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UM / 1213 / 121 210 / roderick gillis

roderick gillis

roderick gillis


School: University of Miami
Department: 1213
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Roderick gillis
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Stereotypes, Prejudice, descrimination, attraction, social, and Influence
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 210 Exam 2 Study Guide - Dr. Gillis
Description: This includes notes from the powerpoints and the textbook for chapters 6-8. The words in red are the concepts or definitions that are highlighted in the powerpoints and are ones we should know for the upcoming exam.
Uploaded: 03/05/2017
14 Pages 12 Views 17 Unlocks

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

what is Sexism?

Chapter 6 – Prejudice: It’s Causes, Effects, and Cures 


- Prejudice: a negative attitude or negative emotional response (affect) toward the  members of some group based solely on their membership in that group ???? i.e.  stereotypes  

o Prejudice is not behavior  

o You can be prejudice against someone based on their gender, religion, race,  etc.  

o Refers to the ABC model of attitudes

▪ Attitude = A (affect) – prejudice, B (behavior) – discrimination, C  (cognition) – stereotype  

- Discrimination: differential negative behaviors directed towards members of  different social groups ???? based on prejudices  

o You are taking action based on a belief  

▪ Ex: Belief = female firefighters can’t do the job; Action = when hiring  a woman, don’t assume she isn’t good enough because of your belief.  Instead, give them a strength test to demonstrate whether your  

Who is Carolus Linneaus?

belief can be proven or if it is PREJUDICE  

o Obvious forms of discrimination:  

▪ Mild – simple avoidance  

▪ Stronger – exclusion from jobs, educational opportunities, clubs,  neighborhoods  

▪ Extreme – overt physical aggression  

o We like people who are similar to us so we avoid people who are different  o Violence would be extreme discrimination  

- Stereotype: a cognition or belief that all members of a group share certain traits or  characteristics including behaviors  

o Cognition = acquiring knowledge based on thought, experience, and senses o Each specific prejudice is made up of one or more such stereotypes  o When you say women are all too weak = stereotype because you are  generalizing all women and saying they are all alike  If you want to learn more check out qeqag

o Stereotypes are always invalid because nothing is true of all members of  one group because everyone is different  

what are the Origins of Prejudice?

We also discuss several other topics like ares uf

- Racism: belief that observable differences among races are genetic ???? nature vs.  nurture issue  

o There are people that believe racism is something that members of the  majority can only think; minority cannot be racist ???? this is false because  anyone can be racist  

o Differences between people is mostly due to nature rather nurture (based  on genes)  

o If you are arguing that black people don’t do as well as white people on the  SAT because they aren’t as smart and that is due to genetics = racist  because there are third variables when it comes to measuring intelligence

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

o Skin color is a genetic difference so saying there are differences between a  white person’s skin and an Asian person’s skin is not considered racist  o Key word in definition of racism is “superior” because you can’t say one  race is better than the other  

- Sexism: belief that observable differences between sexes are genetic ???? also  nature vs. nurture issue  

o There are genetic differences between men and women (biology)  o If you say boys do better on a test than girls and say the reason is based on  gender, it is sexism because it isn’t true  

- Demagogue: a person, usually an orator or political leader who gains power and  popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people ???? NOT by reason of facts, setting a good example, providing inspiration or real  solutions to real problems  We also discuss several other topics like temporan 2

o Hitler is a good example of a demagogue

o Trump could be an example of using demagogue to bring people to the  polls by scaring the voters with issues that aren’t necessarily true  

- More about discrimination:  

1. Obvious forms of discrimination: we like people who are similar to us so we avoid  people who are different  Don't forget about the age old question of gvsu accounting


Simple avoidance


Exclusion from jobs,  

education, opportunities,  clubs, and neighborhoods


Overt physical aggression  ???? i.e. violence


2. Subtle forms of discrimination:


• When you are hiring someone to represent a race to  make your company seem non-racist but in reality  you aren’t helping solve the problem because they  aren’t actually part of the company and do the same  job as most of the other people (a secretary is  different from the actual businessman)  Don't forget about the age old question of marketers must determine the price of a product carefully

• In America, racism had gone underground (become  unconscious). Since Trump’s campaign, overt racism  is on the rise.



