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econ 1301

econ 1301

Description

School: Tarleton State University
Department: Economics
Course: Intro to Criminal Justice
Professor: Heath
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Criminal, Criminal Justice, and Intro to criminal justice
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Review
Description: These are the tests taken throughout the semester, they are what he used to create the final exam and midterms.
Uploaded: 03/07/2017
30 Pages 548 Views 0 Unlocks
Reviews



What action by which jury triggered the opportunity for a retrial?




What is the defense attorney’s largest responsibility?




What might be considered circumstantial evidence?



∙ This one is right Which of the following is NOT grounds for an appeal? Selected Answer: b. The defendant has obtained new, more expensive counsel ∙ Question 2 0 out of 3.58 points Bail is a constitutional right. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 3 3.58 out of 3.58 points In which ofWe also discuss several other topics like What is the importance of Immanuel Kant?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the balance of internal water and salt?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the labor that can be directly traced to the goods or services being produced?
Don't forget about the age old question of in the constitution of 1787 the unamended document
If you want to learn more check out What is memory and how is it measured?
We also discuss several other topics like What is Descartes’ overarching goal in The Meditations?
the following circumstances does double jeopardy apply? Selected  Answer: c. The state prepares a second criminal trial for the same  defendant and the same crime ∙ Question 4 0 out of 3.58 points Prosecutors faced several obstacles in proving that Drew Peterson, a  former police officer, killed Kathleen Savio, his third wife. To start with, no  physical evidence or witnesses linked Peterson to any crime. In addition,  when Savio was found dead in her bathtub in 2004, the coroner ruled that  she had slipped, hit her head, and accidentally drowned. It was not until  Peterson’s fourth wife, Stacy, disappeared in 2007 that local police  reopened the investigation into Savio’s death. In the process, they  became convinced that Peterson “took out” Stacy because she knew that  he had killed Savio. Though suspicions regarding Peterson’s role in Stacy’s disappearance were never confirmed, the renewed law enforcement  interest did lead to his indictment for murdering Savio. Despite these  challenges, a jury convicted Peterson of murdering Savio. In February  2013, a judge sent him to prison for thirty-eight years. What might be considered circumstantial evidence? Selected Answer: b. Police suspicions about the disappearance of Stacy  Peterson ∙ Question 5 3.58 out of 3.58 points The Fifth Amendment includesSelected Answer: d. the prohibition against double jeopardy ∙ Question 6 3.58 out of 3.58 points Witnesses who have been granted ________ cannot refuse to answer  questions on the basis of self-incrimination. Selected Answer: d. immunity ∙ Question 7 3.58 out of 3.58 points As an elected official, the prosecutor must answer to Selected Answer: a. the voters. ∙ Question 8 3.58 out of 3.58 points In 2013, the Kansas Supreme Court overturned the capital conviction of  Phillip Cheatham, Jr., for the shooting deaths of two Topeka women a  decade earlier. Most crucially, Cheatham’s defense attorney had failed to  present evidence that his client was driving to Chicago at the time of the  shootings. The lawyer also spent only sixty hours preparing for the trial  (being busy running for governor at the time) and referred to Cheatham as a “professional drug dealer” and “shooter of people” in court. Which defense responsibility did Cheatham's defense attorney fail at? Selected Answer: c. Preparation of the case for trial ∙ Question 9 3.58 out of 3.58 points A judge’s order that releases an accused from jail with the understanding  that he or she will return of his or her own will for further proceedings is called Selected Answer: a. release on recognizance ∙ Question 10 0 out of 3.58 points In 2013, the Kansas Supreme Court overturned the capital conviction of  Phillip Cheatham, Jr., for the shooting deaths of two Topeka women a decade earlier. Most crucially, Cheatham’s defense attorney had failed to  present evidence that his client was driving to Chicago at the time of the  shootings. The lawyer also spent only sixty hours preparing for the trial  (being busy running for governor at the time) and referred to Cheatham as a “professional drug dealer” and “shooter of people” in court. The textbook points out that police officers often focus on factual guilt,  whereas prosecutors are ultimately concerned with _______guilt. Selected Answer: d. obvious ∙ Question 11 0 out of 3.58 points The primary purpose of discovery is for the Selected Answer: d. prosecutor to seek evidence for conviction. ∙ Question 12 0 out of 3.58 points The burden of proof in a criminal trial lies with the defense. