Psych 100 Final Exam Review Guide
Psych 100 Final Exam Review Guide PSYCH 100
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jocelyn Eget on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 04/23/15
Psych Final Exam Review Introduction to Psych 4 Questions 0 Psychology 0 De nition the science of behavior and mental processes 0 History amp Sub elds of Psychology 0 Precursors to the eld Philosophy BC17005 Mind Body Distinction eg Buddha Socrates Plato Aristotle Descartes Locke Bacon 0 Early 39Doers39 late 180051920 Structures of the 39mind eg Wundt Tichener Wundt established rst psych lab at University of Leipzig did experiment on reaction time by asking participants to press a key when hearing a ball hit a platform and when they were consciously aware that the ball hit the platform Tichener Engaged people in introspection by training them to report their experiences when a sense was stimulated Functions of the 39mind39 eg James 0 James encouraged of why we thought and felt Reaction time rst simple experiments 0 Later Innovators 19605present Unconscious Mind eg Freud Freud emphasized the ways our unconscious thought process and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior Behaviorism eg Watson Skinner Watson amp Skinner believed psychology is the scienti c study of observable behavior 0 Watson demonstrated conditioned responses on Little Albert Skinner Skinner39s box conditioned rat to pull lever Human Potential eg Maslow Rogers 0 Drew attention on how environmental in uence can limit or nurture our growth potential and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satis ed Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs Cognition The mental processes underlying mental activity Perception attention reasoning thinking problem solving memory learning language and emotion are areas of research o Sub elds of Psychology Basic Research Sub elds pure science that aims to increase the scienti c knowledge base BiologicalNeuroscience explores the links between brain and mind 0 Cognitive Study how we perceive think and solve problems 0 Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb Social explore how we view and affect one another 0 Personality investigate persistent traits related to stable personalities Example Applied Sub elds scienti c study that aims to solve practical problems 0 Clinical studies assesses ad treats people with psychological disorders Counselingassists people with problems in living school work marriage and in achieving greater wellbeing EducationalSchool Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings lndustrialOrganizational studies and consults on issues related to human behavior in the workplace Scienti c Method steps amp additional related concepts lV DV confounds etc 0 Scienti c Attitude Curious What do you mean Skeptical How do you know Humble an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and openness to new perspectives 0 Critical thinking thinking that doesn39t blindly accept ideas but examines assumptions discerns hidden values and assess conclusions 0 Scienti c Method Step 1 Identify ProblemPhenomenon Step 2 ReadDevelop Theory Step 3 Formulate Hypothesis Operationalize Independent amp Dependent Variables 0 Independent Variable that which is being manipulated or is believed to in uence the dependent variable 0 Dependent Variable that which is observed for changes due to the independent variable Step 4 Test Hypothesis Empirically Balance control amp generalizability 0 Control eliminate or reduce confounds o Generalizability degree to which study results are applicable to population of interest by using real world participants amp conditions Confound De nition Control Situational effects Time temperature etc Eliminate or hold might affect outcomes constant Random Assignment Experimenter bias Experimenter s desires Blind Design in uence outcomes Standardization Social desirability Participant tries to make Mild deception w their self appear better or debrie ng t expectations Step 5 CollectAnalyze Data Step 6 Draw Conclusions 0 Was the change due to the factors you thought it was 0 Was the observed difference reliable Was the difference or change 39signi cant39 0 Was the in uence of independent variable large enough to in uence the dependent variable more than what might occur by chance alone Step 7 Communicate Results 0 Need for Science 0 Cannot rely on intuition and common sense Hindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it Judgmental overcon dence the tendency that we think we know more than we do Tendency to perceive order in random events 0 De nitions of Related Terms 0 Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events 0 Hypothesis A testable prediction 0 Replication Repeating an experiment to see if the basic nding extends to other participants and circumstances Correlation Coef cient a statistical index of a relationship 1 to 1 o Doubleblind procedure an experiment where both the participants and research staff don39t know who received the treatment or placebo 0 Nature vs Nurture 3 Questions 0 Characteristics that are largely due to nature Personality Temperament Fears Interests Attitudes OOOOO Characteristics that are largely due to nurture 0 Values 0 Manners 0 Faith 0 Beliefs 0 Politics 0 What does it mean that nature interacts with nurture Examples 0 Genes may exist but not 39turn on39 until certain environmental in uences take place 0 Epigenetics the study of molecular mechanisms by which environments trigger genetic expression Diet drugs and stress can affect the epigenetic molecules that regulate gene expression Infant amp Child Development 4 Questions Stages of cognitive development Piaget39s theory TypmalAge Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and