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UNL / Psychology / PSYC 181 / limhp meaning

limhp meaning

limhp meaning

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School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Limhp tina sedersten
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: chapters 8&9
Description: these chapters will be on the exam
Uploaded: 03/07/2017
94 Pages 124 Views 0 Unlocks
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DEFINITIONAL APPROACH ▪How do we categorize objects?




▪How do we assign something to a category?




▪ Experimenter: “What do you do with a cigarette?



COGNITION &  LANGUAGE  “We speak not only to tell others what we  think, but to tell ourselves what we think” - Oliver SacksLANGUAGE &  PSYCHOLINGUISTICS ▪Language: ▪ A system of symbols (and rules for combining  them) which can generate an infinite number  of possible messages and meanings ▪Psycholinguistics: ▪ The scientific study of the psychological  aspects of language ▪ Includes how people understand, produce,  use, and learn language5 PROPERTIES OF  LANGUAGE 1. Symbolic ▪ Arbitrary symbols represent specific objects, actions ▪ i.e. words/sounds/signs don’t usually look or sound like the  represented object (e.g. “Dog”) 2. Structured ▪ Rules for meanings, sound/word/phrase combinations ▪ ball boy girl green the the the to kicked 3. Conveys Meaning ▪ once people know the symbols and rules, they can  communicate ideas, thoughts ▪ i.e. I’m not just babbling to myself – I can describe my inner  thoughts, and you can understand my meaning5 PROPERTIES  OF LANGUAGE 4. Generative ▪ Symbols of language can be  combined to generate an infinite  number of messages ▪ i.e. can express ideas that have  never been expressed before ▪ “There have been several sightings  of a Thor Squirrel” 5. Permits Displacement ▪ can refer to objects or events that  are not physically present ▪ “Remember that time we saw Thor  Squirrel?”NON-HUMAN  LANGUAGE? ▪Common primate neuro/perceptual systems… ▪ So, attempt to teach apes language (sign  language or pointing to abstract symbols) ▪ Performance similar to telegraphic speech in  children ▪ Clearly symbolic, conveys meaning ▪ Some evidence for structure, but this is  controversial ▪ Little to no evidence of apes generating new phrases/ideas (vs. just copying ‘sentences’  word-for-word), or talking about displaced items ▪ Little enerativit, dislacementIMPORTANT TERMS: ▪ Language is Hierarchical ▪ Sounds/letters ???? words ???? phrases ???? sentences ???? conversation/paragraphs/etc.IMPORTANT TERMS ▪Phonemes: ▪ Most basic unit of speech sounds ■ Specific sets of  phonemes in  each language ■ English: ~44 ■ Hawaiian: ~12 ■ Changing a phoneme  changes meaning  of the wordIMPORTANT TERMS ▪ Morphemes: ▪ Smallest units of meaning in a language ▪ Some are words, some are suffixes/prefixes ▪ Kitchen ▪ Bedroom ▪ Pig ▪ Pigs ▪ Piggish ▪ Piggify ▪ Piggified ▪ Piggifier vs. Piggifiee ▪ Prepiggified state ■ Morphology: The study of how we  create words by  combining morphemesIMPORTANT TERMS ▪Semantics: ▪ Meanings of words and sentences ▪ Remember semantic memory? ▪ Meanings of words can change over time…  literallyIMPORTANT TERMS ▪Syntax: ▪ Grammatical rules that govern how we organize  words into sentences ▪ Related to the fact that language is structured  ▪ Grammar encompasses both syntax and morphology Venetian Blind Blind Venetian▪Pragmatics ▪ Knowledge of the practical application of language ▪ The social rules (and context) that can affect  understanding and word choice  ▪ Do you have the time? Yes. ▪ Based on context, can infer what the question implies  ▪ Formal vs. informal situations SURFACE VS. DEEP  STRUCTURE ▪Surface Structure: ▪ The words that are actually spoken (or written/signed) ▪Deep Structure ▪ The underlying meaning of the sentence ▪ “Sarah threw the ball” ▪ “The ball was thrown by Sarah” ▪ “The police must stop drinking  after midnight” ▪ “The shooting of the hunters  was terrible” Different Surface  Structure; Same Deep Structure Same Surface  Structure can have Different Deep  StructurePROSODY: ▪Prosody: ▪ It’s not what you say, but how you say it ▪ Say “Hello” ▪ Use emphasis to communicate different meanings ▪ I love your mother’s cooking ▪ I didn’t say we should kill him ▪ Can disambiguate meaning of sentences ▪ The British left waffles on Falkland islands ▪ Squad helps dog bite victims ▪ Are speakers just being responsive to their audience? ▪ No, consistently use prosody, whether listener needs it or not LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN •Language production/comprehension involve which  brain areas?  • Describe how language is lateralized (including the  functions of each hemisphere). Describe the sex  difference in lateralization.LANGUAGE & THE  BRAINBROCA’S AREA ▪Broca’s Area: ▪ Located in the left frontal lobe ▪ Responsible for language production ▪ Involved in grammar, finding the right word ▪ Necessary for articulating/producing words ▪ Broca’s Aphasia: impairment in language production  due to damage to Broca’s area ▪ Can be temporary or permanent ▪ Note: damage does not affect comprehensionWERNICKE’S AREA ▪Wernicke’s Area: ▪ Located in the left temporal lobe ▪ Responsible for language comprehension ▪ Necessary for understanding ▪ Wernicke’s Aphasia: impairment in language  comprehension due to damage  to Wernicke’s area ▪ Can be temporary or permanent ▪ Often characterized by “babbling”; words are pronounced  correctly, but the meaning is not clear ▪ Note: damage does not affect language productionBROCA’S &  WERNICKE’S APHASIA ▪ Experimenter: “What do you do with a cigarette?” A. “uh…… uh…….. Cig… uhh….. Cigarette…..Smoke….. It.” B. “This is a segment of a pegment. Soap a cigarette.” ▪ Experimenter: “Describe the circumstances of your stroke” A. “Alright… uh…. Stroke… and… uh…. I… huh… tawana….  h…h…hot…tub… and… two days… hos… h… hospital…” B. “It just suddenly had a feffert and all the feffert had gone  with it. It even stepped my horn. They took them from Earth  you know. They make my favorite nine to servered and now  I’m a been habed by the uh.. stam of fortment of my  annulment which is now forever.”LANGUAGE & THE  BRAIN ▪ Most other brain areas are as expected: Auditory Visual Motor Broca’s ▪ Also, reading/hearing/speaking sensory/action  words tends to activate the area of the brain  responsible for that sense/action ▪ “kick” ???? activate ‘leg’ area of motor cortex ▪ “lick” ???? activate ‘tongue’ area of motor cortex ▪ Describe itchy wool on arm ???? ‘arm’ sensory cortexHEMISPHERIC  SPECIALIZATION ▪Broca’s, Wernicke’s areas = left hemisphere  ▪ So, conclude that abilities specific to Language are  lateralized on Left ▪ Problems: 1. Some people are less lateralized ▪ Women and left-handed people are less lateralized ▪ e.g. women with L. hemisphere stroke show less  language impairment than men with same damage 2. Recent work shows Right hemisphere has  specific functions in language, too! ▪ Language is still mostly left, but R has a job too…THOUGHT “We speak not only to tell others what we  think, but to tell ourselves what we think” - Oliver Sacks3 MODES OF THOUGHT ▪Propositional ▪ Essentially the “inner speech” type of thought ▪ “I am so bored right now” ▪ Imaginal ▪ Images that we picture in our mind ▪ Fantasizing about being somewhere else ▪ Motoric ▪ Mental representations of motor movements ▪ Imagining/planning your golf swing CONCEPTS &  PROPOSITIONS ▪Concepts: ▪ Mental categories ▪ “professors” “students” “frogs” “birds” “books” ▪ “swimming” “walking” “teaching” ▪ “liberal” “conservative” “likeable”  ■ Propositions: ■ Express ideas that link  different concepts ■ Psych. Profs ARE boring ■ Owls LIKE skateboardingCONCEPTS – DEFINITIONAL APPROACH ▪How do we assign something to a  category? 1. Classical Categorization ▪ aka. the Definitional Approach ▪ Categorize according to specific rules or definitions ▪ e.g. triangle = 3-sided polygonCATEGORIES – DEFINITIONAL APPROACH ▪How do we categorize objects? 1. Classical Categorization ▪ Problems: ▪ What are the features of “Chairs”? ▪ What are the features of “Games”?CHAIRSGAMESCATEGORIES – DEFINITIONAL APPROACH ▪ Fuzzy Boundaries ▪ Suggests category members have typical or  characteristic features, rather than defining ones… ▪ Graded Membership ▪ Some items are “better” members  of their categoryCATEGORIES – PROTOTYPE APPROACH ▪How do we assign something to a  category? 