Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 3: The Legal Foundations of Homeland Security
Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist attacks on embassies and diplomats?
∙ Convention to Prevent Terrorism Against Targets of International Significance
Which department of the U.S. government is responsible for designating groups as “Foreign Terrorist Organizations”? ∙ State Department
The ________________________________ is the principal judicial arm of the United Nations.
∙ International Court of Justice
In order to designate a country as a State Sponsor of Terrorism, the Secretary of State must determine that the government of such country has repeatedly provided _______________ for acts of international terrorism.
Subsequent to the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005, __________________ legislation was regularly considered and passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by sitting presidents.
In the 1990’s, the United Nations established criminal tribunals to address war crimes and genocide in _______________ and _______________. We also discuss several other topics like Based on the goal to predict foot length from forearm length, which variable is the explanatory variable?
If you want to learn more check out When was the national woman's party established?
∙ the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda
________________ (two-party) and ________________ (multiple-party) agreements, which include treaties, are used to create an environment conducive to international order maintenance under the authority of international law.
∙ Bi-lateral, multi-lateral
Governments and the international community are necessarily the only institutions capable of enforcing legal _____________. ∙ mandates
International terrorism emerged as a strategic option during a period in history when violent extremists experimented with ways to ________________ their otherwise local grievances.
___________________ law is based on tradition, custom, and formal agreements between nations. If you want to learn more check out Is a search for knowledge of the natural world?
Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 5: Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the Federal Level
The overarching mission of the ____________ is to “maintain a strong economy and create economic and job opportunities by promoting the conditions that enable economic growth and stability at home and abroad, strengthen national security by combating threats and protecting the integrity of the financial system, and manage the U.S. Government’s finances and resources effectively.”
∙ Department of the Treasury If you want to learn more check out How does the evolutionary perspective explain human behavior?
If you want to learn more check out How do you introduce a role play in the bedroom?
Published in 2002, this was the first clarification of the newly emerging homeland security culture. The ________ explicated the concept of homeland security, identified essential homeland security missions, and established priorities for coordinating the protection of domestic critical infrastructures.
∙ National Strategy for Homeland Security
Part of the process of clarifying the new homeland security enterprise is ongoing and publications that regularly clarify the
homeland security enterprise. These include the 2010 ________________.
∙ National Security Strategy
The primary mission of the ______________ “is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to Indian Tribes and our commitments to island communities.”
∙ Department of the Interior
Service agencies _________________ and _________________ services for the general public.
∙ regulate, manage
Strong proposals to revamp the domestic homeland security community were made within nine months of the September 11, 2001, attacks because of the apparent failure of the pre-September 11 domestic security community to adapt
∙ the new terrorist environment
The overarching mission of the _______ is to lead “the nation's environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts…[and] protect human health and the environment. ∙ Environmental Protection Agency Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of irb?
The federal homeland security bureaucracy is a network of specialized _______________ that contribute to the overall mission of securing the United States from terrorist threats.
The Homeland Security Act was enacted on November 25, 2002 and created the _________. The new Department was tasked with five main areas of responsibility. These areas of responsibility reflected the underlying missions of the former emergency response and security agencies which were subsumed under the authority of ______.
∙ Department of Homeland Security
_______ is “the United States government's principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.”
Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 6: Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the State and Local Levels
Federal homeland security grants support state and local initiatives by reimbursing governments for related __________________. ∙ expenditures
An organization representing urban areas on issues affecting major cities and other urban governments. _________________ engages in advocacy and publicizing issues on behalf of governments representing a large proportion of the population of the United States.
∙ United States Conference of Mayors
NEMA resources are intended to address a/an ___________________ approach to homeland security and emergency management. ∙ all-hazards
A ubiquitous feature of law enforcement cooperation that has been established nationally in dozens of jurisdictions. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been tasked to coordinate nationally through the National _____________, an interagency office operating from FBI headquarters.
∙ Joint Terrorism Task Force
Consortia of regional governing bodies which promote collaboration and cooperation among members. A large number of _______________ (more than 500) have been established across the United States, and are represented in every state.
∙ Councils of Government
An important advantage of membership with the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is that the compact is
capable of leveraging and managing the disbursement of federal ________________ resources.
The National Emergency Management Association established the __________________________ as a public forum for government personnel and private practitioners to “coalesce efforts and perspectives about how best to protect America in the 21st century” in the aftermath of the September 11 attack.
∙ National Homeland Security Consortium
States are frequently tasked with ___________________ the intervention of multiple relief agencies that report to local governments.
The missions of National Guard units, and reasons for deploying them, range from disaster rescue ________________ to military responses in the event of rioting to securing critical _________________ such as airports when terrorist attacks occur.
