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UA / Psychology / PY 101 / what is mental image?

what is mental image?

what is mental image?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Ian mcdonough
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Intro to Psych Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what will be on the upcoming psych exam.
Uploaded: 03/06/2017
11 Pages 6 Views 15 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Study Guide

Cognition

Elements of cognition

Concept- mental note that groups things together based on shared characteristics. It simplifies things to quickly make decisions

- It is influenced by culture and language. E.g. Eskimos have

different names for different types of snow because of the area

they are surrounded by. Prototype- specially represented by a concept. E.g a prototypical fruit would be an apple for example.

SENSO

Cultural Schema

- Mental frameworks that we use to describe and think about the world

around us. - They represent beliefs about the world and are structured by culture. - E.g. stereotypes like describing the typical college student." We also discuss several other topics like What are the three cultural barriers to modernization in India?
Don't forget about the age old question of what is tax reform?

Mental Image

- Visual images in the mind's eye. - They help form and create schemas.

Subconscious thinking


when does subconscious thinking occurs?



- Occurs when you have tasks and behaviors that become automatic. - Allows for you to do multiple, difficult talks at once without really having

to think about it. - E.g. driving becomes something you just do.

Explicit thinking

- Physically pondering/thinking about what you for example, are eating for

dinner that night

Nonconscious thinking

Occurs outside of awareness When we learn about an implicit situation between two things.

Has to do with mindlessness - Obliviousness to present context - Mental inflexibility

Problem Solving We also discuss several other topics like What is Working Capital Management?

- Algorithms vs. Heuristics

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Problem Solving

- Algorithms vs. Heuristics

Algorithms

Heuristics

A problem solving strategy where info goes in and you're guaranteed info out of it.

General rule of thumb that guides problem solving


what are the three types of thinking?



Don't have to know how it works, it just works.

Helps limit options so it requires less cognitive thought.

If algorithm is flawed the solution will be flawed too.

Answer is not always correct

E.g. a girl walks to the movies every Friday at 3pm. Flaw: she breaks her leg. Therefore, will not be walking to the movies on Friday at Don't forget about the age old question of what is drug enforcement administration?

3pm.

Fast vs. Slow thinking

Fast

Slow If you want to learn more check out How does your book define personality?

Intuitive-make decisions based on your gut.

Mentally engaging in problem solving

Evolutionary adapted

Thinking logically, more accurate.

Not necessarily evolutionarily adapted

Rely on it in our everyday lives. It's our instant go to way of thinking.

Reasoning

- Purposeful cognitive mental activity

Required to draw conclusions by observations and facts - E.g. looking at test questions

-

Red

Dialectical Reasoning

- Rating two opposing views - There are pros and cons to one aspect of something

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Dialectical Reasoning

- Rating two opposing views - There are pros and cons to one aspect of something - E.g. support/disagree with something like the death penalty.

Types of Reasoning

- Prereflective

holds assumption that correct answers always exists and can be obtained through our senses. Fairly primitive.

-

Quasi-reflective Somethings cannot be known by absolute certainty. Only pay attention to what they believe. Information that challenges beliefs is not acknowledged. E.g confirmation bias

Reflective Cannot know the answer to everything. Sometimes there is no right answer. Acknowledge that some judgements are more valid than others Consider multiple sources and know how to weigh credibility Most people do not engage until adolescents and don't deeply reflectively think until late 20's.

-

Type of thinking

Depends on content

Barriers to Reasoning

Ignoring base rates

- Proportion at which something actually happens

- Exaggerate less likely events - Availability heuristic

- Easiest to recall what we think is true - Easier to recall emotionally laden events - The more we hear it to more we believe it to be true, when data

actually tells us otherwise.

As Humans we tend to want to avoid loss as much as possible

- Framing effect - Make judgements to avoid loss

How we make decisions is based on how the problem is introduced to us. E.g. 95% survival rate (we focus on this) 5% death rate (we do not focus

on thiel

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- E.g. 95% survival rate (we focus on this) 5% death rate (we do not focus

on this) Perceptions of fairness is not bound by culture E.g. Someone has $25 to split between two people. One person gets $20 the other gets $5. Some people wouldn't even bother to take the $5 because it is not a fair split of the $25 Hindsight bias

- Looking at current info then looking back on past info then saying

to yourself, after being aware of the current info, "I knew it all

along."

