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VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY / OTHER / HSEP 101 / Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist a

Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist a

Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist a


School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: OTHER
Course: Homeland & Security Emergency Prep
Professor: James keck
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: hsep and memory
Cost: 50
Name: HSEP 101 Midterm Studyguide
Description: These notes will cover the homework quizzes that you have to take for each chapter of your homework. It will also help you on your exam but don't just limit it to these, look at your powerpoint too but these questions make up mostly of your exam. good luck
Uploaded: 03/06/2017
17 Pages 34 Views 3 Unlocks

Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 3: The Legal Foundations of  Homeland Security

Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist attacks on embassies and diplomats?

Which international legal response is in place to suppress terrorist attacks on  embassies and diplomats?

∙ Convention to Prevent Terrorism Against Targets of  International Significance

Which department of the U.S. government is responsible for  designating groups as “Foreign Terrorist Organizations”? ∙ State Department 

The ________________________________ is the principal judicial arm of  the United Nations.

∙ International Court of Justice 

In order to designate a country as a State Sponsor of Terrorism, the  Secretary of State must determine that the government of such  country has repeatedly provided _______________ for acts of  international terrorism.

Which department of the u.s. government is responsible for designating groups as “foreign terrorist organizations”?

∙ support 

Subsequent to the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization  Act of 2005, __________________ legislation was regularly considered  and passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by sitting  presidents.

∙ reauthorization 

In the 1990’s, the United Nations established criminal tribunals to  address war crimes and genocide in _______________ and  _______________. We also discuss several other topics like Based on the goal to predict foot length from forearm length, which variable is the explanatory variable?
If you want to learn more check out When was the national woman's party established?

∙ the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda 

________________ (two-party) and ________________ (multiple-party)  agreements, which include treaties, are used to create an  environment conducive to international order maintenance under  the authority of international law.

What is the meaning of hhs?

∙ Bi-lateral, multi-lateral

Governments and the international community are necessarily the  only institutions capable of enforcing legal _____________. ∙ mandates 

International terrorism emerged as a strategic option during a period in history when violent extremists experimented with ways to  ________________ their otherwise local grievances.

∙ publicize 

___________________ law is based on tradition, custom, and formal  agreements between nations. If you want to learn more check out Is a search for knowledge of the natural world?

∙ International 

Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 5: Agencies and Missions:  Homeland Security at the Federal Level

The overarching mission of the ____________ is to “maintain a strong  economy and create economic and job opportunities by promoting  the conditions that enable economic growth and stability at home  and abroad, strengthen national security by combating threats and  protecting the integrity of the financial system, and manage the U.S. Government’s finances and resources effectively.”

∙ Department of the Treasury If you want to learn more check out How does the evolutionary perspective explain human behavior?
If you want to learn more check out How do you introduce a role play in the bedroom?

Published in 2002, this was the first clarification of the newly  emerging homeland security culture. The ________ explicated the  concept of homeland security, identified essential homeland security missions, and established priorities for coordinating the protection of domestic critical infrastructures.

∙ National Strategy for Homeland Security 

Part of the process of clarifying the new homeland security  enterprise is ongoing and publications that regularly clarify the

homeland security enterprise. These include the 2010  ________________.

∙ National Security Strategy 

The primary mission of the ______________ “is to protect and provide  access to our Nation's natural and cultural heritage and honor our  trust responsibilities to Indian Tribes and our commitments to island  communities.”

∙ Department of the Interior

Service agencies _________________ and _________________ services for the general public.

∙ regulate, manage 

Strong proposals to revamp the domestic homeland security  community were made within nine months of the September 11,  2001, attacks because of the apparent failure of the pre-September  11 domestic security community to adapt  


∙ the new terrorist environment 

The overarching mission of the _______ is to lead “the nation's  environmental science, research, education and assessment  efforts…[and] protect human health and the environment. ∙ Environmental Protection Agency Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of irb?

The federal homeland security bureaucracy is a network of  specialized _______________ that contribute to the overall mission of  securing the United States from terrorist threats.

∙ Agencies 

The Homeland Security Act was enacted on November 25, 2002 and created the _________. The new Department was tasked with five  main areas of responsibility. These areas of responsibility reflected  the underlying missions of the former emergency response and  security agencies which were subsumed under the authority of  ______.

