

IgG (80%) - for viruses, bactha, toxins & palme immunity win placenta

ex: Antt-Rh Ab d yse IgE attach to swoophils & mastcens

release of histamine, inflammation

antibodas attack both hap the carrier

It carrier is normally a

part of you, it will Attack your ornal cus

vs. 2

rasanit

We

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***

Igm. it to Iz G ramedine 19b-on Ball, Boh Sensitization

Act ve K

(onering cells we ready Igra 1st to respond

beforehand) Y polya mid S-A Storbyest S o attack bacteria that not insawitive to LgG o ex naha unti-B Abs.

Ig A in glandular sealkins (mucus, tres, salon, semen y prevent portragens from getting to internal toves. L ubbed from Sied + attached to be rewry pieces Student

in pairs or incluido

ephelial surface

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Sidenole: lymphocytes include NK cells, T cells, Beely

Allergic Rxn types

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Slues : imediat sensitivity (Beat)

* anaphylaxis Fooch, s rapid, severe, inssive inflammation

- contraction of resp. musc. - bunch of IgE .Ag-Abren

- peripheral dilation (shock) (ex Allergic rhinitis - en vom

- a capillary permeability A2 exposure cause release of historines

Chines) 4 celnyed hypersensitivity (T cell)

stue occurs 48-72 hrs after exposure

7 frent w Cortostes ex poisoning (contact dermatitis)

recretion of lymphokines Ay Ab complexes

1 heutalice untiger-bisdin sites now viruses can't bind to call 7 precipitation + Gaglutination Abi link karge #'s of antigens together

when lerage comple,

(too big to stay in solni precipitate out)

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on

pathogens

sup

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3) activate complement (by changing Ab shape to expose bonding sites for complement proteins) uqtact phagocytes eosinophis, neutrophils. Hentga muraplages) Skle 5) op Soniza Hona Cook Boy of Abs complement proteins helps pragocy keep good gove 6) S o fkmmatin - stin bosophiis est celuis

Prevent bathal/viral adhesion - punogens she off I can't attach to saliva, sweat, nourt menit happens forst?

Back to che neurs. WK WONSPECIFIC

extra phils - NE S tekme

2 cytokine released 7) incept by on Tues

attract phagocytes 3) h ely

Haper I + cytotoxre T astratt Curcantigen SPECIFIC

vayeth Buatione

prest-

he-> 4 bedies produced

5 plsama, ali mile produce Abs FertioWine St

in al heel wypon fehl Thymulcel, become T cells

NK els cytotoxic T calls actuale by

Costu w Wus-chaus

Eflects of 4 mock LM

Placenta give IgG to body

lucacorcol CRS) mtu — give IMA baby

- nent response

, phacotthew chleum

Secremen)

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More on Cytokines

) study sa

Tumor necrosis factors Phagocyte-activating chemicals colony-stimulating factors - stin bwodella

lymphocyte production Ilutoimmune disorders

- actuated f alls attack our body aus

thyroiditis rheumatoid Arthritis

insul duet de bek Innung deficacy disorders

- lymph tissue dodn't develop right

annash treatment - trempel immunosuppasive druge

or radiation I-virus tiname sys function

Cex. HIV)

Allergies wat

also inmine disorder

excessive immune response to

allergens

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sup

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attack I helper cells (To T, rekhely unchanged)

completely thats down almost all co4 o continue to release viruses after insected

cul de chem blocks other Telur from pering anhibit MHC sere expresand can't be recog, ced

the

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AZT whisits reverse transcription

posense inhibitor (nove can't se assembled) o unccine (not as good)

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