• When you tell the majority they can’t do something  because of their race ???? this is reverse because  usually the minority is being discriminated against


racism, a.k.a.  



• Racism became unconscious because people didn’t  want to be racist so they thought they weren’t ???? people don’t know if they are being racist or not  • Whenever the leader takes a stance on something,

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

discrimination and racism goes up ???? its hard to be a  leader and state your own opinion because it can go  against someone else’s belief, which can then cause a  ruckus

- A brief history of race:  

o Originally Europeans felt they were superior to the “primitive” people of  the world  If you want to learn more check out carilist

▪ Primitive = people who were not as developed or technologically  advance  

▪ Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond, 1997 – a book about why  some societies are more materially successful than others. He  

attributes societal success to geography, immunity to germs, food  

production, the domestication of animals, and the use of steel.  

o Carolus Linneaus in 1758 cataloged the 4 main human races:  





o In 1775 Johann Friedrich Blumenback changed the geometry by adding  Malaysians:






- The new geometry led to a hierarchy  


o The more advanced races were seen as genetically superior ???? Nature  o The people who came up with scheme (Caucasians) put themselves at the  top but not without evidence  

o Jared Diamond argues that all of the supposed “evidence” was due to third  variables  

- A few of Diamond’s third variables:  

1. Availability of iron ???? makes us more developed  

a. On the pacific islands there wasn’t any metal or copper, which is why  people were more primitive  

2. Availability of large animals to be domesticated ???? sheep, cows, horses, oxen;  some for food, some for work and transportation  

a. Luck of the large animals

3. Availability of suitable wild plants for cultivation especially grains  

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

4. Immunity to diseases that came from their animals. Disease that would kill other  people

a. Most of the diseases in history came from animals because people lived in  close proximity of animals ???? over time people got immune to the disease  so when Europeans sailed to other countries, the people of those countries  got sick and died from the disease  

- Franz Boas and Margaret Mead (20th century)  

o Began to carefully study other cultures and concluded that most observable  differences among races were caused by the environment, culture, learning,  nurture, and not genetics  

▪ It is nurture, not nature that causes differences among people  

- Today:

o Most experts agree that observable differences in performance and ability  are largely due to environment and not genetics  

o Biologists question the validity of the concept of race ???? an artifact of  traveling

▪ The time people were exploring the world, majority of the people in  Europe were the same race. When they went to Africa, they were

different and when they went to Asia they were different ???? this is  

what you observe when you go place to place by plane or boat, but if  you were to walk from Europe to Africa, you see a gradual change in  how people look  

The Origins of Prejudice  

- Direct intergroup conflict:  

o Direct competition for scarce resources ???? prejudice increases during the  political election  

▪ Realistic Conflict Theory (Bobo, 1983) ???? as competition escalates,  groups will have increasingly negative views of each other

▪ This theory argues that when the economic times are tough, there  will be more discrimination and prejudice  

- Competition leads to prejudice:  

o Lychings and the price of cotton (Hovland & Sears, 1940)  

▪ When the price of cotton was high, people were spending more  

money and were happier  

▪ They found a strong correlation in this study ???? lynching's and price  of cotton had a direct relationship  

▪ Supports the notion that when times are tough, prejudice and  

discrimination goes up.  

o Robbers Cave Study (Sherif, 1961) ???? Superordinate goals= commons goals  that transcended the groups; if you give people a common goal, you will  make enemies become friends. Trying to undo the prejudice that had  developed  

▪ Easy to produce prejudice and animosity through competition  

▪ Easy to eliminate prejudice with common goals

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

▪ Prejudice was short-lived  

- Social learning of prejudice  

o Child hears views of parents, friends, teachers, etc.  

o Mass media project images like the helpless female doing nothing, or the  wrong thing and then falling as she runs away  

- Social Categorization: “US vs. THEM”  

o Ingroup vs. outgroup  

o Variability:

▪ Out-group homogeneity ???? they are all alike (false belief)  

▪ In-group heterogeneity ???? we are all different  

o The ultimate attributional error = if one person in the other group (out group) does something bad, then they are all bad; if a person does  

something bad in my group (the ingroup) they are a bad person, but not the  entire group is bad.  