∙ Department of Homeland Security

_______ is “the United States government's principal agency for  protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential  human services.”

∙ HHS 

Understanding Homeland Security, Chapter 6: Agencies and Missions:  Homeland Security at the State and Local Levels

Federal homeland security grants support state and local initiatives  by reimbursing governments for related __________________. ∙ expenditures 

An organization representing urban areas on issues affecting major  cities and other urban governments. _________________ engages in  advocacy and publicizing issues on behalf of governments  representing a large proportion of the population of the United  States.

∙ United States Conference of Mayors 

NEMA resources are intended to address a/an ___________________  approach to homeland security and emergency management. ∙ all-hazards 

A ubiquitous feature of law enforcement cooperation that has been  established nationally in dozens of jurisdictions. The Federal Bureau  of Investigation has been tasked to coordinate nationally through  the National _____________, an interagency office operating from FBI  headquarters.

∙ Joint Terrorism Task Force 

Consortia of regional governing bodies which promote collaboration  and cooperation among members. A large number of _______________ (more than 500) have been established across the United States,  and are represented in every state.

∙ Councils of Government 

An important advantage of membership with the Emergency  Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is that the compact is

capable of leveraging and managing the disbursement of federal  ________________ resources.

∙ financial 

The National Emergency Management Association established the  __________________________ as a public forum for government  personnel and private practitioners to “coalesce efforts and  perspectives about how best to protect America in the 21st century” in the aftermath of the September 11 attack.

∙ National Homeland Security Consortium 

States are frequently tasked with ___________________ the  intervention of multiple relief agencies that report to local  governments.

∙ coordinating 

The missions of National Guard units, and reasons for deploying  them, range from disaster rescue ________________ to military  responses in the event of rioting to securing critical _________________ such as airports when terrorist attacks occur.

∙ relief, infrastructure 

Coordination of the multiplicity of planning and responder policies at state and local levels of government is inherently ________________. ∙ complex

Custom Electronic Edition Chapt 1: Terrorism as Social Construction of Reality  & 2: The Globalization of Terrorism

An entity that comes into existence “when private individuals assemble to form a  public body.

∙ The Public Sphere 

Derives from Greek and literally means “covered writing”. It is an ancient practice of  concealing messages within texts, pictures, and objects.

∙ Steganography 

___________ is a cultural movement of the late 20th century that embraces the  philosophy that humans live in an age of personal freedom from imposed rules and  social limitations.

∙ Postmodernism 

_____________________ can be looked at from three dimensions: (1) material— the  movement of humans, goods, information, and wealth along the channels of a global  transportation and communication network; (2) spatio­temporal—the revolution of  time and space by networks that traverse political borders and considerably decrease  transaction time; and (3) cognitive—the change in public awareness of how remote  events affect local events and, therefore, in the view of what represents a meaningful  world.

∙ Globalization 

As a rule, a terrorist organization’s website will outline the history of the organization; details about its political and ideological objectives (i.e., what it stands for); a  thorough examination of its social and political background and accounts of its  “accomplishments”. Which of the following is not one of the four types of terrorists’  online audience?

∙ hypercommunicators 

_______ is conversation or communication aimed at maintaining reality in the  subjective world. It also represents an integral tool that results in changes to the world  and social practice, and at the same time is established by social practices. ∙ Language

A strategic theme to embrace the national, the cultural, and the social without  confining any American to any one of those exclusively is known as? ∙ American collective identity 

Hofstede identified and developed construct validity for four different dimensions of  national values and culture across the entire world: _____________ is a principle by  which people give preference to their own needs, rather than harmony, teamwork, and communal activities.

∙ individuality 

A defense mechanism for tackling terrorism is to rely on a social construct called  _____________, or the attitude that people get what they deserve. ∙ belief in a just world 

The direct observation, reporting and assessment of the behavior of a group. ∙ Ethnography 

Custom Electronic Edition, Chapt 3: Terrorism as a Communication Process:  The Media & Chapt 4: The Information Battleground: Terrorist Violence and  the Role of the Media

When the spectacle of violence is used to confirm the fears of the audience and their  feelings of unrest during times of emergency and political uncertainty is known as? ∙ Spectaculturization 

The role of the__________ is essential for the effect of terrorist attacks on the general  audience.

