Physiology 215 Exam 3 Study Guide
Physiology 215 Exam 3 Study Guide phys 215
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 3 SPR 15 1. Muscle a. Types i. Smooth 1. Involuntary, uninucleated (1 nucleus), spindleshaped, woven with connective tissue fibers, unstriated, contains numerous gap junctions ii. Cardiac 1. Primarily involuntary, only in the heart, contains generally one nuclei, has own inherent rhythm and can contract without an external stimulus, has faint strations and are branched, gap junctions are common iii. Skeletal/Striated 1. Move the skeleton, consciously controlled, has very long fibers (cells) which are unbranched, contains many nuclei, in transverse section has lines (strations) running along the short axis of the fiber b. structure/function i. Excitability respond to stimuli ii. Conductivity able to conduct electrical charge iii. Contractility shorten when stimulated iv. Extensibility able to be stretched again v. Elasticity able to recoil to its original length c. composition d. tension i. produced internally with the sarcomeres considered the contractile component of the muscle as a result of crossbridge activity and the resulting sliding of filaments. e. load (external force) f. contraction i. The myosin cross bridges can bind to the actin, pulling these thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere. This is the sliding filament mechanism. ii. The width of the A band remains unchanged. iii. The H zone is shortened horizontally. iv. The I band decreases in width as the actin overlaps more with the myosin. v. Neither the thick nor thin filaments change in length. They change their position with one another. vi. The actin slides closer together between the thick filaments. vii. Three types of contraction: isotonic, isokinetic and isometric g. Six steps of sliding filament theory 1. The influx of calcium, triggering the exposure of binding on actin 2. Binding of myosin to actin 3.The power stroke of the cross bridge that causes the sliding of the thin filaments 4.The binding of ATP to the cross bridge, which results in the cross bridge disconnecting from actin (you need ATP to let go) 5. Hydrolysis of ATP, which leads to the reenergizing and repositioning of the cross bridge 6. The transport of calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum h. summation/tetanus i. Repetitive stimulation 1. increases its tension by twitch summation. ii. Twitch summation results from sustained elevation of calcium in the cytosol. iii. Rapid stimulation 1. cannot relax between stimuli 2. twitches merge into a smooth, sustained, maximal contraction called tetanus i. Fatigue i. Muscle fatigue 1. an exercising muscle can no longer respond to the same degree of stimulation with the same degree of contractile activity. ii. Why? 1. increase in inorganic phosphate 2. accumulation of lactic acid 3. depletion of energy reserves 4. Increased oxygen consumption iii. Central fatigue occurs when the CNS can no longer activate motor neurons supplying working muscles. 1. often psychological and is related to biochemical changes at the synapses in the brain. 2. Hearing a. structure/function i. The external and middle ear 1. transmit sound waves to the fluidfilled inner ears. ii. The inner ear the cochlea 1. receptors that convert sound waves into nerve impulses. iii. The vestibular apparatus of the inner ear 1. sense of equilibrium. iv. Each inner ear region has mechanoreceptors. b. how do we hear? i. Sound waves that reach the ear into the external auditory canal. ii. Waves strike the tympanic membrane causing the membrane to vibrate. iii. It vibrates slowly in response to lowfrequency sounds and rapidly in response to high frequency sounds. iv. The central area of the tympanic membrane is connected to the malleus, which also starts to vibrate. The vibration is then picked up by the incus, which transmits the vibration to the stapes. v. As the stapes moves back and forth, it pushes the oval window in and out. 3. The vestibular apparatus a. The semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus detect rotational acceleration or deceleration changes in the body. b. The structures of the vestibular apparatus have hair cells that are sensitive to mechanical deformation i. These cells are sensitive to fluid shifts and the movement of other structures, such as otoliths in the saccule and utricle. ii. Neural signals are generated by changes in these hair cells. These cells are transmitted to the brain for interpretation. 4. Taste a. Receptors i. Taste receptors are located within taste buds in the tongue. Dissolved molecules bind to receptor sites producing receptor potentials. b. how? i. Any chemical produces the differential stimulation of the four receptors for taste. ii. This generates a pattern of action potentials that travels along afferent pathways to the brain. iii. One pathway passes through the limbic system for emotional and behavioral processing. Another pathway passes through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex for conscious processing. 