o Illusory correlation: People don’t think they are prejudice. Evil is what  people do when they are too sure they are right ???? i.e. Hitler thought he  was right which is why he began killing people and became evil

- Modern racism: “More subtle than blatant feelings of superiority. It consists  primarily of thinking minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they  deserve and a denial ???? that discrimination affects their outcomes; prejudice  affects their thinking ”  

- The “Bogus Pipeline” 1971:  

o Like the Milgram experiment but with no shocks (it is a fake machine) o They claimed it was a mind-reading machine  

o The machine manipulated people to be more likely to admit to  

unpolitical/unkind thoughts  

- Bona Fide Pipeline (1996, 2001): technique to study implicit stereotypes.  o This is the real pipeline to reading your mind  

o If two things are in sync, we rate them more quickly ???? they are more  interested in how fast you rate something rather than what it is you are  actually rating or how you rate it  

o Bias is affecting behavior  

o Procedure:  

▪ STEP 1 Rate adjectives as good or bad by button push

▪ STEP 2 View photos of people of various ethnic/racial groups

▪ STEP 3 View photos again, indicate if previously seen.

▪ STEP 4 Rate each adjectives again after brief Priming with photo. ▪ DV is response latency while rating. Push button faster if valence of  word is congruent with valence of photo.    

Combating Prejudice

- Breaking the cycle ???? parents and children  

o Breaking the cycle of childhood (child abuse)

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

o If you know your parents are prejudice but you don’t want to be prejudice - Direct intergroup contact ???? works when there are similarities within the group

- Re-categorization ???? Muslims or extremists  

o Extremists are in every religion; don’t see it as an entire group but rather a  sub-set of a group ???? can’t assume Muslims are bad based on ISIS

- Cognitive interventions  

o Collective guilt  

o Just saying no to stereotypes with attributional training (external  attributions)  

- Social Influences ???? what others think about “them” affects what we think about  “them”  

o If you hang around with less prejudice people, then you are more likely to  be less prejudice also

Chapter 7: Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships, & Love 

Internal Factors  

- Emotions or affect  

o Affect influences:  

▪ Perception ???? the mood you are in can effect your perception  

▪ Cognition ???? positive affect leads to liking and negative affect leads  to disliking  

▪ Motivations ???? good mood = more motivated  

▪ Decision Making ???? you are letting out your anger one someone  

even though aren’t upset with them (misattribution)  

▪ Interpersonal attraction ???? attraction between two people  

- Positive and negative emotions may be separate dimensions, not opposite ends of  one dimension  

o One dimension: Positive  Negative  

o Two dimension:  

▪ Positive:    High     Low  

▪ Negative:  High                         Low  

- BIS = Behavioral Inhibition System ???? a sort of separate dimension  o Fear of anxiety can trigger BIS  

o Novel stimuli activate BIS (step back; stimulus is new)  

- BAS = Behavioral Activation System ???? a sort of separate dimension  o Anger triggers BAS (fight or flight)  

o Familiar stimulus activate BAS (step forward; we react differently to people  who are new to us than people who we already know)

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

- Examples of BIS/BAS = stop/start or approach/avoidance            

- Statistical Significance

o Any reported difference must be significant

▪ Significant = hoping sample is representative of the entire  

population; using the same to use an inference about the population  o Irrelevant effective states induced by candidates, or products being sold  can influence our liking and thus our actions  

o Reliability = experiment can be replicated  

o Not due to chance  

o Real  

o Caused by the independent variable  

o Effect size = focuses on the difference between two groups  

- Resisting emotional influence  

o We should not vote, govern, or legislate by emotion alone  

o Get the real facts. Not the fake or alternative facts

- Needs and Personality  

o Need for affiliation ???? both a state and a personality trait  

o As a trait: Murray’s 1938 Social Needs ???? primary (basic/essential) needs  and secondary (psychological/emotional) needs  

▪ Ex: achievement, power, and dominance  

o As a state: Schachter, 1959 ???? shock experiment  

▪ People could choose to wait with people who were doing the shock  experiment or people who weren’t doing the shock experiment  

▪ The study found that people would rather wait with those who were  also getting shocked  