∙ media 

The Oklahoma City bombing is an example of ______________, whereby terrorism is deliberately carried out to attract attention from the media and, accordingly, the  general public.

∙ media­oriented terrorism 

Identifies a causal relationship between media and terrorism, which calls for media  regulation. In this model, the media play a dangerous game: “As media cover  terrorism, they incite more terrorism, which produces more media coverage”. ∙ Culpable­media model

Terrorism attracts cameras; cameras attract terrorism, is known as? ∙ A symbiotic relationship 

Any systematic, widespread, deliberate indoctrination or plan for such indoctrination. ∙ Propaganda 

Refers to the inclusion of subjective (opinionated) interpretations by journalist when  reporting the facts.

∙ Media spin 

Some level of ________________ is frequently present in the relationship between  government officials and members of the media when terrorism moves to the forefront of public discourse.

∙ contention or animosity 

In the modern era, the truism that ___________________is very clearly understood  by the media and governments; it is also understood by terrorists, their audiences, and  their adversaries.

∙ information is power 

The _________________ refers to the theoretical influence of media exposure on the  future behavior of other like­minded extremists.

∙ contagion effect

the 911 Commission Report, Chapter 1: We Have Some  Planes

1) In most of the hijacking instances on 911, the hijackers threatened to use what? ∙ knives, mace, and a bomb 

2) On 9/11, the following transmission came from ________: “We have some planes. Just stay quiet, and you’ll be okay. We are returning to the airport.” ∙ American 11 

3) ___________ mission was, and is, to defend the airspace of North America and  protect the continent. That mission does not distinguish between internal and  external threats; but because it was created to counter the Soviet threat, it came to  define its job as defending against external attacks.


4) What was the name of the computerized prescreening system created to identify  passengers who should be subject to special security measures?

∙ CAPPS (Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System) 

5) On 9/11, the NEADS air defenders had _________ notice on the first hijacked  plane, no advance notice on the second, no advance notice on the third, and no  advance notice on the fourth.

∙ 9 minutes 

6) What does FAA stand for? 

∙ Federal Aviation Administration 

7) During the 911 hijackings many flight attendants involved in the hijackings took  action outside the scope of their training, for example flight attendant:  ____________, on American flight 11 contacted American Airlines Southeastern  Reservations office.

∙ Betty Ong, 

8) On 9/11, how many airplanes were hijacked? 

∙ 4

9) In most cases, the chain of command authorizing the use of force runs from the  president to the _________ and from the ________ to the combatant commander. ∙ Secretary of Defense 

10) On 9/11, the defense of U.S. airspace depended on close interaction between  two federal agencies:  What are the two Federal agencies?

∙ FAA and NORAD 

9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 2: Foundation of the New  Terrorism


1) According to the 911 Commission Report, it may not have been  clear to Bin Ladin that ____________ would be his best ally. When  he arrived in Afghanistan, they controlled much of the country,  but key centers including Kabul, were still held by rival warlords. ∙ the Taliban

2) Islam literally means “___________________” and arose in Arabia  with what Muslims believe are a series of revelations to the Prophet  Mohammed from the one and only God, the God of Abraham and of  Jesus.

∙ Surrender to the will of God 

3) According to the 911 Commission Report, ______________ warned:  “If the present injustice continues…it will inevitable move the battle  to American soil.”

∙ Bin Ladin 

4) Normally, a _______, or an interpretation of Islamic law is issued by a respected Islamic authority, but neither Bin Ladin, Zawahiri, nor  the three others who signed this statement were scholars of Islamic  law.

∙ Fatwa

5) According to the 911 Commission Report, by the 1990s, _________ and declining rates of _______ had produced a common problem  throughout the Muslim world: a large, steadily increasing population

of young men without any reasonable expectation of suitable or  steady employment—a sure prescription for social turbulence. ∙ High birthrates, infant mortality

6) Among Arabs, Bin Ladin’s followers are commonly nicknamed  ______, or “those who define other Muslims as unbelievers,” because of their readiness to demonize and murder those with whom they  disagree.