action looking hearing touching mouthing and grasping Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Stranger Anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display by about 8 months About 2 to 6 or 7 years Preoperational Representing things with words and images using intuitive rather than logical reasoning Pretend Play Egocentrism the preoperational child s dif culty in taking another39s point of view About 7 to 11 years Concrete Operational Thinking logically about concrete events grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation the principle that properties such as mass volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Mathematical transformations About 12 through adu hood Formal Operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic involving imagined realities and symbols Potential for mature moral reason Stages amp style of attachment Bowlby amp Ainsworth o Ainsworth39s strange situation observed 1 year old infants in a setting that is unfamiliar to them Secure attachment Distressed when mother leaves avoidant of stranger when alone but friendly when mother is present positive and happy when mother returns Will use mother as a safe base to explore their environment Insecure attachment Less likely to explore surroundings Infant may cling to their mother When mother leaves they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return Ambivalent attachment Infant show signs of intense distress when mother leaves Infant avoids the stranger and shows fear of stranger Child approaches mother but resists contact may even push her away Infant cries more and explores less than the other types Avoidant attachment Infant shows no sign of distress when mother leaves Infant is okay with the stranger and plays normally when stranger is present Mother and stranger are able to comfort the infant equally well 0 Bowlby s Stages of Attachment Phase 1 birth to 3 months lndiscriminant Responsiveness Newborn is predisposed to attach to any human Most babies respond equally to any caregiver Babeng Grasp Phase 2 36 Focus on the familiar Stare at faces months Preference for certain people Infants learn to distinguish primary and secondary caregivers but accept care from anyone Phase 3 6 Intense amp exclusive Separation stranger Anxiety months3 attachment years Special preference for a single Attachment styles 1 yr attachment gure The baby looks to particular people for security and comfort and shows fear of strangers and distress when separated Phase 4 312 years Partnership behavior Parenting styles amp their impact on social development 0 Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience without reason Those with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill o Permissive parents submit to their children39s desires They make few and selfesteem demands and use little punishment Those with permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature o Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them but also explain the reasons for rules They encourage open discussion when making rules and allow exceptions Those with authoritative parents tend to have the highest self esteem selfreliance and social competence Adolescent amp Adult Development 4 Questions 0 For both adolescents amp adults know the signi cant characteristics and changes in stages of 0 Physical Development Adolescents Primary sex characteristics reproductive organs and external genitalia develop dramatically Secondary sex characteristics breasts and hips in girls facial hair and deepened voices in boys pubic and underarm hair in both sexes Puberty landmarks rst ejaculation in boys and rst menstrual period in girls Adults 0 Physical performance muscular strength reaction time etc declines after 20 years of age 0 Around age 50 women go through menopause men decrease hormones amp fertility After age sensory perception declines hearing vision smell amp increase in fatal accidents 0 After age neural processes slow 0 Cognitive Development Adolescents Selective pruning of unused neurons and connections in brain occurs Frontal lobes develop Growth of myelin enables better communication in brain These bring improved judgment impulse control and longterm planning 0 The limbic system grows faster than the frontal cortex which may explain impulsivity amp emotionality Abstract reasoning amp selfawareness lead adolescents to think about amp criticize self and others Adults Deterioration of white matter amp soft brain activity 0 Recognition memory is stable but recall declines w age eg dif culty remembering names Fluid intelligence ability to reason speedily declines with age but crystallized intelligence accumulated knowledge and skills does not o Moral Development Adolescents Level age FOCUS Example Preconventional before age 9 Selfinterest obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards quotIf you save your dying wife you ll be a heroquot ConvenUonal early adolescence Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order quotIf you steal the drug for her everyone will think you39re a criminalquot Postconventiona l adolescence and beyond Actions re ect belief in basic rights and self de ned ethical principles quotPeople have a right to livequot 0 Social Development Stage age Issue Description Infancy to 1 year Trust vs Mistrust If needs are dependably met infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddlerhood l to 3 years Autonomy vs ShameDoubt Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves or they doubt their abilities Preschool 3 to 6 years Initiative vs Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they doubt their abilities Elementary school 6 years to puberty Competence vs lnferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior Adolescence teen years into 205 Identity vs Role Confusion Teenagers work at re ning a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them into a single identity or they become confused about who they are Young adulthood 205 to early 40 Intimacy vs Isolation Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated Middle adulthood 405 to 60 Generativity vs Stagnation In middle age people discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family and work or they may feel a lack of purpose Late adulthood late 605 and up Integrity vs Despair Re ecting on his or her life an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure Sensation amp Perception 4 Questions Thresholds 0 Absolute threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time 0 Signal detection theory a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus signal amid background stimulation noise Assumes there is no one absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person39s experience expectations motivation and alertness 0 Difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time o Weber s law the principle that to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a given percentage rather than a given amount 0 Parts of the eye amp their function in perception amp color vision 0 Pupil a small adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters o lris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening 0 Lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina o Retina the lightsensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the process of visual information Rods retinal receptors that detect black white and gray Necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cone don39t respond Located in periphery Cones retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in welllit conditions The cones detect ne detail and give rise to color sensation o Optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain 0 Blind spot the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a 39blind spot because no receptor cells are located there 0 Fovea the central point in the retina around which the eye s cones cluster Sensory Adaptation o Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of a constant stimulation Ex getting used to a smell Gestalt principles of form perception o Figureground the organization of the visual eld into objects the gures that stand out from their surroundings the ground o Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups ll P39roxim itfjrr 0 63 H Continuity Closure Proximity We group nearby gures together We see not six separate lines but three sets of two lines Continuity We perceive smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones This pattern could be a series of alternating semicircles but we perceive it as two continuous lines one wavy and one straight Closure We ll in gaps to create a complete whole object Thus we assume that the circles are complete but partially blocked by the illusory triangle Cues we use to perceive depth 0 Binocular cues depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes Retinal disparity By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes the brain computes distance the greater the disparity difference between the two images the closer the object o Monocular cues depth cues that are available to either eye alone Relative height We perceive objects higher in our eld of vision as farther away Relative size If we assume two objects are similar in size most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away Interposition If one object partiay blocks our view of another we perceive it as closer Relative motion As we move objects that appear stable may appear to move Linear perspective Parallel angles appear to meet in the distance The sharper the angle of convergence the grater the perceived distance Light and shadow Shading produces a sense of depth consistent with our assumption that light comes from above Perceptual Set 0 A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another due to schemas formed from experiences Learning 5 Questions 0 Classical Conditioning US NS UR CS amp CR Discrimination amp Generalization 0 De nition We learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response Neutral Stimulus a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned Response an unlearned naturally occurring response such as salivation to an unconditioned stimulus such as food in the mouth Conditioned Stimulus an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with the US comes to trigger a CR Conditioned Response a learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus o Generalization the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli to elicit similar responses 0 Discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli Operant Conditioning 0 De nition a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened or diminished using reinforcers and punishers 0 Positive and negative reinforcements and punishments Positive Add Negative Take away Reinforcement Strengthen behavior Punishment Diminish behavior 0 Schedules of reinforcement FixedRatio reinforcing a response only after a speci ed number ofresponses VariableRatio reinforcement after an unpredictable number of responses FixedInterval reinforcement after a speci c period of time has elapsed VariableInterval reinforcement at unpredictable time intervals 0 Negative consequences of using punishment Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten Punishment teaches discrimination among situations Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment may increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems Observational