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 13 3.58 out of 3.58 points What is the defense attorney’s largest responsibility? Selected Answer: d. Serve as advocate for the defendant ∙ Question 14 3.58 out of 3.58 points In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court uphold preventive detention? Selected Answer: a. United States v. Salerno (1987) ∙ Question 15 0 out of 3.58 points In all felony cases, the defendant is entitled to a ________. Selected Answer: c. jury trial ∙ Question 163.58 out of 3.58 points In Maine, the defendant had accidentally shot and killed a woman  standing in her backyard because he had mistaken her white mittens for a deer’s tail. His attorney argued that it was the responsibility of the victim  to wear bright-colored clothing in the vicinity of hunters during hunting  season. The jury agreed, and the defendant was acquitted of  manslaughter. In the San Francisco case, two people were charged with  distributing sterile needles to intravenous drug users. Rather than denying that the defendants had distributed the needles, the defense admitted the act but insisted that it was necessary to stem the transmission of AIDS  and, thus, to save lives. The jury voted 11–1 to acquit, causing a mistrial. What action by which jury triggered the opportunity for a retrial? Selected Answer: c. The San Francisco jury's vote of 11-1 ∙ Question 17 3.58 out of 3.58 points In 2013, the Kansas Supreme Court overturned the capital conviction of  Phillip Cheatham, Jr., for the shooting deaths of two Topeka women a  decade earlier. Most crucially, Cheatham’s defense attorney had failed to  present evidence that his client was driving to Chicago at the time of the  shootings. The lawyer also spent only sixty hours preparing for the trial  (being busy running for governor at the time) and referred to Cheatham as a “professional drug dealer” and “shooter of people” in court. Based on information in the preface, why might Cheatham's defense  attorney have wished to project a "tough on crime" persona? Selected Answer: c. He was running for governor. ∙ Question 18 0 out of 3.58 points About 50% of all criminal convictions are the result of plea bargaining. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 19 3.58 out of 3.58 points A defendant has the right to “take the fifth” without prejudicing the jury in  the prosecution’s favor.a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 20 3.58 out of 3.58 points Which Amendment addresses bail? Selected Answer: b. Eighth ∙ Question 21 3.58 out of 3.58 points Voir dire translates from French as Selected Answer: a. “to speak the truth.” ∙ Question 22 3.58 out of 3.58 points A dying declaration would usually qualify as an exception to the hearsay  rule. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 23 3.58 out of 3.58 points Indigent defendants may choose the attorney who will serve as their  public defender. a. T b. F Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 24 3.58 out of 3.58 points If a grand jury finds that probable cause exists, they will issue  a(n)______against the defendant. Selected Answer: c. indictment ∙ Question 25 3.58 out of 3.58 points In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court hold that plea bargaining is “an essential [and] highly desirable” part of the criminal justice process. Selected Answer: c. Santobello v. New York (1971) ∙ Question 26 3.58 out of 3.58 points Police officers are often concerned with_____, while prosecutors are  concerned with _______. Selected Answer: a. factual guilt, legal guilt ∙ Question 27 0 out of 3.58 points Prosecutors have discretion to do all of the following EXCEPT Selected Answer: a. determine if an individual will be charged with a crime. ∙ Question 28 0 out of 3.58 points In Maine, the defendant had accidentally shot and killed a woman  standing in her backyard because he had mistaken her white mittens for a deer’s tail. His attorney argued that it was the responsibility of the victim  to wear bright-colored clothing in the vicinity of hunters during hunting  season. The jury agreed, and the defendant was acquitted of  manslaughter. In the San Francisco case, two people were charged with  distributing sterile needles to intravenous drug users. Rather than denying that the defendants had distributed the needles, the defense admitted the act but insisted that it was necessary to stem the transmission of AIDS  and, thus, to save lives. The jury voted 11–1 to acquit, causing a mistrial. A civil trial is more likely in which case? Selected Answer: a. San Francisco∙ The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that law distinguishes among automobiles,  homes, and persons in questions involving police searches in Selected Answer: b. Carroll v. United States (1925). ∙ Question 2 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is not a strategy used by police officers to obtain  voluntary Miranda waivers from suspects? Selected Answer: b. Intimidation ∙ Question 3 4 out of 4 points The requirement for a stop-and-frisk is that an officer has: Selected Answer: d. reasonable suspicion. ∙ Question 4 0 out of 4 points Generally, law enforcement agents cannot enter any sort of dwelling  without consent from an inhabitant or written permission from a judge,  called a warrant. Police officers in Lexington, Ky., entered an apartment  building in pursuit of a suspect who sold crack cocaine to an undercover  