∙ Takfiri

7) According to the 911 Commission Report Bin Laden said “We believe that the  worst thieves in the world today and the worst terrorists are the ______________.” ∙ American

8) According to the 911 Commission Report, _________ was the  nation that held the key to Bin Ladin’s ability to use Afghanistan as a base from which to revive his ambitious enterprise for war against  the United States.

∙ Pakistan 

The 911 Commission Report Chapter 4: Responses to al­Qaeda's Initial Assaults

1) According to The 9/11 Commission Report; __________________________ were  the only countries that recognized the Taliban as the legitimate government of  Afghanistan.

∙ Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates 

2) _____________’s counterterrorism Presidential Decision Directives in 1995 (no.  39) and May 1998 (no. 62) reiterated that terrorism was a national security  problem, not just a law enforcement issue.

∙ Bill Clinton 

3) In 1998 policymakers knew little about the ___________ organization, despite the  availability of information that it was a global network.

∙ al Qaeda 

4) In 1997, the State Department concerns about ______ tensions often crowded out  attention to Afghanistan or Bin Ladin.

∙ India­Pakistan

5) According to The 9/11 Commission Report; The day after _______________,  Tenet brought to a principals meeting intelligence that terrorist leaders were  expected to gather at a camp near Khowst, Afghanistan, to plan future attacks. ∙ the embassy bombings 

6) In the first months of 1999, ___________ had developed broader target lists to  undertake a "focused campaign” against the infrastructure of Bin Ladin’s network  and to hit Taliban government sites as well.

∙ the Joint Staff 

7) On December 4, 1998, the CIA included an article in the PDB describing  intelligence about a threatened hijacking in the US.  As a result the _____ issued a  security directive on December 8, with specific requirements for more intensive air carrier screening of passengers at all three NYC area airports.

∙ FAA 

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; in late 1997, early 1998, the lead US  agencies each pursued their own efforts against Bin Ladin.  The _____________ was  developing a plan to capture and remove him from Afghanistan.

∙ CIA’s Counterterrorist Center 

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; A limited war began between India and  Pakistan, euphemistically called the “__________” as India tried to drive the Pakistani forces out.

∙ Kargil crisis 

Al Qaeda’s leadership had stopped using a particular means of communication after a  leak to the Washington Times. This made it more difficult for the ______ to intercept  conversations.

∙ NSA 

The 911 Commiss. Report Chapter 5: al Qaeda Aims at the Ameri. Homeland Actual terrorist operations represented a relatively small part of al Qaeda’s estimated  $30 million annual operating budget. Al Qaeda funded all of the following except? ∙ healthcare facilities

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; In early January ________,  Ali Abdul Aziz Ali—a nephew of KSM living in the UAE who would  become an important facilitator in the plot, used Shehhi’s credit card to order a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator program and a Boeing  767 flight deck video, together with attendant literature; Ali had all  these items shipped to his employer’s address.

∙ 2000 

As Hazmi and Mihdhar were deploying from Asia to the United  States, al Qaeda’s leadership was recruiting and training four  Western-educated men who had recently arrived in Kandahar. The  new recruits had come to Afghanistan aspiring to rage jihad  in_______. But al Qaeda quickly recognized their potential and  enlisted them in its anti-U.S. jihad.

∙ Chechnya 

The 9/11 plotters spent somewhere between ____________ to plan  and conduct their attack.

∙ $400,000 and $500,000 

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; who graduate from NC  State in 1986 with a degree in in mechanical engineering? ∙ Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 

Al Qaeda appears to have relied on a core group of financial  facilitators who raised money from a variety of donors and other  fund-raisers, primarily in the Gulf countries and particularly in  _________.

∙ Saudi Arabia 

Like Yousef, KSM reasoned he could best influence U.S. policy by  targeting the country’s ______.

∙ economy 

Al Qaeda frequently moved the money it raised by________, an  informal and ancient trust based system for transferring funds. ∙ hawala

Al Qaeda’s success in fostering terrorism in Southeast Asia stems  largely from its close relationship with ________.

∙ Jemaah Islamiah 

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; Bin Ladin, Atef and KSM  developed an initial list of targets. All of the following are one of  those targets, Except?