- Confirmation bias Cognitive Dissonance

-Behavior is not consistent with attitudes or beliefs. -Cognitions conflict → Causes tension Efforts put forward to reduce dissonance. -Cognitive dissonance has to deal with inconsistency. Two thoughts that are incompatible -e.g. “I smoke cigarettes.” “But cigarettes are unhealthy." -Efforts are put forward to restore consistency like

1. Changing a thought 2. Change a behavior 3. Add new thoughts to help rationalize inconsistency

4. Trivialize the inconsistency - Cognitive dissonance can cause you to become physically

uncomfortable so when something makes you uncomfortable, you want to feel better, so you try to restore the consistency.

Memory

- Capacity to retain and retrieve information. - Structures that account for this capacity are:

- Memory formed in hippocampus

- Memory stored in cerebral cortex The entire limbic system is involved in forming, coding, and memory retrieval

Emotions can cloud memory - If you are emotionally challenged your memory will be poor. - *Refer to Elizabeth Loftus TED Talk*

Reconstructing (Recalling) Memories

Source Misattribution:

Inability to distinguish an actual memory from information gathered elsewhere.

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12:15 AM Inability to distinguish an actual memory from information gathered elsewhere. Remembering an event happening but cannot remember who told it.

Flashbulb Memory:

- Specific memories about specific events - Usually laden with emotions, or attached to emotional experience

Seem clearer but they're not more likely to be accurate. - Higher in confidence that something actually happened when it comes to

flashbulb memories but it could still be inaccurate.

Confabulation:

You thought, you heard, or told others about the event many times. When you're told a story so many times you begin to believe that you were there. Image of the event contains a lot of detail The easier events are more memorable because they don't take as much mental effort.

The Power of Suggestion:

Suggestive words Familiarity of events Misleading information E.g A car accident being rated (words use can suggest the severity of the accident). "Crash”- it was really bad "Hit"-wasn't as bad White people identify more with white people and African Americans identify more with African Americans because that is who they are familiar with You grew up with people of your descent (color). So you familiarize with them better. This increases accuracy when identifying certain characteristics.

Memory Retrieval: Explicit

- Conscious effort - Intentional - Trying to encode information - Measured by recall (e.g essay questions, fill in the blank) and recognition

(e.g. multiple choice, true or false, these are generally easier) Implicit

Unconscious retention of information - Learning without realizing that we are

Implicit bias- the idea that we have internalized and learned some stereotypes. Everyone has them and they affect behavior

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12:15 AM stereotypes. Everyone has them and they affect behavior Priming- experimenter gives people information by listening, reading, and viewing stimulus then sees if it had an effect. Can be subtle and complex. Relearning experimenter brings people in, teaches them something new then sends them home, then brings them back to teach them again

to see if they retained any information. Models of Memory: Parallel distribution- Theory that memory is representation of connections with various things. E.g. If familiar with #'s easier to connect to remember. Like an area code (609) if those numbers come up in an answer, you tend to remember them easier because they are the area code of where you live.

Information Process: Stimulus goes in sensory memory encodes in working memory in long term memory

stored

Short term Memory:

- Chunking - Accurate

Large capacity

Working memory - Can store info into long term memory e.g. phone numbers

Sensory memory:

- Cannot retrieve from it - Things are easily forgotten from it but are accurate

Acts as a buffer for stimuli received by smell, touch, sight, hearing, and

taste. - Part of short term memory Working Memory:

Manipulates objects - Stores data that is in current use.

Part of short term memory.

"The Leaky Bucket" Aka short term memory

- E.g when short number sequences are easier to remember. The first

numbers are heard and remembered capacity is reached doesn't remember anything after that Primacy: 5-8-2-4-3 Regency: 5-8-2-3

Long Term Memory:

Infinite canacity

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Long Term Memory:

- Infinite capacity - Memory can be retrieved to go back into short term memory

Semantic Categories (facts, concepts, known about the world e.g. Description of a baby might be the same for many people)

- Remembering by associating - Encoding by chunking semantics - E.g. Bugs- ants, spiders, lady bugs.

*In different cultures, semantic categories may differ.*

Tip of tongue effect

- Memory or word is right there but can't be retrieved

Procedural memory

- Tying shoes - Riding a bike

Swimming - Basically things that you'll always know how to do after learning how to

do them. Declarative

Knowing something is true e.g. Knowing something to be fact like the capitol of The U.S. is Washington DC

Episodic

Representation of a personal experience E.g. Your prom, 21st bday. You recall what happened in past events This could also go for planning for the future The difference between this and flashbulb memory is that flashbulb memory is simply a type of episodic memory

Effective encoding

- Not all encoding is created equal. E.g. Re reading text book - Encoding is effective when it is relatable and applicable to what we

already know and can relate to. It requires more than memorization. Rehearsal

- Maintenance vs. elaborative

Retrieval Practice

- Quizzing - Collaboration

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Forgetting

- Decay- memory fades in time if not retrieved. Occurs in sensory and

short term memory.