▪ Misery loves miserable company  

- Personality Disorders and Affiliation (DSM-5)  

o Schizoid = hermits; don’t want to be associated anybody (very low  affiliation score)  

o Narcissistic = people who destroy everything and don’t relate or care about  others (negative/low association and affiliation)  

o Dependent = see themselves as helpless and need other people to function  (high affiliation)  

External Factors  

- Proximity = Propinquity (know the synonym!!!)  

o Most likely to become friends with people who live/work/sit near you  o It works because you are more likely to talk to people near you and become  familiar with them  

o Repeated exposure makes them more familiar ???? we like familiarity  o Classical conditioning ???? if you had fun with a person at a party, you’ll think  you’ll always have fun with them  

- Moreland & Breach, 1992 – female assistants attend class experiment

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

o The more times the woman visited a class, the higher attraction points she  got  

- Physical Attractiveness ???? attractiveness leads to positive affect; more attractive  people are expected to be more intelligent and kinder  

- What constitutes facial attractiveness?  

o Childlike features or mature features  

o Composite faces are more attractive ???? merging two faces together could  result in a more familiar or symmetrical looking face  

o Symmetrical faces ???? we are attracted to symmetry  

o The color red makes women more attractive  

▪ Elliot & Niesta, 2008 experiment: men rated women more attractive  against the red background rather than against the white  

background. The color red is associated with heat and fertility,  

which attract men  

o Simple is attractive ???? cartoon characters are appealing because they are  simple  

- Personable factors of attractiveness  

o Need for cognition ???? if someone is more attracted to intelligence and have  a high need for cognition, they are less affected by attractiveness  

o Gender:  

▪ Physical attractiveness is more important to men  

▪ Material resources/marriage material is more important for women  

- State ???? situational factors; more external means of attraction  

o Arousing situations increase need for affiliation  

o Fetsinger’s 1954 Social Comparison Theory = we seek other people to help  us decide what to do  

o Natural Disasters bring people together  

o Misery loves miserable company  

- Other situational factors:  

o Alcohol ???? can impair our thinking of who we find attractive  

o Closing time ???? people become more attractive during closing time  (desperation)  

o The opinion of others ???? women care about their looks; especially how  other women see other women  

o Contrast effect ???? surrounding yourself with less attractive people to make  yourself seem more attractive  

Social Interactions  

- Similarity of attitude (Newcomb, 1956) ???? students who just moved in to the dorm  were asked to rate the other students living in the dorm  

o The survey was used to predict friendships.  

o The more attitudes you share with someone, the more you’ll like them

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

- Proportion of attitude matters (Byrne & Nelson, 1965) ???? If you already new  someone and agreed on the same things, you are likely to become friends with  them  

- “The Repulsion Hypothesis” (Rosenbaum, 1986) ???? suggested only dissimilar  attitudes matter  

o He believed that information about similarity has no effect on attraction – people are simply repulsed by information about dissimilarity ???? this is  idea is wrong  

o True fact: under most circumstances information about dissimilarity has a  slightly stronger effect on attraction than the same amount of information  about similarity  

o People prefer those similar to themselves rather than dissimilar  

- Balance Theory (Heider, 1958 & Newcomb, 1961)  

o Consensual validation through social comparison (Fetsinger, 1954)  ▪ Consensual validation = we don’t like to be questioned and seek  validation from others

▪ Social comparisons = you compare your attitudes and beliefs with  those of others because the only way you can evaluate the accuracy  of your views and their “normality” is by finding that other people  

agree with you.  

o Rushton, 1989: suggests similarity of attitudes helps us find genetic  similarity  

▪ Friends exceed chance in the similarity on blood type  

▪ We are drawn to people who are genetically alike/similar to us  

o Balanced, imbalanced, and non-balanced triangles:  

▪ Balanced: liking plus agreement results in a positive emotional state  ▪ Imbalanced: liking plus disagreement results in a negative state and  a desire to restore balance  

▪ Non-balanced: disliking plus either agreement or disagreement  

leads to indifference  

- Similarity of other characteristics vs. complementarity  

o Opposites DON’T attract; the most important mechanism of attraction is  similarity  

o Complementarity is a better word for opposite  

o Complementarity = genes of opinions compliment each other  

- The matching hypothesis: the idea that although we would prefer to obtain  extremely attractive romantic partners, we generally focus on obtaining ones  whose physical beauty is about the same as our own ???? similarity in attractiveness  

Close Relationships  

- Culture can affect close relationships

- Family and close friends:  

o Family

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

▪ Infant attachment style (secure vs. insecure)  

• Mary Ainsworth – strange situation test: mothers brought  

their babies to a strange room with a strange woman inside.  

