POLS 2401 Exam 2 Study Guide
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National Security- Security of an individual state
Collective security- Collective defense involving mutual commitments by different states
Security dilemma- There are issues that disrupt and show a concern for human security. Issues include terrorism, threats associated with autonomous weapons systems and cyber-security.
Asymmetric conflict- Conflicts between states who have differences in military power, strategies, and tactics
Renewable vs non-renewable resources- Renewable resources are those that regenerate themselves such as trees, fish, and animals. Non-renewable resources are those that can’t regenerate themselves
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Boundary vs transboundary resources (connection to conflict): ∙ Boundary- A resource that occupies a fixed geographic region completely located within the boundaries of one state ex: forest ∙ Transboundary- a resource that spans the borders of two or more states
∙ Conflict- Conflict is considered less likely to take place over a boundary resource because of the international principle of sovereignty Proliferation prevention:
∙ Proliferation- proliferation is best described as the rapid increase in the number and destructive capability of armaments ∙ Horizontal- Horizontal proliferation is the spread of weapons or weapons technology across country borders
∙ Vertical- Vertical proliferation is the development and stockpiling of armaments in one country
∙ Nonproliferation- Governments’ way of trying to stop nuclear materials and We also discuss several other topics like What is the communication process?
technology from spreading
Counter proliferation- Military preparations to reduce and protect against the threat posed by WMD
CTBT- (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty) opened in 1996, voted and supported by many UN members who also wanted to ban all nuclear testing NPT- (Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty)- an agreement to halt the spread of nuclear weapons beyond the five declared nuclear powers. Opened for signature in 1968
∙ Article I- Dictates that no nuclear weapon state would directly or indirectly transfer weapons, explosive devices, or control over these weapons to another party
∙ Article II- No state without nuclear weapons capabilities could receive, manufacture, obtain assistance for manufacturing, or otherwise try to acquire nuclear weaponry
∙ Article VI- requires all nuclear states to pursue general disarmament under strict and effective international control
∙ Nuclear Weapon States- Russia/USSR, USA, China, UK, France ∙ States with nuclear Weapons- (these states have not signed and ratified the NPT) India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea (signed and ratified but got out of treaty)
IAEA (international atomic energy agency)- An international organization that seeks to promote peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for any military purpose We also discuss several other topics like What are traceable fixed costs?
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Don't forget about the age old question of What are radio waves?
SALWs (small arms and light weapons)- Includes: machine guns, missile launchers, grenade launchers etc. Small arms are proliferated through illegal trade via international arms dealers and legal trades via the world’s conventional arms exports. Small arms are the major cause of civilian causalities in modern conflict
Human rights- As long as there have been human civilizations, there have been rights, however these rights have always been restricted to certain groups of people
UNDHR (universal declaration of human rights)- A declaration adopted by the UN in 1948 which includes an introductory statement, which is the first generation of rights, as well as civil and political rights in articles 2-21. Since 1960s-1970s, the UN has approved over 200 documents that elaborate and expand human rights. Since their inception, human rights issues have received heavy attention. If you want to learn more check out What are the parts of the fruit?
Treaty Vs. Declaration- A treaty has signed participants who have to follow the guidelines while a declaration is just the UN declaring something