Test 4 Study Guide
Test 4 Study Guide PSY311
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mira Kawash on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY311 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 355 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/23/15
Text Study Questions for Final Exam Chapters 9 10 11 PSY 311 Chapter 9 1 Define the following script prototype caregiving system strange situation amae personal distress nurturant love Bowlby s three behavioral programs passionate love companionate love a Script culturally learned set of expectations about events thoughts feelings and behaviors b Prototype set of characteristics that describe the ideal example of some category but that may not be held by every member of that category c Caregiving system according to John Bowlby the system that motivates parents to nurture and protect their offspring d Strange situation a research procedure for studying attachment in which a child is repeatedly separated from and reunited with the attachment figure e Amae a feeling of pleasurable dependence on another person like the feeling an infant has towards its mother f Personal distress selffocused anxiety in the face of another s suffering Nurturant love an emotion elicited by cues of youth and vulnerability that motivates caregiving behavior h Bowlby s three behavioral programs attachment caregiving and sex Described these as complex social instincts not emotions i Passionate love experience of frequent thoughts about the other person intense desire to be together and excitement from the partner s attention j Compassionate love strong attachment with an emphasis on security mutual care and protection 2 What does it mean to say that love is an attitude or that love is a script or a prototype a Attitude a combination of beliefs feelings and behaviors directed toward a person object or category Attitudes are long lasting whereas emotions are brief states To consider love as an attitude emphasizes that you always want the best for those whom you love even in moments when your emotions are not intense b Script set of assumptions about what happens when people are in love Includes the experience of certain emotions but also goes beyond emotions to aspects of the situation and appropriate behaviors c Prototype ask what the best examples of love are and what those examples have in common Prototypical love is mainly experienced in the context of close relationships it involves commitment to someone else a willingness to give even under difficult circumstances 3 Describe the differences among Bowlby s three behavioral programs relevant to love attachment system caregivng system and the sex system Where does amae fit into this classification system a d Attachment a longlasting emotional bond between the individual and a few regular caregivers producing a desire to be near the person a tendency to turn to that person when threatened and a sense of being supported in exploring new things How children love their parents Caregiving motivates parents to nurture and protect their offspring especially while they are young and almost helpless How parents love their children Sex relates to sexual interest in people who are likely to be good reproductive partners Amae fits into the attachment behavioral program 4 Indicate the in uence of the following characteristics upon attractiveness waistto hip ratio for women body weight for women health for men and women long hair and ushed skin in women softer more rounded features with large eyes and small nose in both men and women intelligence and humor for both men and women and personality a Men are attracted to a waisttohip ratio of 070 for women because it indicates reproductive health b Body weight preferences are not universal some cultures consider very thin women to be the most attractive whereas others prefer rather heavy women c Healthy people are sexier than unhealthy people d Long hair and ushed skin is more attractive because hair and skin are quick to show signs of malnutrition or illness e Softer more rounded features with large eyes and a small nose is more attractive in both and man and woman s face f Both men and women value intelligence and humor Humor is a sign of high intelligence and good mate values it is also used to show interest in another person g We are attracted to people with certain personality characteristics happy kind intelligent and a sense of humor 5 What is the name of the hormone neural transmitter that is most closely associated with maternal bonding and the mediation of the infant s attachment to the mother a Oxytocin 6 A study of married couples found that men with more vasopressin receptors have closer relationships with their wives and are less likely to have considered divorce 10 ll 12 13 14 15 In general species forming pair bonds show more oxytocin and vasopressin in certain brain areas during sex than species that do not show pair bonding Couples who received an oxytocin nasal spray before that had a conversation about a con ict in their relationship showed a significantly higher ratio of positive e g eye contact emotional disclosure caring validating the partners perspective etc behavior to negative behavior criticism contempt defensiveness during the conversation than couples who had received a placebo Psychological stress interferes with the