informant. The officers lost sight of the suspect and mistakenly assumed  he entered an apartment from which they could detect the odor of  marijuana. After police knocked on the door and identified themselves,  they heard movements, which they believed indicated evidence was about to be destroyed. Police forcibly entered the apartment and found Hollis  King and others smoking marijuana. They also found cash, drugs and  paraphernalia. King entered a conditional guilty plea; reserving his right to appeal denial of his motion to suppress evidence obtained from what he  argued was an illegal search. What did the police use as justification for entering the apartment? Selected Answer: b. The smell of marijuana from outside the apartment. ∙ Question 5 4 out of 4 points The U.S. Supreme Court limited the scope of search incidental to arrest to  the area within the suspect’s“immediate control” in Selected Answer: a. Chimel v. California (1969). ∙ Question 6 4 out of 4 points Generally, law enforcement agents cannot enter any sort of dwelling  without consent from an inhabitant or written permission from a judge,  called a warrant. Police officers in Lexington, Ky., entered an apartment  building in pursuit of a suspect who sold crack cocaine to an undercover  informant. The officers lost sight of the suspect and mistakenly assumed  he entered an apartment from which they could detect the odor of  marijuana. After police knocked on the door and identified themselves,  they heard movements, which they believed indicated evidence was about to be destroyed. Police forcibly entered the apartment and found Hollis  King and others smoking marijuana. They also found cash, drugs and  paraphernalia. King entered a conditional guilty plea; reserving his right to appeal denial of his motion to suppress evidence obtained from what he  argued was an illegal search. When the police entered King's apartment, they were able to seize drugs  and drug paraphernalia based on what legal principle? Selected Answer: d. plain view doctrine ∙ Question 7 4 out of 4 points All of the following are legitimate sources of probable cause EXCEPT: Selected Answer: b. reasonable suspicion. ∙ Question 8 4 out of 4 points The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in ________defined “reasonable” suspicion  in stopandfrisk situations. Selected Answer: b. Terry v. Ohio (1968) ∙ Question 9 4 out of 4 points The plain view doctrine was first enunciated by the Supreme Court in ____.Selected Answer: c. Coolidge v. New Hampshire. ∙ Question 10 4 out of 4 points The U.S. Supreme Court established the recognized standard for a  “reasonable expectation of privacy” in Selected Answer: a. Katz v. United States (1967). ∙ Question 11 4 out of 4 points Following a series of controversies concerning the ability of the National  Security Agency (NSA) to wiretap telephone and e-mail communications of terrorism suspects, in 2008 Congress passed an amended version of FISA.  The revised law allows the NSA to wiretap for seven days, without a court  order, any person “reasonably believed” to be outside the United States, if the surveillance is necessary to protect national security. It also permits  the wiretapping of Americans for seven days without a court order, if  federal officials have probable cause to believe that the target is linked to terrorism. Under normal circumstances, what would be required before the  government would be allowed to listen to your phone conversations? Selected Answer: b. warrant ∙ Question 12 0 out of 4 points In October 2003 Gabe and Tina Watson decided to go scuba diving on  Australia’s Barrier Reef during their honeymoon. During the dive, Tina  died. Originally charged with murder by Australian officials, Gabe pleaded  guilty to manslaughter for not doing enough to save Tina from drowning.  After spending eighteen months in an Australian prison, in 2010 he was  sent back to Alabama to face similar charges in his and Tina’s home state. If found guilty in an Alabama court, he could have been sentenced to a  lifetime in prison, an possibility which became moot after Jefferson County Circuit Judge Tommy Nail dismissed the charges against him, asserting a  lack of evidence. The judge’s ruling shocked Tommy Thomas, Tina’s father. “It should have gone to the jury for them to decide,” he insisted. Double jeopardy, or being charged for the same crime twice, is prohibited  by the Constitution, but was avoided in this instance because of what  other legal principle?Selected Answer: d. limited jurisdiction ∙ Question 13 4 out of 4 points In October 2003 Gabe and Tina Watson decided to go scuba diving on  Australia’s Barrier Reef during their honeymoon. During the dive, Tina  died. Originally charged with murder by Australian officials, Gabe pleaded  guilty to manslaughter for not doing enough to save Tina from drowning.  