5. Heart a. structure/function i. It is the organ responsible for supplying blood and oxygen to the body. ii. While the heart is relaxed, venous blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve. iii. The right atrium then contracts and more blood flows into the right ventricle. iv. The right ventricle then contracts, the tricuspid valve closes and the pulmonary valve opens. v. When the muscular wall of the right ventricle contacts, the blood inside the heart chamber is put under more pressure, and the tricuspid valve closes. vi. Blood exits through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk, which divides to form the right and left pulmonary arteries. vii. Blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. viii. After contraction of the left ventricle, the aortic valve closes and the mitral valve opens. Blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle. ix. The left atrium contracts, more blood flows into the left ventricle. x. The left ventricle contracts again, the mitral valve closes and the aortic valve opens. Blood flows into the aorta. b. action potentials i. Pacemaker Potential: 1. Potassium channel a. K+ permeability decreases between action potentials 2. Sodium channel a. Not voltage gated b. Slow inward leak between action potentials c. Leak Channel – sodium is always coming in the cell 3. Ttype calcium channel a. Transient, opens before membrane threshold is reached b. Opens in the second half of the pacemaker potential 4. Ltype calcium channel a. Opens when threshold is reached b. Responsible for the rising phase ii. Cardiac Action Potential 1. Phase 0 (Rapid depolarization) a. Opening of voltage gated sodium channels b. Potassium channels close 2. Phase 1 (Initial repolarization) a. Opening of transient potassium channels b. Sodium channels start to close 3. Phase 2 (Plateau phase) a. Calcium enters through Ltype calcium channels b. Opening of delayed and ir potassium channels 4. Phase 3 (Repolarization) a. Kir potassium conductance increases 5. Phase 4 (Resting membrane potential) a. Rest b. Diastole c. NO hyperpolarization c. actions of the ANS i. Autonomic control of heart rate. Increased parasympathetic activity decreases the heart rate, whereas increased sympathetic activity increases the heart rate. ii. d. murmurs i. Heart murmur: irregular sound that is caused by a problem with the valves ii. When we listen to the heart we can determine which valve has the problem iii. Stenotic: valve that has trouble opening iv. LubWhistleDub (SemiLunar having trouble opening) v. LubDubWhistle (AV having trouble opening) vi. Insufficient implies the valves are not closing properly vii. LubSwishDub (SemiLunar are not closing properly) e. EKG (ECG) i. Test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart f. Arrhythmias: irregular heart beat i. Tachycardia (abnormal rapid heart beat) ii. Bradicardia (abnormal slow heart beat) iii. Extrastoles (premature beats) 1. Common deviation iv. Atrial Flutter 1. Rapid, regular atrial depolarization (200380 bpm) v. Atrial Fibrillation 1. Rapid, irregular atrial depolarization 2. No P waves 3. Irregular ventricular rhythm 4. Pulse deficit (not getting blood leaving the heart) vi. Ventricular Fibrillation (the worst) 1. Ventricles are out of sync 2. Serious rhythmic abnormality 3. 4 minutes before brain damage or death vii. Heart Block 1. Normal atrial 2. Lower than normal ventricular rate g. cardiac output h. nodes and rates i. SA node responsible for normal heart rate 1. right atrial wall near the superior vena cava 2. 7080 bpm ii. AV node 1. Base of the right atrium near the septum 2. 4060 bpm (if it’s in charge which is unusual) iii. Bundle of His 1. Tract of cells running from the AV node to the interventricular septum and dividing into right and left branches 2. 2040 bpm iv. Purkinje fibers 1. Run from the bundle of His and spread through the ventricular myocardium 2. 2040 bpm 6. Neuromuscular junction a. Definition: a synaptic connection formed between a motor neuron axon and a muscle fiber b. neurotransmitter and neurotransmitter release i. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction. ii. Excess acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft is destroyed 1. broken down into choline and acetate by acetylcholinesterase 2. this terminates the transmission c. EPP (endplate potential) i. Change in the membrane potential of the muscle cell fiber ii. Excites voltage gated ion channels in adjacent regions of the sarcolemma. Diffusion of Na+ and K+ through their separate channels depolarizes the membrane and initiations action potential in muscle fiber. 7. ANS a. Divisions: i. Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) 1. arises from the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord ii. Parasympathetic (craniosacral) 1. arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord b. agonists and antagonists: i. Agonists 1. Mimic the neurotransmitter ii. Antagonists 1. block autonomic responses c. neurotransmitters and receptors i. Acetylcholine 1. ACh receptors (parasympathetic) a. Cholinergic b. Nicotinic or muscarinic ii. Norepinephrine 1. NE receptors a. Adrenergic b. or β (alpha or beta) d. regulation by the CNS: i. Autonomic activities are controlled by different areas of the CNS including: ii. Spinal cord iii. Medulla iv. Hypothalamus v. Prefrontal association cortex. e. role in homeostasis/actions on all organs i. Maintains homeostasis 1. Digestion 2. Respiration 3. Heart rate/contractility 4. Blood pressure 5. Excretion ii. Some Other functions 1. Pupil dilation/constriction 2. Sexual response f. dual innervation: i. The visceral organs receive dual innervation. ii. They are signaled by both subdivisions of the ANS. iii. Usually both subdivisions are active in controlling the activity of an internal organ. 