healing of physical wounds In study of hamsters both injection of oxytocin and the presence of other hamsters were found to block the effects of stress on wound healing Distress as measured by distress cries associated with separation separation anxiety of young rhesus monkeys from their mothers lead to a sudden drop in endorphins in the brain A small amount of morphine reduces the distress as measured by distress cries and naloxone increases the level distress as measured by distress cries What is the difference between empathic accuracy and emotional empathy a Empathic accuracy the ability to figure out what another person is thinking and feeling b Emotional empathy actually feeling what another person is feeling usually including similar physiology and expression as well as subjective experience The opiate system is involved in both the pleasurable aspects of attachment and attachment related distress separation distress What is the difference between passionate love and companionate love a Passionate love experience of frequent thoughts about the other person intense desire to be together and excitement from the partner s attention b Compassionate love strong attachment with an emphasis on security mutual care and protection True or False Parent arranged marriages in India on average are happier than lovedbased marriages in the United States a True True or False People in happy relationships seldom express displeasure toward one another and when they do the other person doesn t notice a True 16 What are the four emotional patterns called the four horseman of the apocalypse that predict serious problems for a marital relationship a Criticism b Defensiveness c Contempt d Stonewalling Chapter 10 1 Define the following topdown theory of happiness bottomup theory of happiness broad and build theory PANAS anticipatory enthusiasm cognitive shift contentment a Topdown theory of happiness your personality determines your happiness Bottomup theory of happiness life events determine your happiness c Board and build theory theory that positive emotions promote broadened attention to the environment as well as greater exibility in thoughtaction repertoires PANAS a measure for overall happiness using a selfreport scale Anticipatory enthusiasm pleasure from expecting a reward f Cognitive shift transition from thinking about some target from one perspective to thinking about it from a completely different but still appropriate perspective g Contentment positive emotion felt after consuming a meal or other reward 09 2 What is the difference between happiness and joy Are happiness and joy considered to be emotions or traits a Joy is evoked temporarily by a wide variety of events such as doing well on a test seeing your team win a game having a good meal or going shopping But long termhappiness or life satisfaction is not just the sum of many events producing shortterm joy b Joy is an emotion Happiness is a trait 3 Is happiness an emotion a Happiness at least in the sense of general satisfaction with life does not fit most standard definitions of emotion 4 What does the Positive Affect scale of the PANAS Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measure a PANAS measures overall happiness 10 11 b The PANAS has 20 items each of which is a single word A participant says on a scale from 1 to 5 how well that word describes his feeling during a certain time What is the difference between a top down and bottom up view of happiness a Top down means that your personality determines your happiness Bottom up means life events determine your happiness Does research on happiness support the idea that people mellow with age a The research supports the idea that most people do mellow with age Describe the broadenand build theory of positive and negative emotions a Broaden and Build Theory positive emotions promote broadened attention so that we are more likely to notice opportunities in the environment as well as greater exibility in the actions we might take to maximize those opportunities In what way do positive emotions in uence an individual s attention to details versus global features big picture thinking and openmindedness a Positive emotions bias their attention toward global features rather than details What is the contrast e ect a Contrast effect the emotional in uence of whether an outcome was better or worse than some other likely outcome What is a Duchenne smile Use the study of Harker amp Keltner 2001 involving photographs in college yearbooks to indicate its usefulness in studying emotions a Duchene smile included raise cheeks and crows feet at the comer of the yes plus a smiling mouth that usually communicates real positive emotion Measure of authentic smile b Study looked at the ways young women smiled in their college yearbook photos and then asked whether the smiles predicted how women s lives played out throughout adulthood Women who showed stronger Duchenne smiles in this single photograph were happier in their marriages and less likely for divorce and they described themselves as more competent and more socially active decades later than women with more polite smiles or no smile at all What is the relationship between activation of the frontal cortex and tendencies to approach or withdraw Indicate the hemisphere left or right that is active during happiness joy sadness anger and fear