Learning How does biology support observational learning 0 Mirror neurons are frontal neurons that some scientists believe re when performing actions or when observing others doing so The brain39s mirroring of another39s action may enable imitation and empathy Memory 5 questions 0 Memory stores and their relative sizes amp durations o Sensory memory the immediate very brief recording of sensory information o Shortterm memory activated memory that holds a few items brie y such as seven digits of a phone number before the information is stored or forgotten Holds 7 2 information bits Longterm memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse 0 Working memory a newer understanding of shortterm memory that focuses on conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visualspatial info and of info retrieved from long term memory Encoding o How is info encoded between different memory stores We rst record toberemembered information as a eeting sensory memory From there we process information into shortterm memory with attention to important or novel stimuli This information is encoded through rehearsal and effortful processing It is then delivered to longterm memory for storage 0 Types of info we encode amp associated memory tips Effortful processing D Explicit memories things we consciously know and can declare Automatic processing l Implicit memories procedural memory or classical conditioning associations Also includes space time frequency Memory tips chunking hierarchies spacing effect 0 Biology of storage How are memories stored amp where are different memories processed o How are memories stored Memories create chemical ie synapse connections in our brain Rapid stimulation of the chemical connection overtime strengthens the connection both chemically amp physically long term potentiation o Hippocampus processes and stores explicit memories Left retains verbal info Right retains visual info Frontal lobe working memory processing of explicit memories 0 Cerebellum forms and stores implicit memories created by classical conditioning O O o Basal ganglia facilitates formation of our procedural memories for skills 0 Amygdala forms emotionrelated memory Retrieval Difference between recall amp recognition priming context effects 0 Recall is like a fillintheblank test Recognition is like a multiplechoice test 0 Priming the activation often unconscious of particular associations in memory 0 Contextdependent memory When it is harder to remember something in a different setting than it was learned 0 Statedependent memory What we learn in one state may be more easily recalled when we are in that state again 0 Moodcongruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one s good or bad mood Theories of forgetting o Encoding Failure what we don39t encode we don39t remember 0 Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay o Retrieval Failure Proactive Interference prior learning disrupts the recall of new info Retroactive Interference new learning disrupts the recall of old info 0 Repression we repress painful or unacceptable memories to minimize anxiety 0 Amnesia Anterograde inability to form new memories Retrograde inability to retrieve information from one39s past 0 Errors in Memory Construction 0 Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading info into one39s memory of an event 0 Source amnesia attributing the wrong source of an event we experienced heard about read about or imagined o Implanted memories Social In uences 5 Questions Fundamental Attribution Error 0 The tendency for observers when analyzing another39s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition Social facilitation amp oafingwhen are these more likely to occur amp associated terms 0 Social facilitation stronger responses on simple or welllearned tasks in presence of others 0 Social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards a common goal Occurs when people feel less accountable and worry less about what others think When group members view their individual contributions as dispensable When group members share equally in the bene ts regardless of how much they contribute o Deindividuation the loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal amp anonymity 0 Group polarization the enhancement of a group39s prevailing opinions through discussion within a group 0 Reasons for amp conditions that increase social conformity amp groupthink o Groupthink mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives 0 Conditions that increase blind obedience Proximity of authority Credibility of authority No role models for de ance Depersonalization of person being harmed OOOO Psychological Disorders 6 Questions 0 Guidelines amp steps for diagnosis 3 P39s amp 3 D s o 3 P39s Pathological Persistent Pervasive Pathological unreasonable and unable to control Persistent continues over time does not go away Pervasive exists in more than one area of life 0 3 D39s Deviant Distressing Dysfunctional Deviant atypical from cultural norms Distressing is a problem to self or others Dysfunctional interferes with daily life 0 Step39s for Diagnosis Interview client Interview someone close the client if possible ie family or f ends Determine presence amp severity of symptoms Match to existing classi cations in the DSM Consider other causes ie medical conditions for symptoms 0 For the following psychological disorders you should know symptoms amp probable cause 0 Anxiety disorders GAD panic disorder phobias 0CD PTSD GAD when a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Panic Disorder marked by unpredictable minuteslong episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations Phobias persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a