∙ relief, infrastructure
Coordination of the multiplicity of planning and responder policies at state and local levels of government is inherently ________________. ∙ complex
Custom Electronic Edition Chapt 1: Terrorism as Social Construction of Reality & 2: The Globalization of Terrorism
An entity that comes into existence “when private individuals assemble to form a public body.
∙ The Public Sphere
Derives from Greek and literally means “covered writing”. It is an ancient practice of concealing messages within texts, pictures, and objects.
___________ is a cultural movement of the late 20th century that embraces the philosophy that humans live in an age of personal freedom from imposed rules and social limitations.
_____________________ can be looked at from three dimensions: (1) material— the movement of humans, goods, information, and wealth along the channels of a global transportation and communication network; (2) spatiotemporal—the revolution of time and space by networks that traverse political borders and considerably decrease transaction time; and (3) cognitive—the change in public awareness of how remote events affect local events and, therefore, in the view of what represents a meaningful world.
As a rule, a terrorist organization’s website will outline the history of the organization; details about its political and ideological objectives (i.e., what it stands for); a thorough examination of its social and political background and accounts of its “accomplishments”. Which of the following is not one of the four types of terrorists’ online audience?
_______ is conversation or communication aimed at maintaining reality in the subjective world. It also represents an integral tool that results in changes to the world and social practice, and at the same time is established by social practices. ∙ Language
A strategic theme to embrace the national, the cultural, and the social without confining any American to any one of those exclusively is known as? ∙ American collective identity
Hofstede identified and developed construct validity for four different dimensions of national values and culture across the entire world: _____________ is a principle by which people give preference to their own needs, rather than harmony, teamwork, and communal activities.
A defense mechanism for tackling terrorism is to rely on a social construct called _____________, or the attitude that people get what they deserve. ∙ belief in a just world
The direct observation, reporting and assessment of the behavior of a group. ∙ Ethnography
Custom Electronic Edition, Chapt 3: Terrorism as a Communication Process: The Media & Chapt 4: The Information Battleground: Terrorist Violence and the Role of the Media
When the spectacle of violence is used to confirm the fears of the audience and their feelings of unrest during times of emergency and political uncertainty is known as? ∙ Spectaculturization
The role of the__________ is essential for the effect of terrorist attacks on the general audience.
The Oklahoma City bombing is an example of ______________, whereby terrorism is deliberately carried out to attract attention from the media and, accordingly, the general public.
∙ mediaoriented terrorism
Identifies a causal relationship between media and terrorism, which calls for media regulation. In this model, the media play a dangerous game: “As media cover terrorism, they incite more terrorism, which produces more media coverage”. ∙ Culpablemedia model
Terrorism attracts cameras; cameras attract terrorism, is known as? ∙ A symbiotic relationship
Any systematic, widespread, deliberate indoctrination or plan for such indoctrination. ∙ Propaganda
Refers to the inclusion of subjective (opinionated) interpretations by journalist when reporting the facts.
∙ Media spin
Some level of ________________ is frequently present in the relationship between government officials and members of the media when terrorism moves to the forefront of public discourse.
∙ contention or animosity
In the modern era, the truism that ___________________is very clearly understood by the media and governments; it is also understood by terrorists, their audiences, and their adversaries.
∙ information is power
The _________________ refers to the theoretical influence of media exposure on the future behavior of other likeminded extremists.
∙ contagion effect
the 911 Commission Report, Chapter 1: We Have Some Planes
1) In most of the hijacking instances on 911, the hijackers threatened to use what? ∙ knives, mace, and a bomb
2) On 9/11, the following transmission came from ________: “We have some planes. Just stay quiet, and you’ll be okay. We are returning to the airport.” ∙ American 11
3) ___________ mission was, and is, to defend the airspace of North America and protect the continent. That mission does not distinguish between internal and external threats; but because it was created to counter the Soviet threat, it came to define its job as defending against external attacks.
4) What was the name of the computerized prescreening system created to identify passengers who should be subject to special security measures?
∙ CAPPS (Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System)
5) On 9/11, the NEADS air defenders had _________ notice on the first hijacked plane, no advance notice on the second, no advance notice on the third, and no advance notice on the fourth.
∙ 9 minutes
6) What does FAA stand for?
∙ Federal Aviation Administration
7) During the 911 hijackings many flight attendants involved in the hijackings took action outside the scope of their training, for example flight attendant: ____________, on American flight 11 contacted American Airlines Southeastern Reservations office.
∙ Betty Ong,
8) On 9/11, how many airplanes were hijacked?