Replacement

- The idea that new information wipes out old information

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Interference

- Similar items of information interfere with one another during restoring or

retrieval process. Cue-dependent forgetting

- State dependent learning where you're more likely to remember an event

when you're in a certain state that you were in at another time. - Mood-congruent learning where emotions specifically help memory.

LI

The Repression Controversy

- Amnesia- the loss of memory for important personal information. - Results from organic conditions like brain disease or head injury and is

usually temporary. Sigmund Freud argued that the mind defends itself from unwelcome and upsetting memories through repression, which is the involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious. This supports the argument that a special unconscious mechanism called repression is necessary to explain either psychogenic or traumatic amnesia.

Arousal and Memory

- Epinephrine and norepinephrine can enhance or inhibit memory.

Before Conditioning Food (Unconditioned Stimulus).

-> Response= Salivation

(Unconditioned Response).

Before Conditioning Whistle (Neutral Stimulus).

-> Response= No salivation

(No conditioned response)

During Conditioning Whistle + Food

->Response= Salivation

(Unconditioned Response)

After Conditioning

Whistle

Bosnonce=salivation

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Before Conditioning Food (Unconditioned Stimulus).

-> Response= Salivation

(Unconditioned Response).

Before Conditioning Whistle

(Neutral Stimulus).

-> Response= No salivation

(No conditioned response)

During Conditioning Whistle + Food

->Response= Salivation

(Unconditioned Response)

After Conditioning Whistle

(Conditioned Stimulus).

->Response=Salivation

(Conditioned Response)

Punishment

Positive- works by presenting negative consequences after and undesired behavior to make the behavior less likely to happen in the future Negative- Taking away a desired item as a result of an undesired behavior

Reinforcement Positive- the addition of a reinforcement stimulus following a behavior to make it more likely for a behavior to happen again Negative-removing something from a situation to make something more likely to happen.

Primary vs. Secondary Primary reinforcements-natural, we need these e.g. Food, water.

Primary Punishers-pain, extreme heat or cold. We have to be in a certain state to do something. There needs to be an internal need for something to be affected. Note: that things are effective differently depending on culture.

Secondary reinforcers-Learned, e.g. Applauses, good grades, money. Theses things Drive us to do things. They're more powerful in general situations.

Secondary Punishers-criticism, monetary, fines, bad grades.

Principles of Operant Conditioning Extinction

- the process in which previously learned response stops.

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12:15 AM - The reinforcer is no longer available

- Slowly sputters out Spontaneous recovery

- Behavior pops up again

Stimulus Generalization

- Associated conditioned stimulus to similar neutral stimulus

Stimulus Discrimination

- Distinguishing between two stimuli

Learning on Schedule:

Continuous reinforcement

- Particular response is always renewed

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Intermittment

- Schedule in which response is sometimes but not always reinforced - Result in behavior most difficult to distinguish

Punishment is successful and failed:

- Research suggests that punishment is more effective when it's

consistent Severity doesn't make a difference Punishment frequently fails because every behavior trying to be extinguished can't be punished every single time. When punishment is applied way after behavior, people have a hard time distinguishing what they did wrong so behavior is less likely to be extinguished. There needs to be a direct association between the behavior and punishment Punishment doesn't tell people what to do, it teaches them what not to

do - Punishment gets attention which is sometimes what people want,

causing the purpose of it to fail.

Problems with Reward

Research suggests that reinforcers don't always act in the way they're intended to act, in other words, they are misapplied.

Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation

- If extrinsic motivation is too high it may lower intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation

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Learning on Schedule:

Continuous reinforcement

- Particular response is always renewed

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Intermittment

- Schedule in which response is sometimes but not always reinforced - Result in behavior most difficult to distinguish

Punishment is successful and failed:

- Research suggests that punishment is more effective when it's

consistent Severity doesn't make a difference Punishment frequently fails because every behavior trying to be extinguished can't be punished every single time. When punishment is applied way after behavior, people have a hard time distinguishing what they did wrong so behavior is less likely to be extinguished. There needs to be a direct association between the behavior and punishment Punishment doesn't tell people what to do, it teaches them what not to do Punishment gets attention which is sometimes what people want, causing the purpose of it to fail.

Problems with Reward

- Research suggests that reinforcers don't always act in the way they're

intended to act, in other words, they are misapplied.

Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation

- If extrinsic motivation is too high it may lower intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation

- Money

Intrinsic motivation

- Morals that you personally feel motivate you

Social Cognitive Learning Theory

- Away of emphasizing how beliefs and ideals shape what we do.

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