The purpose of the test was to see which baby would interact  

with the strange woman after the mother left the child.  

Researchers recorded attitude of the child  

• Secure child = the baby will make a fuss when the mother  

leaves but is able to interact/play with the stranger. Baby  

also showed happiness/excitement when the mother  


• Insecure child = the baby will make a fuss when the mother  

leaves and is not able to play/interact with the stranger.  

When the mother returned the baby didn’t show any emotion  

or began to cry.  

▪ Discipline ???? consistency  

• The way you discipline your child is important ???? children  

who listen to their parents when they are present but do  

what ever they want when the parents aren’t there is more  

like submission rather than discipline  

• Spanking is bad  

▪ Parenting style: authoritarian parents vs. authoritative parents  

• Authoritarian = forces the child to do as they say  

• Authoritative = educates the child on what’s best to do  

o Erik Erikson’s psychological stages  

▪ Trust vs. Mistrust (0-2 yrs) infant attachment

• How one resolves the first stage may affect close  

relationships ???? if the baby develops mistrust within the first  

2 years, they could experience trouble with marriage or  


• Insecurity could be from mistrust between the caregiver and  

child ???? possibility that the mother (caregiver) died so the  

child was missing someone to develop a trusting relationship  


o Close friends

▪ Attachment style affects intimacy and trust  

▪ Having really close friendships in childhood can set the stage  

▪ Moving school/town/country can disrupt development and trust  

- Attachment style based on attitudes about self and others:

o The four personality types  

▪ 1. Preoccupied (low-self esteem + interpersonal trust),  

▪ 2. Secure (high-self esteem + interpersonal trust),  

▪ 3. Fearful-avoidant (low-self esteem + interpersonal mistrust)  

▪ 4. Dismissing (high-self esteem + interpersonal mistrust)

- Loneliness – unfulfilled desire to engage in close relationships  

▪ Kids who are lonely become lonely when they are adults  

▪ Usually socially unskilled

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

▪ Avoidant personality disorder= people don’t live up to their  

standards so they don’t have friends ???? they avoid the possibility of  being hurt or disappointed  

Chapter 8 – Social Influence 

- Social influence = the study of efforts by one or more persons to change the behavior,  attitudes, or feelings of one or more others  


- Conformity is a type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes  or behavior to adhere to existing social norms  

o Norms may be explicit and detailed or unspoken  

- Descriptive norms = indicate what most people do  

- Injunctive norms = specify what ought to bed one  

o Prescriptive norms tell us what to do  

o Proscriptive norms tell us what NOT to do  

- Key experiments:  

o Muzafer Sherif, 1935 – Autokinetic effect/phenomenon  

▪ Refers to the fact that when placed in a completely dark room and  exposed to a single, stationary point of light, most people perceive  

the light as moving about  

▪ This is because in the dark room, there are no clear cues to distance  or location  

▪ The perceived movement = autokinetic phenomenon  

o Solomon Asch, 1951 – Line comparison studies  

▪ One real subject and the rest were volunteers  

▪ There were two pictures – one showing a standard line and the  

other showing three comparison lines  

▪ When asked which comparison line is the same length as the  

standard line, the volunteers were told before hand to say the  

incorrect answer  

▪ The one subject followed along with what everyone else was saying  even though they were saying the wrong thing  

▪ The experiment showed that strong pressures from others lead to  conformity  

o Crutchfield Apparatus  

▪ Similar to Asch’s experiment except the confederates (participants)  were placed in cubicles instead of sitting next to each other and  

chose their answers by flipping a switch rather than saying it out  


▪ The purpose of this experiment was to see if people are still able to conform to the norm without being influenced by others presence  

▪ The (incorrect) choices of the other panelists were displayed in each  cubicle – everyone could see what someone was choosing