After spending eighteen months in an Australian prison, in 2010 he was  sent back to Alabama to face similar charges in his and Tina’s home state. If found guilty in an Alabama court, he could have been sentenced to a  lifetime in prison, an possibility which became moot after Jefferson County Circuit Judge Tommy Nail dismissed the charges against him, asserting a  lack of evidence. The judge’s ruling shocked Tommy Thomas, Tina’s father. “It should have gone to the jury for them to decide,” he insisted. Though presumably Watson planned his alleged murder in Alabama,  Australia claimed_______based on where the crime took place. Selected Answer: d. jurisdiction ∙ Question 14 4 out of 4 points The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in _________denied the appellant’s claim  to a reasonable expectation of privacy when it came to his garbage bags. Selected Answer: c. California v. Greenwood (1988) ∙ Question 15 4 out of 4 points The purpose of a frisk is to determine the presence of _____. Selected Answer: c. weapons. ∙ Question 16 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is not true for consent searches? Selected Answer: b. The party giving consent must be advised they have the right to  refuse∙ Question 17 0 out of 4 points Case overload has been linked to all of the following situations except Selected  Answer: c. prosecutors charge only slam dunk cases in minor/non violent incidents. ∙ Question 18 4 out of 4 points Following a series of controversies concerning the ability of the National  Security Agency (NSA) to wiretap telephone and e-mail communications of terrorism suspects, in 2008 Congress passed an amended version of FISA.  The revised law allows the NSA to wiretap for seven days, without a court  order, any person “reasonably believed” to be outside the United States, if the surveillance is necessary to protect national security. It also permits  the wiretapping of Americans for seven days without a court order, if  federal officials have probable cause to believe that the target is linked to terrorism. The ability of the NSA to search first and then seek a warrant if suspicious  activities are found limits the effectiveness of which amendment? Selected Answer: a. Fourth ∙ Question 19 4 out of 4 points In _______the Supreme Court ruled that the “true motivation” of police officers in making  traffic stops is irrelevant as long as they had probable cause to believe a traffic law had  been broken. Selected Answer: a. Whren v United States ∙ Question 20 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is not a criterion of a valid plain view seizure? Selected  Answer: b. Additional investigation or testing must confirm the illegal  nature of the item. ∙ Question 21 4 out of 4 points Protection from unreasonable search and seizure is provided underSelected Answer: c. the Fourth Amendment. ∙ Question 22 4 out of 4 points Miranda is required when Selected Answer: c. a suspect is in custody and being questioned. ∙ Question 23 4 out of 4 points A tip to the police from a citizen can always be used to make a stop. Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 24 4 out of 4 points The Rule of Four requires that at least four Supreme Court justices make any decision. Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 25 4 out of 4 points Coolidge v. New Hampshire first enunciated the automobile exception to the search  warrant requirement. Selected Answer: FalseChapter 1 Classical theorists believe that a crime was an expression of a person’s Selected Answer: d. rational decision making process. ∙ Question 2 4 out of 4 points Discretion is strongly associated with Selected Answer: b. the informal justice process ∙ Question 3 4 out of 4 points Which term implies that a majority of citizens agree that certain activities  should be defined as crime? Selected Answer: b. Consensus model ∙ Question 4 4 out of 4 points In Bentham’s classical criminology, punishment aims to Selected Answer: c. give an incentive not to harm people. ∙ Question 5 0 out of 4 points A twenty-four-year-old woman walks into a telephone pole while texting. A  twelve-year-old boy, his attention focused on a handheld video game, is  struck by a pickup truck as he crosses the street. Over a period of six  years, according to a University of Maryland study, 116 pedestrians have  been killed or seriously injured while wearing headphones. These are  examples of the dangers of “distracted walking,” which—by some  measures— has become a national safety concern. Although driver traffic  fatalities in the United States are dropping, pedestrian traffic fatalities and injuries are increasing. Young people seem particularly vulnerable. One  special interest group found that the number of teens injured in pedestrian accidents rose 25 percent from 2006 to 2010. Many observers explain  these figures by pointing to an epidemic of distracted walking. Since texting laws are enforced at the local and state level, at which level  of law enforcement would the formal criminal justice process most likely  be dominant? (TEXT)Selected Answer: a. state ∙ Question 6 4 out of 4 points Trial by jury is relatively rare, only about of those arrested for felonies  go to trial. Selected Answer: a. 5% ∙ Question 7 4 out of 4 points According to the conflict model, what is deemed criminal activity is  determined by Selected Answer: c. the most politically powerful segment of society ∙ Question 8 0 out of 4 points A twenty-four-year-old woman walks into a telephone pole while texting. A  twelve-year-old boy, his attention focused on a handheld video game, is  struck by a pickup truck as he crosses the street. Over a period of six  years, according