∙ A field in Pennsylvania 

After the August 1998 bombings of the_________, President Bill  Clinton and his chief aides explored ways of getting Bin Ladin  expelled from Afghanistan or possibly capturing or even killing him. ∙ American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania 

The 911 Commission Report Chapter 6: From Threat to Threat As the Clinton administration drew to a close, Clarke and his staff  developed a policy paper of their own, the first such comprehensive  effort since the Delenda Plan of 1998. The resulting paper, entitled,  _______________, reviewed the threat and the record to date,  incorporated the CIA’s new ideas from the Blue Sky memo, and  posed several near-term policy options.

∙ Strategy for Eliminating the Threat from the  Jihadist Networks of al Qaeda

According to the 911 Commission Report; the CIA’s leadership was  told that while a number of plots had been disrupted, the ______  might be only the “kick-off” for a period of extended attacks. ∙ millennium 

According to the 911 Commission Report; the ______ provided strong  evidence connecting the Cole attack to al Qaeda during the second  half of November, identifying individual operatives whom the United  States knew were part of al Qaeda.

∙ Yemenis 

According to the 911 Commission Report; The Counterterrorist  Center put down its best ideas for the future, assuming it was free of any prior policy or financial constraints. The paper was therefore  informally referred to as the “___________” memo; it was sent to  Clarke on December 29.

∙ Blue Sky 

According to the 911 Commission Report; by the end of a deputies  meeting on September 10, officials formally agreed on a ________  strategy.

∙ three-phase 

President Bush wrote __________ to request his support in dealing  with terrorism and to urge Pakistan to engage actively against al  Qaeda.

∙ President Musharraf 

Before 9/11, the ______ did not consider terrorist financing important enough to its national strategy for money laundry.

∙ Dept of Treasury

According to the 911 Commission Report; the Principals Committee  agreed that the government should take three major steps in  regards to stopping terror attacks. Which of the following is not one  of them?

∙ National Security  

Agency (NSA)

According to the 911 Commission Report; the Deputies Committee  concluded that it was legal for the CIA to kill Bin Ladin or one of his  deputies with the Predator. Such strikes would be acts of ___________ that would not violate the ban on assassinations in Executive Order  12333

∙ self-defense 

The 911 Commision Report, Chapter 11: Foresight and  Hindsight

Before 9/11, al Qaeda and its affiliates had killed ________ Americans. 

∙ fewer than 50 

The 9/11 Commission report believed that a lack of ________________ and lack of  pooling analysis were symptoms of a broader inability to adapt how it manages  problems to the new challenges of the 21st century.

∙ information sharing

According to The 9/11 Commission Report; the ____ did not develop a management  strategy for a war against Islamist terrorism before 9/11.

∙ DCI 

The U.S. government must find a way of pooling intelligence and using it to guide the planning and assignment of responsibilities for _______ involving organizations as  disparate as the CIA, the FBI, the State Department, the military and the agencies  involved in homeland security. Answer:

∙ joint operations 

Al Qaeda was formed in _____, at the end of the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan. A National Intelligence Estimate distributed in July 1995 predicted future terrorist  attacks against and in the U.S. It specified possible targets including the White House, the Capitol and symbols of capitalism such as Wall Street.

∙ 1988 

Officials in both the Clinton and Bush administrations regarded a full U.S. invasion of Afghanistan as ______________ before 9/11.

∙ practically inconceivable 

What four failures were revealed after the 9/11 attacks? 

∙ management, policy, capabilities and imagination  

Before 911, America’s homeland defenders faced outward.  Therefore the most  serious weaknesses in agency capabilities prior to 911 were in the ______ arena. ∙ Domestic 

In the period between December 1999 and early January 2000, information about  terrorism from the FBI flowed widely and abundantly. This was particularly  remarkable because the FBI at other times shared almost no information. What was  the cause of this information sharing from the FBI?

∙ Y2K 

As a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash, President Clinton created a commission  under Vice President Gore to report on shortcomings in aviation security in the U.S. 

The ___________ did not mention suicide hijackings or the use of an aircraft as a  weapon.

∙ Gore Commission

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