speci c object activity or situation 0CD characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions andor actions compulsions PTSD characterized by haunting memories nightmares social withdrawal jump anxiety andor insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks after a traumatic experience 0 Mood disorders MDD bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder mood disorder where a person experiences two or more weeks of signi cantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities plus four other symptoms Bipolar Disorder when a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania Binllngicallin luences r quot gs i genetic predispositions 739 quot 39 I changes in brain chemistry 39 quot brain damage due to stress quot and other factors Depressed mood Socialcultural in uences i tratmnati lzlIr negative events I cultural expectations i depressionevoked responses glass Plats o Schizophrenia Group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and behaviors Paranoid grandiose delusions amp feelings of persecution eg Son of Sam Disorganized at affect word salad Catatonic immobilityposing wild movements parrot like repetitions Undifferentiated others not classi ed above Causes 0 Brain morphology o Abnormal dopamine levels 0 Abnormal activity in the thalamus attention amp memory amygdala emotions amp frontal cortex logic 0 Enlarged uid lled ventricles 0 Higher rate of tissue loss Prenatalcomplications Genetics Diathesisstress explain behavior as a predispositional vulnerability together with stress from life experiences Genetic vulnerability Identi ed genes such as neuregulin l dysbindin and possibly COMT 39 Prenatal environment Olbstetric complications I Viral exposure Maternal stress and malnutrition Childhood environment Childarearlng Child abuse Head injury Later life environment Drug abuse Mligrationlethni39c ity Urbanicity Social adlversityilife events 39 Vulnerability for psychosis evident in markers of neurodevelopmental abnormality I Childhood antecedents evident as a result of vulnerability interact with environment interacts with maturational brain changes during adolescence Onset of schizophrenia 0 DID A rare disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities Sleep Disorders 5 Questions 0 Stages of sleep characteristics associated with each stage when and in what order do they occur 1 NREMl eeting images 2 NREM2 sleep spindles 20 minutes 3 NREM3 minimal awareness 30 minutes 4 REM storylike dream 0 Consequences of sleep deprivation Brain diminished focus and memory increased risk of depression Lowered immune system Greater risk of obesity Increased risk of high blood pressure Increased in ammation ofjoints Reduced strength and reaction time 0 Increased hunger Sleep disorders know symptoms causes and treatments of 0 Insomnia Persistent problems falling asleepstaying asleep Treated by natural sleep aids or sleeping pills o Narcolepsy Sudden attacks of sleepiness Caused by absence of orexin 0 Sleep walking amp Night Terrors when and for whom is this more likely In NREM3 most likely for children 0 Sleep talking Can happen in any stage most likely in children OOOOOO Therapies 5 Questions 0 Who gives therapy differences between the groups amp implications 0 Characteristics amp techniques of the following psychotherapeutic approaches 0 Psychoanalysis Freud Psychological problems Repressed impulsescon icts Aim bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness via methods such as HypnosE Free association 0 Dream interpretation 0 Behaviorism Therapeutic applications of Classical Conditioning Counterconditioning conditioning new responses 0 incudes exposure therapy continued and progressive exposure allows client to habituate to the things feared Often called systematic desensitization o incudes aversive therapy pairing stimulus with aversive response to reduce behaviors like smoking Therapeutic applications of Operant Conditoning Behavior modi cation training w rewards amp punishment 0 incudes token economy positive behaviors earn tokens which can be exchanged for privileges or treats o Humanistic Psychology Aim boost selfful llment awareness amp acceptance Eg Client Centered Therapy 0 Active listening Echo restate amp clarify patient s thinking Acknowledging expressed feelings o Nondirective o Genuine o Unconditional loveacceptance o Empathetic Humanistic Psychotherapy Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Goal Promote growth Cure mental illness How to Take responsibility for feelings Bring unconscious con icts into improve and actions conscious awareness Role of Provide an environment in which Provide interpretations eg of therapist growth can occur dreams resistance and transference Content Conscious feelings actual self Unconscious con icts of therapy and ideal self Time The present and future The past focus 0 Cognitive Psychology Schools of Cognitive Therapy Rationalemotive behavior Therapy A Ellis Challenging irrational beliefs and assumptions 0 Why do you think that Does it make sense to think that 0 Cognitive therapy for depression A Beck Correcting cognitive distortions 0 Instead of thinking that you should be thinking this 0 Stress inoculation training D Meichenbaum Practicing healthier thinking before facing a stressor disappointment or frustration Above are often combined w behavior therapy Cognitive Behavior Therapy 0 Which therapies work best When Which have received the most empirical support Disorder Therapy Depression Cognitive Humanistic Psychodynamic Anxiety Cognitive ie stress inoculation Behavioral ie exposure Psychodynamic Phobia Behavioral ie exposure Bulimia Cognitive Behavior Bed Wetting Behavior Modi cation
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