HES 145 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5: Sex and Your Body Sexuality: emotionally charged topic often associated with taboos/restrictions conflicting messages What does it include? Sexual A&P Gender Sexual functioning and practices Social and sexual interactions Sexual Anatomy: Male and female similar origin function Gonads: produce germ cellWe also discuss several other topics like anatomy and physiology test 2
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We also discuss several other topics like intro to sociology exam 2
We also discuss several other topics like at what ages do the two major brain growth spurts occur?
s and sex hormones female: ovaries male: testes Germ Cells: basic units of reproduction female: eggs male: sperm Female sex organs external and internal (external) clitoris: analogous to the penis during sexual excitement urethra opening: between the clitoris and vagina opening and leads to the urinary tract vaginal opening: partly covered by the hymen (internal) vagina: leads to the internal organs serves as the birth canal sexual excitement, the walls swell with blood cervix: neck of the uterus uterus: fertilized eggs normally implant inside fallopian tubes: lead from the top of the uterus to surround the ovaries channel for the egg to reach the uterus Male sex organs scrotum: contains the testes. Keeps temperature at 93.6 F to allow normal sperm production seminiferous tubules: spermbearing tubules that end in the (epididymis) stores sperm leads to the vas deferens Vas deferens joins the ducts of the seminal vesicles inside the prostate provides secretions that nourish and transport sperm Urethra: runs the entire length of the penis semen and urineBulbourethral glands: flank the urethra and secrete fluid (preejaculatory fluid) may contain sperm, so withdrawal is not a satisfactory form of contraception Penis: becomes engorged with blood during sexual excitement Glans: tip of the penis partially covered by the foreskin removed via circumcision in about 60% to 70% of newborn males Pathway of Sperm: 1. Seminiferous Tubules 2. Epididymis 3. Vas Deferens 4. Urethra Semen and Fluid Production: 1. Seminiferous Tubules 2. Prostate 3. Seminal Vesicles produce secretions that nourish and transport sperm 4. Cowpers Gland: produces clear, mucus like fluid called preejaculatory fluid (precum) Hormones: induced by testosterone or estrogen and progesterone Male: testes produce androgens testosterone → Female: ovaries produce both estrogen and progesterone Both: adrenals produce androgens What regulates the repro hormones? Hypothalamus controls the hormones of the pituitary gland regulate hormones produced by the ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands 23 chromosomes in egg and sperm pair to form a new cell egg carries an X sex chromosome sperm carries X or Y chromosome XX, embryo is genetically female XY, embryo genetically male Y stimulates the undifferentiated gonads to become testes male sex organs → Absence of Y female sex organs → Female Maturation: begins around 813 years of age with breast and body development between 915 physical maturation: breast development, rounding of the hips and buttocks, pubic hair, increase in growth rate Questions…. 1. How many hormones help coordinate a woman's cycle? 4 2. Where do these hormones come from? Pituitary 3. What two cycles are controlled by these hormones? Menstrual and Ovarian Cycle 4. About what day of her cycle does the women ovulate? Halfway through cycle (14 on classic 28 schedule) Sexual Behavior Gender Role: everything that you do in your life that expresses your maleness or femaleness to others dress, speech patterns, mannerisms Gender Identity: your personal, inner sense of being male or female *At age 40, women have sex to express love while men want physical gratification. After 40, the roles switch Vasocongestion: blood vessels become engorged with blood Myotonia: change in muscle tension/ muscle tone Sexual Response Cycle: 1. Excitement phase: genitals engorge with blood; lubrication 2. Plateau phase: engorgement and lubrication increase 3. Orgasmic phase: rhythmic contractions; ejaculation in males 4. Resolution phase: reverse excitement phase 5. Refractory period (males only) *Young female athletes lack estrogen: weak bones/ similar to elder women Male Sexual Maturation: begins about age 1011 Gradual decrease in testosterone can result in: loss of energy depressed mood decreased sex drive Chapter 6: Contraception/ Birth Control Methods Pregnancy: early signs: breast soreness, missed period, nausea, spotting Contraception: when a woman’s egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm (sexual intercourse) Implantation: fertilized egg implants into the lining of women’s uterus. 50% of fertilized eggs do not implant *50% of pregnancies are unplanned Abstinence: not engaging in sexual intercouse for a specified amount of time 100% effective way of preventing pregnancy Fertility Awareness and Withdrawal: both 25% typical 1st year failure rate *Only use a water based lubricant with condoms. Lotions and oils can ruin latex. Female condom: 21% failure rate Male Condom: 15% failure rate Spermicides: 28% failure rateDiaphragm: 12% The sponge: 24% The pill: 9% The patch: 9% Vaginal Ring: 9% The Shot: 6% Implants: 0.05% IUD: 0.8% Chapter 7: Abortion 1. About what percentage of induced abortions in the US take place in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy? 90% 2. A majority of Americans are in favor of the right to a legal abortion in some circumstances. True 3. About 25% of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended, and about 25% of unintended pregnancies are terminated by abortion. False States and laws on abortions: use of public funding, employees, and facilities mandatory counseling waiting periods insurance prohibitions parental consent for minors Colorado Laws: 87% of counties do not have an abortion provider outpatient abortion up to 26 weeks If under 18: at least one parent must be notified NO mandatory waiting period State medicaid will pay under certain circumstances Public Opinion: ProLife murder, other options (adoption), religious beliefs, right life, emotional effect ProChoice cases (rape, incest), quality of life, moms health and baby, her choice (not gov’t) Methods of Abortion: 1. Surgical 87% (90%) of abortions after 1st trimester 2. Medical 13% of abortions used within 49 days of last cycle Chapter 8 1. How much does it currently cost to raise a child to the age of 18? $250,000+ 2. How many babies are born each year in the U.S.? 4.1 million 3. What % of those are unplanned? 50%4. What is the average age to have children? 25.1 years Understanding Fertility: 1. Ovulation: once a month an egg ripens and is released 2. Egg travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus (23 days) 3. Uterus prepared for implantation endometrium thickened 4. If egg is not fertilized it disintegrates expelled during menstruation 5. Millions of sperm ejaculated only a relatively small # makes it to the egg 6. One sperm fertilizes the egg TWINS: fraternal two or more egg + 2 or more sperm Identical one egg splits in half Typically 1 egg + 1 sperm Infertility: Women blocked fallopian tubes (40%) prior surgery. failure to ovulate (40%) alcohol, smoking MEN (20%) sperm transport, acquired disorders Treating infertility: expensive and emotionally draining Pregnancy Exercise during pregnancy is healthy and recommended Fetal Development: 1. Fertilized egg (zygote) goes through many forms of cell division 2. A blastocyst (cluster of cells) is formed by the 4th day after fertilization 3. An embryo is created by the end of the 2nd week 1. Outermost shell 2. Placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac Placenta: organ Umbilical cord: the cord connecting Amniotic Sac: a membranous pouch