a Most research has linked activation of the frontal cortex of the left hemisphere to approach tendencies including both happiness and anger while linking activity of the frontal cortex in the right hemisphere to withdrawal tendencies including sadness and fear 12 Which areas of the brain are linked to anticipatory enthusiasm a Anticipatory enthusiasm is linked to the ventral tegmental area VTA and the nucleus accumbens as well as parts of the frontal lobes 13 What are the characteristics of rewards that lead to larger releases of dopamine in the reward system BAS a An unpredicted reward or one larger than predicted releases dopamine Reward exactly as predicted does not Reward that is omitted or less than predicted inhibits dopamine release to less than its baseline level 14 Describe events in the reward system BAS when a reward is just within your reach compared to when the person is consuming the reward a The system becomes highly active if you see something that you want just within your reach As soon as you consume the reward however the reward circuit quiets down again 15 What makes something funny a Humor depends on a cognitive shift a transition from thinking about the target from one perspective to thinking about it from a completely different but still appropriate perspective b Also humor depends on surprise as well as one how well you like the person who presents the joke Chapter 11 1 Define the following terms selfconscious emotions shame guilt embarrassment empathic embarrassment repentance survivor s guilt jealousy envy a Selfconscious emotions emotions that re ect an appraisal of the self b Shame the emotion felt when one fails or does something morally wrong and then focuses on one s own global stable inadequacies in explaining the transgression c Guilt embarrassment the emotion felt when one fails or does something morally wrong but focuses on how to make amends and how to avoid repeating the transgression d Empathic embarrassment being embarrassed in sympathy for someone else who is embarrassed e Repentance feeling bad about one s misdeeds and seeking forgiveness f Survivor s guilt a feeling of guilt about going on with life after other people close to you have died g Jealousy resentment at someone else s good fortune concerning friendship sex or romance h Envy resentment at someone else s good fortune not concerning friendship sex or romance Are shame guilt and embarrassment different words for the same emotion Use research cited in the book to defend your answer a All of them make us feel bad re ect the belief that we have done something wrong and make us want to hide or withdraw in some way Research shows that the experiences of embarrassment shame and guilt overlap heavily but are not exactly the same Describe the types of experiences that evoke embarrassment a Embarrassment need not imply that you did something morally wrong it occurs most often when you are suddenly the focus of other people s attention because of an understandable mistake an accident or even a positive event You just had the misfortune to do it in public What is the relationship between the personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion and the ease with which an individual becomes embarrassed a Scores on embarrassment questionnaires correlate rather highly with scores on neuroticism questionnaires and correlates negatively with extraversion Extraverts don t embarrass as easily Do young children experience embarrassment a Infants and very young children don t experience embarrassment at all Around the age of 2 they show evidence of selfconscious emotion Becomes more intense as they get older teenagers Describe the ways that shameprone and guiltprone individuals approach social interactions a Shameprone people tend to have more problems with relationships than guiltprone They experience more anger and social anxiety and feel less empathy Guild prone people take more responsibility for their individual actions and feel more control over whether they will repeat those actions What is the just world hypothesis a Just world hypothesis most people like to think that life is fair and that people usually get what they deserve What are the criteria for the experience of pride a There are two criteria necessary for pride b 1 When you are proud you feel that you caused the good event and can take the credit for it c 2 the good event confirms your positive selfimage 9 Do chronic gamblers experience pride when they win a Many chronic gamblers take pride in their wins because they believe something about their personal character or judgments in uences their luck 10 Describe cultural differences in embarrassment shame and pride a People feel embarrassed or ashamed when they fail to meet society s expectations but these expectations vary from on culture to another b Some cultural difference in events that elicit pride relate to differences in the nature of Self In the United States and many other western countries the self is a unique personality defined by consistent traits that differentiate you from other people In East Asian countries the self is defined more by your relationships with other people and by the groups to which you belong c Pride is considered a good thing in the United States Most societies however frown on too much pride
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