9) In most cases, the chain of command authorizing the use of force runs from the president to the _________ and from the ________ to the combatant commander. ∙ Secretary of Defense
10) On 9/11, the defense of U.S. airspace depended on close interaction between two federal agencies: What are the two Federal agencies?
∙ FAA and NORAD
9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 2: Foundation of the New Terrorism
1) According to the 911 Commission Report, it may not have been clear to Bin Ladin that ____________ would be his best ally. When he arrived in Afghanistan, they controlled much of the country, but key centers including Kabul, were still held by rival warlords. ∙ the Taliban
2) Islam literally means “___________________” and arose in Arabia with what Muslims believe are a series of revelations to the Prophet Mohammed from the one and only God, the God of Abraham and of Jesus.
∙ Surrender to the will of God
3) According to the 911 Commission Report, ______________ warned: “If the present injustice continues…it will inevitable move the battle to American soil.”
∙ Bin Ladin
4) Normally, a _______, or an interpretation of Islamic law is issued by a respected Islamic authority, but neither Bin Ladin, Zawahiri, nor the three others who signed this statement were scholars of Islamic law.
5) According to the 911 Commission Report, by the 1990s, _________ and declining rates of _______ had produced a common problem throughout the Muslim world: a large, steadily increasing population
of young men without any reasonable expectation of suitable or steady employment—a sure prescription for social turbulence. ∙ High birthrates, infant mortality
6) Among Arabs, Bin Ladin’s followers are commonly nicknamed ______, or “those who define other Muslims as unbelievers,” because of their readiness to demonize and murder those with whom they disagree.
7) According to the 911 Commission Report Bin Laden said “We believe that the worst thieves in the world today and the worst terrorists are the ______________.” ∙ American
8) According to the 911 Commission Report, _________ was the nation that held the key to Bin Ladin’s ability to use Afghanistan as a base from which to revive his ambitious enterprise for war against the United States.
The 911 Commission Report Chapter 4: Responses to alQaeda's Initial Assaults
1) According to The 9/11 Commission Report; __________________________ were the only countries that recognized the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan.
∙ Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates
2) _____________’s counterterrorism Presidential Decision Directives in 1995 (no. 39) and May 1998 (no. 62) reiterated that terrorism was a national security problem, not just a law enforcement issue.
∙ Bill Clinton
3) In 1998 policymakers knew little about the ___________ organization, despite the availability of information that it was a global network.
∙ al Qaeda
4) In 1997, the State Department concerns about ______ tensions often crowded out attention to Afghanistan or Bin Ladin.
5) According to The 9/11 Commission Report; The day after _______________, Tenet brought to a principals meeting intelligence that terrorist leaders were expected to gather at a camp near Khowst, Afghanistan, to plan future attacks. ∙ the embassy bombings
6) In the first months of 1999, ___________ had developed broader target lists to undertake a "focused campaign” against the infrastructure of Bin Ladin’s network and to hit Taliban government sites as well.
∙ the Joint Staff
7) On December 4, 1998, the CIA included an article in the PDB describing intelligence about a threatened hijacking in the US. As a result the _____ issued a security directive on December 8, with specific requirements for more intensive air carrier screening of passengers at all three NYC area airports.
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; in late 1997, early 1998, the lead US agencies each pursued their own efforts against Bin Ladin. The _____________ was developing a plan to capture and remove him from Afghanistan.
∙ CIA’s Counterterrorist Center
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; A limited war began between India and Pakistan, euphemistically called the “__________” as India tried to drive the Pakistani forces out.
∙ Kargil crisis
Al Qaeda’s leadership had stopped using a particular means of communication after a leak to the Washington Times. This made it more difficult for the ______ to intercept conversations.
The 911 Commiss. Report Chapter 5: al Qaeda Aims at the Ameri. Homeland Actual terrorist operations represented a relatively small part of al Qaeda’s estimated $30 million annual operating budget. Al Qaeda funded all of the following except? ∙ healthcare facilities
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; In early January ________, Ali Abdul Aziz Ali—a nephew of KSM living in the UAE who would become an important facilitator in the plot, used Shehhi’s credit card to order a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator program and a Boeing 767 flight deck video, together with attendant literature; Ali had all these items shipped to his employer’s address.
As Hazmi and Mihdhar were deploying from Asia to the United States, al Qaeda’s leadership was recruiting and training four Western-educated men who had recently arrived in Kandahar. The new recruits had come to Afghanistan aspiring to rage jihad in_______. But al Qaeda quickly recognized their potential and enlisted them in its anti-U.S. jihad.
The 9/11 plotters spent somewhere between ____________ to plan and conduct their attack.