to a University of Maryland study, 116 pedestrians have  been killed or seriously injured while wearing headphones. These are  examples of the dangers of “distracted walking,” which—by some  measures— has become a national safety concern. Although driver traffic  fatalities in the United States are dropping, pedestrian traffic fatalities and injuries are increasing. Young people seem particularly vulnerable. One  special interest group found that the number of teens injured in pedestrian accidents rose 25 percent from 2006 to 2010. Many observers explain  these figures by pointing to an epidemic of distracted walking. Which concept is maximized when police officers choose not to issue a  ticket to the twenty-four-year-old woman who walked into a telephone  pole while texting? (TEXT) Selected Answer: b. rule of law ∙ Question 9 4 out of 4 points Discretion in criminal justice is vested in all of the following except Selected Answer: d.witnesses ∙ Question 10 4 out of 4 points The explosion in violent crime in the late 1980s and early 1990s was  attributed to the widespread sale and use of Selected Answer: d. crack cocaine. ∙ Question 11 4 out of 4 points Labeling an individual Selected Answer: b. affects one’s self concept. ∙ Question 12 4 out of 4 points A twenty-four-year-old woman walks into a telephone pole while texting. A  twelve-year-old boy, his attention focused on a handheld video game, is  struck by a pickup truck as he crosses the street. Over a period of six  years, according to a University of Maryland study, 116 pedestrians have  been killed or seriously injured while wearing headphones. These are  examples of the dangers of “distracted walking,” which—by some  measures— has become a national safety concern. Although driver traffic  fatalities in the United States are dropping, pedestrian traffic fatalities and injuries are increasing. Young people seem particularly vulnerable. One  special interest group found that the number of teens injured in pedestrian accidents rose 25 percent from 2006 to 2010. Many observers explain  these figures by pointing to an epidemic of distracted walking. Those who fear that texting while driving laws may increase racial profiling by the police are least concerned with what criminal justice concept?  (TEXT) Selected Answer: a. discretion ∙ Question 13 0 out of 4 points A twenty-four-year-old woman walks into a telephone pole while texting. A  twelve-year-old boy, his attention focused on a handheld video game, is  struck by a pickup truck as he crosses the street. Over a period of six  years, according to a University of Maryland study, 116 pedestrians have  been killed or seriously injured while wearing headphones. These are examples of the dangers of “distracted walking,” which—by some  measures— has become a national safety concern. Although driver traffic  fatalities in the United States are dropping, pedestrian traffic fatalities and injuries are increasing. Young people seem particularly vulnerable. One  special interest group found that the number of teens injured in pedestrian accidents rose 25 percent from 2006 to 2010. Many observers explain  these figures by pointing to an epidemic of distracted walking. A ban on texting while walking would maximize what value in criminal  justice? (TEXT) Selected Answer: b. support of crime victims ∙ Question 14 0 out of 4 points The United States has a dual court system, meaning that we have two  independent court systems, one at the federal level and one at the state  level. Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 15 4 out of 4 points How many people are killed by gunfire each year in the U.S.? Selected Answer: a. 30,000 ∙ Question 16 4 out of 4 points According to positivism, criminal behavior is determined by biological,  psychological, and social forces and is beyond the control of the  individual. Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 17 4 out of 4 points How many independent judicial systems are in the United States? Selected Answer: c. Two ∙ Question 18 4 out of 4 points _______is widely referred to as “the father of criminology.”Selected Answer: d. Cesare Lombroso. ∙ Question 19 4 out of 4 points Choice theorists believe the key to controlling crime is deterrence. Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 20 4 out of 4 points Social disorganization theory holds that crime is largely related to the  quality of neighborhoods. Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 21 4 out of 4 points Rational choice theory is an updated version of Selected Answer: c. classical theory. ∙ Question 22 4 out of 4 points For the positivist, behavior is Selected Answer: b. beyond the control of the individual ∙ Question 23 4 out of 4 points An explanation of a happening or circumstance based on observation,  experimentation, and reasoning is a Selected Answer: c. theory. ∙ Question 24 4 out of 4 points The concept of public order crimes is linked to the Selected Answer: c. consensus model. ∙ Question 25 4 out of 4 points All of the following are true according to Beccaria, except thatSelected  Answer: b. Punishment must be designed to diagnose and treat the underlying  causes of criminal behavior∙ Question 1 3.45 out of 3.45 points For most states looking to cut correction costs, the focus has been on  incarceration, or the reduction of inmate populations. a. T b. F Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 2 3.45 out of 3.45 points During a stop, New Jersey police officers determined that Albert Florence  had an outstanding warrant for an unpaid fine related to a previous traffic  infraction. Even though this is not a criminal offense, the officers arrested  Florence and took him to the Burlington County Jail. At the jail, correctional officers subjected him to a strip search, a highly invasive procedure that  includes a shower and a search of the suspect’s genitals and rectum. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that jail authorities may, using their  discretion, conduct strip searches whenever they see fit, even if the inmate is not suspected of committing a crime and there is no evidence that he or she is carrying contraband.  Justice Anthony Kennedy pointed out that “people detained for minor  offenses can turn out to be the most devious and dangerous criminals.”  Should noncriminals such as Florence, detained for traffic violations and  not suspected of any other wrongdoing be subjected to strip searches in  jails? According to the Supreme Court, strip searches may be conducted Selected Answer: c. at the discretion of the jail authority ∙ Question 3 3.45 out of 3.45 points On June 5, 2012, inmates at the Lee Correctional Institution in Bishopville,  South Carolina, ambushed a correctional officer who was escorting a nurse during her evening rounds. The nurse narrowly escaped and the  correctional officer was held hostage for more than six hours before being  rescued, relatively unharmed, by local law enforcement. Although state  officials promised to review the incident, about three months later inmates wielding homemade knives seized another correctional officer at the same prison. The officer suffered stab wounds and was locked in a broom closet. What might be another likely reason for the incidence of violence described in this preface? Selected Answer: d. Obtain sexual relief ∙ Question 4 3.45 out of 3.45 points The concept that the prisoner has no right to be given early release, but  the government has granted her or him that privilege is . Selected Answer: c. grace. ∙ Question 5 3.45 out of 3.45 points The socialization process through which a new inmate learns the accepted norms and values of the prison culture is called Selected Answer: c. prisonization ∙ Question 6 3.45 out of 3.45 points In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court establish the “deliberate  indifference” standard? Selected Answer: b. Estelle v. Gamble (1976) ∙ Question 7 3.45 out of 3.45 points One of the primary explanations for recent rapid growth in prison  populations is the increasing number of people incarcerated for Selected Answer: a. drug offenses. ∙ Question 8 3.45 out of 3.45 points Correctional officers find that disciplining inmates is the most difficult and  stressful job function. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 9 3.45 out of 3.45 pointsA number of states have passed civil confinement laws, which allow  corrections officials to Selected  Answer: d. confine sex offenders in noncorrectional facilities such as  psychiatric hospitals after the conclusion of their prison terms. ∙ Question 10 3.45 out of 3.45 points Jails are operated by which level of government? Selected Answer: a. County ∙ Question 11 3.45 out of 3.45 points Violence in prison is a tool for establishing Selected Answer: d. hierarchy. ∙ Question 12 3.45 out of 3.45 points America’s first penitentiary Selected Answer: b. isolated inmates from one another in solitary rooms. ∙ Question 13 3.45 out of 3.45 points The most efficiently run prison facilities are those run by Selected Answer: d. private companies ∙ Question 14 3.45 out of 3.45 points A number of inmate lawsuits have been filed in response to the use of  nutraloaf—an unpleasant concoction of nondairy cheese, powdered milk,  tomato paste, and dehydrated potato flakes—as prison food. These  lawsuits make the argument that nutraloaf is so distasteful as to be cruel  and unusual punishment. One plaintiff in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, claimed  that he became so violently ill after eating nutraloaf that his body weight  fell 8 percent due to excessive vomiting. In general, these lawsuits have  failed, as courts have been reluctant to create a constitutional right to  “decent prison food.”Which fact implies that the courts do see nutraloaf as deliberate  indifference? Selected  Answer: c. The courts not created a constitutional right to “decent  prison food" ∙ Question 15 3.45 out of 3.45 points The largest element in prison gang formation is Selected Answer: d. Race and ethnic identification. ∙ Question 16 3.45 out of 3.45 points Almost 90% of prison inmates reported being members of a prison gang. a. T b. F Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 17 3.45 out of 3.45 points A ______is an institution, such as a prison, that provides all of the  necessities for existence to those who live within its boundaries. Selected Answer: c. total institution ∙ Question 18 3.45 out of 3.45 points During a stop, New Jersey police officers determined that Albert Florence  had an outstanding warrant for an unpaid fine related to a previous traffic  infraction. Even though this is not a criminal offense, the officers arrested  Florence and took him to the Burlington County Jail. At the jail, correctional officers subjected him to a strip search, a highly invasive procedure that  includes a shower and a search of the suspect’s genitals and rectum. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that jail authorities may, using their  discretion, conduct strip searches whenever they see fit, even if the inmate is not suspected of committing a crime and there is no evidence that he or she is carrying contraband.  Justice Anthony Kennedy pointed out that “people detained for minor  offenses can turn out to be the most devious and dangerous criminals.”  Should noncriminals such as Florence, detained for traffic violations and not suspected of any other wrongdoing be subjected to strip searches in  jails? The strip search policy was likely established by the ______of the  Burlington County Jail. Selected Answer: b. sheriff ∙ Question 19 3.45 out of 3.45 points The majority of the nation’s jails are managed by Selected Answer: c. the county sheriff’s office. ∙ Question 20 3.45 out of 3.45 points Adaptive inmate behavior patterns observed in the prison environment are Selected Answer: c. doing time, jailing, gleaning, and disorganized. ∙ Question 21 3.45 out of 3.45 points ______is the practice of separating inmates based on a certain  characteristic, such as age, gender, type of crime committed, or race. Selected Answer: b. Prison segregation ∙ Question 22 3.45 out of 3.45 points According to DiIulio, in the absence of order, amenities, and services,  inmates will Selected Answer: c. become more difficult to control. ∙ Question 23 3.45 out of 3.45 points All of the following are disadvantage of high incarceration rates, EXCEPT: Selected Answer: c. Increasing violence in American prisons. ∙ Question 24 3.45 out of 3.45 pointsSince the 1930’s what prison model has dominated the most restrictive  prisons? Selected Answer: b. Custodial ∙ Question 25 3.45 out of 3.45 points As a result of sex offender post-release notification requirements, most  local police departments must announce the presence of paroled sex  offenders in their jurisdictions. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 26 3.45 out of 3.45 points During a stop, New Jersey police officers determined that Albert Florence  had an outstanding warrant for an unpaid fine related to a previous traffic  infraction. Even though this is not a criminal offense, the officers arrested  Florence and took him to the Burlington County Jail. At the jail, correctional officers subjected him to a strip search, a highly invasive procedure that  includes a shower and a search of the suspect’s genitals and rectum. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that jail authorities may, using their  discretion, conduct strip searches whenever they see fit, even if the inmate is not suspected of committing a crime and there is no evidence that he or she is carrying contraband.  Justice Anthony Kennedy pointed out that “people detained for minor  offenses can turn out to be the most devious and dangerous criminals.”  Should noncriminals such as Florence, detained for traffic violations and  not suspected of any other wrongdoing be subjected to strip searches in  jails? How might the authorities right to conduct a strip search be used against  a suspect? Selected  Answer: a. The threat of a strip search could be used to coerce  information ∙ Question 27 3.45 out of 3.45 points A model of corrections in which the psychological and biological roots of  an inmate’s criminal behavior areidentified and treated is called the congregate model. a. T b. F Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 28 3.45 out of 3.45 points In Morrisey v. Brewer (1972) the Supreme Court ruled that Selected  Answer: c. Parolees must be afforded due process at a parole  revocation hearing. ∙ Question 29 3.45 out of 3.45 points A number of inmate lawsuits have been filed in response to the use of  nutraloaf—an unpleasant concoction of nondairy cheese, powdered milk,  tomato paste, and dehydrated potato flakes—as prison food. These  lawsuits make the argument that nutraloaf is so distasteful as to be cruel  and unusual punishment. One plaintiff in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, claimed  that he became so violently ill after eating nutraloaf that his body weight  fell 8 percent due to excessive vomiting. In general, these lawsuits have  failed, as courts have been reluctant to create a constitutional right to  “decent prison food.” The Supreme Court standard which might apply in the case of the inedible nutraloaf would be Selected Answer: d. identifiable human needs∙ A state of being aware that a risk does exist and then disregarding that risk  is recklessness. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 2 4 out of 4 points A wrongful mental state is known as ________. Selected Answer: d. mens rea ∙ Question 3 4 out of 4 points According to police investigators, Rickie Lee Fowler was angry about  being thrown out of a family member’s house in California’s San  Bernardino Mountains. As retaliation, Fowler started one of the largest  wildfires in state history. Known as the Old Fire, the 91,000-acre blaze  lasted nine days, destroyed 1,003 homes, and caused the deaths of five men. Fowler was eventually convicted on two counts of arson and five counts of murder. In January 2013, a jury sentenced him to be executed.  “You’re not going to find a better case than this for the death penalty,”  said San Bernardino County deputy district attorney Robert Bullock. Of the five men killed in the Old Fire, how many did Rickie Lee Fowler  intend to kill? Selected Answer: a. zero ∙ Question 4 0 out of 4 points According to police investigators, Rickie Lee Fowler was angry about  being thrown out of a family member’s house in California’s San  Bernardino Mountains. As retaliation, Fowler started one of the largest  wildfires in state history. Known as the Old Fire, the 91,000-acre blaze  lasted nine days, destroyed 1,003 homes, and caused the deaths of five men. Fowler was eventually convicted on two counts of arson and five counts of murder. In January 2013, a jury sentenced him to be executed.  “You’re not going to find a better case than this for the death penalty,”  said San Bernardino County deputy district attorney Robert Bullock. What fact would not matter in the murder charges against Fowler?Selected  Answer: a. The five victims died due to heart attacks, not due to burns  or smoke inhalation. ∙ Question 5 4 out of 4 points All of the following are requirements for the defense of duress, except: Selected Answer: b. the threat must be induced by a public official ∙ Question 6 4 out of 4 points Case law effectively establishes a single legal interpretation of a statute  across multiple jurisdictions. a. T b. F Selected Answer: False ∙ Question 7 4 out of 4 points Civil law is concerned with disputes between entities and Selected Answer: c. private individuals. ∙ Question 8 4 out of 4 points Criminal behavior peaks during the teenage years. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 9 0 out of 4 points Criminological research supports the claim that poverty causes crime. a. T b. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 10 4 out of 4 points Data for the NCVS is collected by Selected Answer: d.the Census Bureau. ∙ Question 11 4 out of 4 points Flaws in the UCR cited in the text include all of the following except Selected Answer: a. lack of political support. ∙ Question 12 4 out of 4 points How does the health of the economy affect the crime rate? Selected Answer: c. More people working means less incentive to turn to  crime ∙ Question 13 0 out of 4 points In 1995, eminent crime expert James Q. Wilson, noting that the number of  young males was set to increase dramatically over the next decade,  predicted that “30,000 more young muggers, killers, and thieves” would  be on the streets by 2000. “Get ready,” he warned. Other criminologists  offered their own dire projections. John DiIulio foresaw a swarm of  “juvenile superpredators” on the streets, and James A. Fox prophesied a  “blood bath”by 2005. Given previous data, these experts could be fairly  confident in their predictions. By 2008, the United States had entered into an economic recession and  since then economic growth has been slow. How should this affect the  crime rate? Selected Answer: b. The crime rate should go down. ∙ Question 14 0 out of 4 points In 2012, a San Diego County, California man named Richard Fox killed his  girlfriend by accidentally shooting her with a homemade cannon. What criminal charge would Richard Fox likely face, given the description  of the incident? Selected Answer: c. Reckless discharge of an explosive ∙ Question 150 out of 4 points In most jurisdictions, a noncriminal offense for which the penalty is a fine  rather than incarceration is called an __________. Selected Answer: a. misdemeanor ∙ Question 16 4 out of 4 points In the UCR, the FBI presents crime data in all of the following ways except Selected Answer: a. in rank order by occurrence. ∙ Question 17 4 out of 4 points One of the earliest known examples of written law was Selected Answer: c. the Code of Hammurabi. ∙ Question 18 4 out of 4 points Public backlash against the insanity defense led to enacting Selected Answer: c. “guilty but mentally ill” statutes. ∙ Question 19 4 out of 4 points Since 2000 crime rates nationwide, in the U.S. are Selected Answer: d. relatively flat ∙ Question 20 4 out of 4 points Statutory law includes all of the following except Selected Answer: a. case law. ∙ Question 21 4 out of 4 points The Bill of Rights is comprised of the ten Amendments to the Constitution. a. Tb. F Selected Answer: True ∙ Question 22 4 out of 4 points The M’Naughten rule is Selected Answer: c. a test for measuring sanity. ∙ Question 23 4 out of 4 points The ___________Amendment provides that no person shall be deprived of  life, liberty or property without due process of law. Selected Answer: a. 5th ∙ Question 24 4 out of 4 points The ___________amendment requires states to adhere to the Bill of Rights. Selected Answer: d. Fourteenth ∙ Question 25 4 out of 4 points Ultimately, it is the _______which determines whether an individual’s due  process has been violated. Selected Answer: d. United States Supreme Court

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