8. Reflexes a. Any response that occurs automatically without conscious effort b. Simple or basic i. Built in 1. Remove hand from hot stove 2. Spinal cord c. Acquired or conditioned i. Practice or learning 1. Reading music while playing 2. Brain 9. Blood vessels a. blood pressure i. It is measured by a sphygmomanometer 1. the cuff they wrap around your arm ii. When the pressure in the cuff is greater than the brachial artery 1. blood flow is blocked through the vessel 2. no sound is heard through a stethoscope placed over the brachial artery at the inside of the elbow iii. When the pressure in the cuff is slowly released, 1. vibrations and sound occur when it falls just below systolic pressure 2. the first heart sound indicates systolic pressure (e.g., 120 mm Hg). iv. When the falling cuff pressure drops below diastolic pressure, 1. vibrations and sound disappears 2. This indicates diastolic pressure (80 mm Hg). v. The pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures (120 80). b. pulse pressure: i. The pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures (120 80). c. mean arterial pressure i. The equation is: 1. mean arterial pressure = diastole pressure + 1/3 the pulse pressure ii. As one example, from the previous data : 80 + 1/3 (40) equals 93 iii. This average is weighted, as about twothirds of the cardiac cycle is spent in diastole. d. flow and resistance to flow i. F (blood flow) 1. is from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure (pressure gradient). ii. R (resistance) 1. opposition to blood flow through a vessel. 2. depends on three factors: a. blood viscosity (thickness of blood), b. vessel length, 3. vessel radius. (major determinant) a. A slight change in radius produces a significant change in blood flow. 10. Vision a. photoreceptors and vision i. Rods night vision (see purple) ii. Cones day vision iii. Bipolar cells synapse with rods and cones iv. Ganglion cells receive input from bipolar cells, axons for the optic nerve v. Rod signals travels from bipolar cells, through amacrine cells to ganglion cells b. Accommodation: i. Increasing the strength (shape) of the lens (near vision) ii. Ciliary muscle c. Adaptation: i. Dark adaptation 1. gradually distinguish in the dark 2. regeneration of rod photopigments ii. Light adaptation 1. gradually distinguish objects with more light 2. cone photopigments d. pupillary reflex: i. controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. e. color blindness: i. when individuals lack a particular cone type, so their color vision is a product of the differential sensitivity of only two types of cones f. eye anatomy i. Retina the innermost layer of the eye that contains the photoreceptors and neuron cells ii. Choroid layer beneath the sclera that helps supply blood to the retina iii. Optic disk blind spot where the optic nerve exits the eye iv. Fovea the area of the retina with the highest density of cones (color vision) within the macula lutea v. Lens transparent, biconvex structure of the eye that focuses light rays entering through the pupil to form an image on the retina. vi. Cornea transparent layer of fibrous connective tissue that with the lens refracts and focuses light rays vii. Ciliary body muscles controlling the shape of the lens continuous with and beneath the iris g. Vision Problems i. Myopia (near sided) ii. Hyperopia (far sided) iii. Presbyopia (both & need bifocals) iv. Astigmatism 11. Sleep a. sleep waves i. Alpha ii. Theta b. disorders i. Insomnia inability to fall asleep, stay asleep or get enough sleep ii. Narcolepsy (hypersomnia) rapid onset of sleep, with rapid onset of REM sleep iii. Sleep Apnea Brief periods of non breathing, may awaken and gasp for air iv. Sleep walking v. Nightmares vivid anxiety provoking dreams vi. Dangerous if person has REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) when paradoxical sleep not occurring vii. Night Terrors person bolts from deep sleep with loud bloodcurdling scream viii. REM Disorder – not proper inhibition of the thalamus – start acting out their dream c. Role of the reticular formation: Arousal system 12. Somatosensory a. receptor types b. habituation and sensitization i. Habituation 1. Decreased responsiveness to repeated stimuli 2. Modification of Ca2+ channels 3. Decrease opening, decrease release ii. Sensitization 1. Increased responsiveness to mild stimuli 2. Enhanced Ca2+ entry, enhanced release 3. Serotonin 4. cAMP 5. Blocked K+, increased action potential c. pain and neurotransmitters i. Substance P 1. Activates pain pathway ii. Glutamate 1. Activates AMPA (action potential) 2. Activates NMDA a. Second messenger pathway b. hyperexcitability iii. Three types of pain receptors 1. Mechanonociceptors 2. Thermal nociceptors 3. Polymodal nociceptors iv. Pain is a result of substances released by damaged tissues: prostaglandins, histamine, and substance P. d. discrimination i. ability to distinguish origin of stimuli 1. Fine small receptive field 2. Poor large receptive field e. Afferent: Afferent pathway i. Sends signal to integrating center f. Efferent: Efferent pathway i. Instructions to muscle or gland 13. Smell and receptor types a. Chemoreceptors – detect chemical changes for both sense b. Olfactory Receptors: in the nose are specialized ending of afferent neurons c. Different olfactory receptors detect discrete parts of an odor. d. Odor discrimination is coded by patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb glomeruli. Afferent signals are sorted by scent component. e. The olfactory system adapts quick
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