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

▪ This experiment is more efficient and fewer people conformed  

compared to Asch’s experiment  

▪ This could be because each participants response was private ???? no  one knew which participant gave which response  

- Main factory affecting conformity = support from others (an ally)  

- We conform because we have the desire to be liked (normative social influence)  and the desire to be right (informational social influence)  

o Normative social influence:  

▪ We try to appear as similar to others as possible so that they will  like us  

▪ We confirm because we have learned that doing so can help us win  the approval and acceptance we crave  

o Informational social influence:  

▪ Based on our tendency to depend on others as a source of  

information about many aspects of the social world  

▪ A powerful source of conformity ???? especially in situations where  we are highly uncertain about what is “correct” or “accurate” than in  situations where we have more confidence in our won ability to  

make such decisions  

- Collectivist vs. individualistic cultures:  

o Collectivism = groups in which the norm is to maintain harmony among  group members, even if doing so might entail some personal costs  

o Individualism = groups where the norm is to stand out and be different  from others; individual variability is expected and disagreement among  members is tolerated  

- Eagly and Carli, 1981 – meta-analysis of 145 studies to see how gender affects  conformity  

o There was a very small difference between men and women ???? women are  slightly more accepting of social influence than men  

o Reasons = uncertainty and low status

▪ Men were more certain about how to behave and so showed less  conformity ???? women are less certain  

▪ Lower status leads to greater tendencies to conform  

▪ Contrary to the belief, women are generally not more susceptible to  conformity pressures than men ???? overall, gender effect is non



- Compliance = going along with a direct request from one person to another  

- Commitment or consistency:  

o Foot-in-the-door technique = a procedure for gaining compliance in which  requesters  begin  with  a  small  request  and  then,  when  this  is  granted,

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

escalate to a larger one (the one they actually desired all along) ???? small to  big

o Low-ball procedure = a technique for gaining compliance in which an offer  or deal is changed to make it less attractive to the target person after this  person has accepted it  

▪ Often used by automobile salespersons

▪ People  feel  obligated  to  accept  the  change  because  they  already  committed to it to be begin with ???? people are afraid to walk away  from something they have already said yes to  

o Bait-and-switch = a generally illegal action where a customer is introduced  to bargain by the seller but isn’t aware of the seller’s intention to substitute  inferior or more expensive goods ???? people get tricked  

- Reciprocity  

o Door-in-the-face =  when  requesters  begin  with  a  large  request  and  then,  when this is refused, retreat to a smaller one (the one they actually desired  all along) ???? big to small  

▪ This tactic works on the internet, as well as in face-to-face situations  o That’s-not-all  technique =  requesters  offer  additional benefits  to  target  people before they have decided whether to comply with or reject specific  requests  

▪ Initial  request is  followed,  before  the  target  person  can  say  yes  or  no, by something that sweetens the deal  

- Scarcity  

o Playing  hard  to  get =  a  technique  that  can  be  used  for  increasing  compliance  by  suggesting  that  a  person  or  object  is  scarce  and  hard  to  obtain  

▪ Often used in the area of romance  

▪ Also  sometimes  used  by  job  candidates  to  increase  their  attractiveness  to  potential  employers,  and  hence  to increase  the  likelihood that these employers will offer then a job  

o Deadline technique = target people are told that they have only limited time  to take advantage of some offer or to obtain some item  

- Other tactics of compliance:

o Complaining  

o Pique (unusual request)  

o Putting others in a good mood  

o Social validations (others are doing it)  

o Authority (uniform, firemen, policemen, etc.)  


- Obedience = one persons orders one or more others to perform some action ???? people are highly influenced by authority or the law  

- Milgram’s experiment, 1963  

o Three participants: experimenter, teacher, and learner

PSY 210 – Gillis  Exam 2 Study Guide (Chp. 6-8)

o The teacher was the real participant and the experiment and learner were  research assistants

o The teacher had to read words aloud and shock the learner every time he made a mistake  

o The shock level increased every time the learner made a mistake ???? the  learner made the shocks seem real and painful even though they weren’t  o The idea of the experiment was to see whether or not the teacher did as  they were told by the experimenter (the authoritative figure in the  experiment)

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