∙ $400,000 and $500,000
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; who graduate from NC State in 1986 with a degree in in mechanical engineering? ∙ Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
Al Qaeda appears to have relied on a core group of financial facilitators who raised money from a variety of donors and other fund-raisers, primarily in the Gulf countries and particularly in _________.
∙ Saudi Arabia
Like Yousef, KSM reasoned he could best influence U.S. policy by targeting the country’s ______.
Al Qaeda frequently moved the money it raised by________, an informal and ancient trust based system for transferring funds. ∙ hawala
Al Qaeda’s success in fostering terrorism in Southeast Asia stems largely from its close relationship with ________.
∙ Jemaah Islamiah
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; Bin Ladin, Atef and KSM developed an initial list of targets. All of the following are one of those targets, Except?
∙ A field in Pennsylvania
After the August 1998 bombings of the_________, President Bill Clinton and his chief aides explored ways of getting Bin Ladin expelled from Afghanistan or possibly capturing or even killing him. ∙ American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
The 911 Commission Report Chapter 6: From Threat to Threat As the Clinton administration drew to a close, Clarke and his staff developed a policy paper of their own, the first such comprehensive effort since the Delenda Plan of 1998. The resulting paper, entitled, _______________, reviewed the threat and the record to date, incorporated the CIA’s new ideas from the Blue Sky memo, and posed several near-term policy options.
∙ Strategy for Eliminating the Threat from the Jihadist Networks of al Qaeda
According to the 911 Commission Report; the CIA’s leadership was told that while a number of plots had been disrupted, the ______ might be only the “kick-off” for a period of extended attacks. ∙ millennium
According to the 911 Commission Report; the ______ provided strong evidence connecting the Cole attack to al Qaeda during the second half of November, identifying individual operatives whom the United States knew were part of al Qaeda.
According to the 911 Commission Report; The Counterterrorist Center put down its best ideas for the future, assuming it was free of any prior policy or financial constraints. The paper was therefore informally referred to as the “___________” memo; it was sent to Clarke on December 29.
∙ Blue Sky
According to the 911 Commission Report; by the end of a deputies meeting on September 10, officials formally agreed on a ________ strategy.
President Bush wrote __________ to request his support in dealing with terrorism and to urge Pakistan to engage actively against al Qaeda.
∙ President Musharraf
Before 9/11, the ______ did not consider terrorist financing important enough to its national strategy for money laundry.
∙ Dept of Treasury
According to the 911 Commission Report; the Principals Committee agreed that the government should take three major steps in regards to stopping terror attacks. Which of the following is not one of them?
∙ National Security
According to the 911 Commission Report; the Deputies Committee concluded that it was legal for the CIA to kill Bin Ladin or one of his deputies with the Predator. Such strikes would be acts of ___________ that would not violate the ban on assassinations in Executive Order 12333
The 911 Commision Report, Chapter 11: Foresight and Hindsight
Before 9/11, al Qaeda and its affiliates had killed ________ Americans.
∙ fewer than 50
The 9/11 Commission report believed that a lack of ________________ and lack of pooling analysis were symptoms of a broader inability to adapt how it manages problems to the new challenges of the 21st century.
∙ information sharing
According to The 9/11 Commission Report; the ____ did not develop a management strategy for a war against Islamist terrorism before 9/11.
The U.S. government must find a way of pooling intelligence and using it to guide the planning and assignment of responsibilities for _______ involving organizations as disparate as the CIA, the FBI, the State Department, the military and the agencies involved in homeland security. Answer:
∙ joint operations
Al Qaeda was formed in _____, at the end of the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan. A National Intelligence Estimate distributed in July 1995 predicted future terrorist attacks against and in the U.S. It specified possible targets including the White House, the Capitol and symbols of capitalism such as Wall Street.
Officials in both the Clinton and Bush administrations regarded a full U.S. invasion of Afghanistan as ______________ before 9/11.
∙ practically inconceivable
What four failures were revealed after the 9/11 attacks?
∙ management, policy, capabilities and imagination
Before 911, America’s homeland defenders faced outward. Therefore the most serious weaknesses in agency capabilities prior to 911 were in the ______ arena. ∙ Domestic
In the period between December 1999 and early January 2000, information about terrorism from the FBI flowed widely and abundantly. This was particularly remarkable because the FBI at other times shared almost no information. What was the cause of this information sharing from the FBI?
As a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash, President Clinton created a commission under Vice President Gore to report on shortcomings in aviation security in the U.S.
The ___________ did not mention suicide hijackings or the use of an aircraft as a weapon.
∙ Gore Commission