2. Prototype Approach ▪ Suggests that we categorize things based on their  similarity to a category “prototype” ▪ Prototype: ▪ Mental representation of the typical or average  member of the categoryCATEGORIES – PROTOTYPE APPROACH ▪How do we assign something to a  category? 2. Prototype Approach ▪ Suggests that we categorize things based on their  similarity to a category “prototype” ▪ Prototype: ▪ Mental representation of the typical or average  member of the category ▪ Can account for graded membership ▪ Items that are better resemble the prototype are  considered “better” members of the category ▪ High vs. Low “prototypicality”CATEGORIES – PROTOTYPE APPROACH ▪ Typicality Effect: ▪ Objects that are “more prorotypical” are verified as  category members more quickly: ▪ Sentence verification  technique: ▪ Say “yes” if the sentence is true: ▪ An apple is a fruit ▪ A pomegranate is a fruitCONCEPTS ▪Different types of concepts: 1. Conjunctive Concepts ▪ feature A and feature B and feature C… ▪ e.g. Bike has 2 wheels and handlebars… 2. Relational Concepts ▪ Concept defined by relating it to something else  (or by relating multiple parts) ▪ e.g. larger/smaller, North/East…, sister/brother,  upside-down, etc… 3. Disjunctive Concepts ▪ Has at least 1 “either-or” features ▪ e.g. strike in baseball can occur either of 2 waysCONCEPTS ▪Concepts also often has 2 types of meanings: ▪ Denotative Meaning: ▪ The exact definition of the concept ▪ Connotative Meaning: ▪ The emotional or personal  “meaning” ▪ Usually related to good/bad,  strong/weak, or active/passive ▪ e.g. “Naked” means different  things to a nudist colony vs.  a TV censorREASONING • What’s the difference between deductive/inductive reasoning?  Examples? • Describe how the belief bias, framing, and irrelevant information  can affect reasoning (using examples)SYLLOGISMS AND  LOGIC ▪Deductive Reasoning: ▪ Taking general principles and reasoning about a  specific case ▪ Typically involves syllogisms ▪ Set of 3 statements: 2 premises & logical conclusion ▪ (premise is sort of like a given fact…) • Premise 1: All birds are animals • Premise 2: All animals eat food • Conclusion: Therefore, all birds eat  food INDUCTIVE VS.  DEDUCTIVE  ▪Deductive reasoning REASONING ▪ Taking general principles and reasoning about a  specific case ▪ Premises are stated as facts ▪ Conclusions logically follow ▪ Inductive Reasoning ▪ Taking specific cases and reasoning about a  general principle ▪ Generalize, based on a limited # of observations ▪ Conclusions are less certain; more about what’s likely▪ Inductive Reasoning ▪ Taking specific cases and reasoning about a  general principle ▪ Observation: The sun has risen every morning of my life. ▪ Conclusion: It’s likely that the sun will rise tomorrow. ▪ Observation: The crows in Edmonton, Philadelphia, and  London are all black. ▪ Conclusion: It’s likely that all crows are black. ▪ Note: the 2nd conclusion is less convincing. Why?INDUCTIVE  REASONING EVERY DAY ▪Any time we use the past to predict the future,  we use inductive reasoning ▪ Dr. Holden’s class was awesome/terrible ▪ His other classes are also likely awesome/terrible ▪ Shipping from (company x) took forever ▪ If I order from them, it will likely take forever again ▪ Most chairs I have sat on have not collapsed ▪ Therefore, it’s likely that this one won’t collapse either ▪ Some inductive reasoning is so automatic, we don’t even  notice that it’s happening!ERRORS IN  REASONING 1. Belief Bias ▪ Tendency to abandon logic when something  contradicts our own personal beliefs ▪ Is the following conclusion logical? ▪ e.g. All bird are animals (premise 1) All animals have 4 legs (premise 2) Therefore, all birds have 4 legs (conclusion) ▪ Often confuse logical correctness (validity) with  factual correctness (truth).  ▪ Validity: conclusion is logical, based on premises ▪ Truth: conclusion is false, because premise 2 is falseERRORS IN REASONING 2. Emotions & Framing ▪ Tendency to abandon logic in favor of emotions, or the  way information is presented (“framed”) ▪ e.g. ask people to judge the effectiveness of an  experimental new cancer treatment ▪ Group A: told the treatment has a 50% success  rate ▪ Group B: told the treatment has a 50% failure rate ▪ Group A rated the treatment significantly more  highly than people in Group B ▪ Used in advertising, lotteries all the time!ERRORS IN REASONING 3. ____________ ▪ Your drawer contains 19 black socks, and 13 blue  socks. Without turning on a light, how many socks  do you have to pull out to be absolutely certain that  you have a matching pair?PROBLEM SOLVINGFRAMING A PROBLEM ▪Framing: ▪ How we think of (interpret or understand) the problem Train A leaves Winnipeg for its 50-km trip to St. Bonifice at a  constant speed of 25 km/h. At the same time, Train B leaves St.  Bonifice for Winnipeg at the same speed of 25km/h.  An energetic crow leaves Winnipeg at the same time as train A,  flying above the tracks toward St. Bonifice at a speed of 60 km/h.  When the crow encounters train B, it immediately reverses  direction and flies back toward Train A, then instantly reverses  direction and flies back toward Train B, and so on. The bird  continues this sequence until the trains meet midway between St.  Bonifice and Winnipeg. What is the total distance the crow will  have travelled?FRAMING A PROBLEM ▪Framing: ▪ How we think of (interpret or understand) the problem ▪ A+B+C+D+E+F… ABC DE F▪ Is there another way to frame the problem? PROBLEM SOLVING  SCHEMAS ▪Problem Solving Schemas ▪ Mental blueprint for how to go about solving a  particular type of problem ▪ e.g. “How to succeed in a University course” ▪ OR “How to pick up a cute guy” ▪ Algorithms: ▪ Formulae or procedures guaranteed to produce  the correct solution (eventually) ▪ Heuristics: ▪ General “this would be a good idea” strategies  ▪ Educated guess – not guaranteed to solve the  problem, but much less time-consumingALGORITHMS VS HEURISTICS EXAMPLE ▪Hangman: 6-letter word _ A _ I _ _■ Algorithms: ■ Guess A, then B, C, D… Z ■ OR guess in order of letter  frequency (E, T, A, O, I…Z) ■ Will eventually solve, but too slow ■ Heuristics: ■ e.g. find out the 3rd last letter is I,  so guess N & G  ▪ because you know that many words  end in ----ING MEANS-ENDS  ANALYSIS & SUBGOALS ▪ “Special” Heuristics ▪ Means-ends analysis ▪ What is the present state, and what is the goal state? ▪ Then, make changes to keep reducing the difference ▪ Example: 11 years ago, me & cute blonde: ▪ Starting state: she barely knows me ▪ Goal state: wedding bells ▪ Typically involves sub-goal analysis ▪ Rather than just jumping from Starting to Goal  state, identify smaller goals that will get you there a) Introduce self b) Trick her into going on a 1st date…OBSTACLES IN  PROBLEM SOLVING ▪ Mental Set ▪ Preconceived notions of how to solve a problem,  based on past experiences ▪ Think of someone who is “set in his ways” ■ e.g. Luchins’ Water Jug Problem ■ 3 jugs, of different sizes.  ■ Combine to get specified amount of  water. ■ Group A: Given all 7 problems ■ Could all be solved same way: ■ ____ - ____ - ____ ■ Group B: Given #6, #7MENTAL SET ▪ Note: Problems 6, 7 can be solved in an easier way… ▪ Results: ■ Group B used the shorter solution ■ Most of Group A did not ■ Mental Set ???? got “stuck” in a  certain pattern of how to solve  the problemDEMO ■ You are in a room (shown on  the left) with two strings  suspended from the ceiling.  Your task is to tie the strings  together. But, they are so far  apart that you cannot reach  one string while holding onto  the other.  ■ In the room with you is a piece  of paper, a pair of pliers, and a  cotton ball.  ■ What do you do?OBSTACLES IN  PROBLEM SOLVING ▪ Functional fixedness ▪ Kind a specific type of mental set ▪ Restricting the potential uses of an object to its  familiar functions ▪ e.g. the 2-string problem…CREATIVITY ▪ Creativity ▪ Creating something new and valuable ▪ Requires divergent thinking ▪ Coming up with new ideas that are different  from the norm ▪ Sometimes solutions arise after incubation ▪ giving up or otherwise setting the problem aside  (e.g. resting) ▪ May be because mental sets and biases dissipate  and new solutions are able to come forwardINTELLIGENCE “I am so clever that sometimes I don’t  understand a single word of what I am saying” - Oscar WildeINTELLIGENCE:  ONE MENTAL CAPACITY? ▪Spearman’s “g Factor” ▪ Kids doing well in school usu. do so in many subjects ▪ Similarly, people who do well on Stanford-Binet test  tended to do well on different types of items ▪ Vocabulary, puzzles, arithmetic… ▪ May not be perfect correlations (see Factor Analysis  example) but 0.3 is still statistically significant! ▪ Suggested that intellect is partly based on a “General  Intelligence” factor (g) that influences all tasks ▪ Verbal & quantitative abilities are clearly distinct… ▪ BUT g cuts across all tasks – it’s the core of intelligence ▪ Essentially, intelligence is one scoreINTELLIGENCE:  ONE MENTAL CAPACITY? ▪ Is “g” real? ▪ g predicts success in high school, university ▪ g predicts years of education, later earnings ▪ g predicts who gets hired ▪ g predicts on-the-job success better than measures  of specific abilities tailored to individual jobs ▪ g is a better predictor of on-the-job success than level  of education, or how well the interview went ▪ g predicts likelihood of divorce (within 5 years) ▪ g predicts likelihood of incarcerationINTELLIGENCE:  MULTIPLE ABILITIES? ▪Thurstone’s “Primary Mental Abilities” ▪ Factor analysis of IQ tests tend to have clusters ▪ Suggested 7 Primary Mental Abilities: ■ Space ■ Verbal Comprehension ■ Word Fluency ■ Number Facility ■ Perceptual Speed ■ Rote Memory ■ Reasoning▪ Generally a popular idea in education ▪ Want to identify the skills needed for different tasks  ▪ Help kids increase mental abilities needed for math, eg. HIERARCHICAL  MODELS OF INTELLIGENCE ▪Hierarchical Models: ▪ Combine aspects of the 2 previous approaches  by “nesting” specific abilities under g ▪ By far the most common approach, currently vs. vs.CRYSTALLIZED VS.  FLUID INTELLIGENCE ▪ Cattell-Horn Model divides “g” into 2 sub-types: ▪ Crystallized Intelligence (gc) ▪ Applying previous knowledge - including facts, or  problem-solving schemas ▪ So, this is the major basis of Expertise… ▪ Cultural influence (in problem solving schemas) ▪ Mostly LTM ▪ Fluid Intelligence (gf) ▪ Ability to deal with novel situations (i.e. you have  no previous experience with it) ▪ Inductive reasoning, creative problem solving… ▪ Depends on efficient CNS, not knowledge bank ▪ Mostly WMCRYSTALLIZED VS.  FLUID INTELLIGENCE Crystallized Intelligence (gc) Fluid Intelligence(gf)CRYSTALLIZED VS.  FLUID INTELLIGENCE ▪ Cattell-Horn Model ▪ Note: fluid intelligence may become  crystallized! ▪ Activate diff. brain areas ???? suggests actual difference ▪ Over lifetime, move from using gfto more gc ▪ Gain experience with more problem types ???? more  knowledge, schemas (crystallized intell.) ???? wisdom(?) ▪ gcimproves into adulthood, remains strong; gf declines  in late adulthood GARDNER’S MODEL ▪Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences: ▪ “Current definitions of intelligence are too  limited” ▪ What about a musical genius?  ▪ What about someone with amazing Hockey Sense?  ▪ What about a successful cat burglar?GARDNER’S MULTIPLE  INTELLIGENCES ▪ 8 (now 9) Intelligences 1. Linguistic ▪ e.g. writer 2. Logical/Mathematical  3. Naturalistic ▪ e.g. zoologist,  meteorologist 4. Visuospatial ▪ e.g. architect 5. Musical 6. Bodily-Kinesthetic ▪ e.g. athlete, surgeonGARDNER’S MULTIPLE  INTELLIGENCES 7. Interpersonal ▪ Understand and relate  well with others ▪ e.g. salesman, talk show host, manager,  therapist 8. Intrapersonal ▪ Understand self ▪ Typically quiet, focused,  little peer pressure 9. Existential ▪ Philosophical, spiritual,  cosmic intelligenceMEASURING INTELLIGENCE • What are the 4 major indexes in the WAIS? the WISC? • What is the difference between achievement vs. aptitude testing? • Name and define the 3 forms of reliability. And of validity. • What is the difference between static & dynamic testing? • Describe the basic idea of “normalizing” IQ. What is the mean and SD? • Describe the Flynn EffectHISTORY OF  INTELLIGENCE ▪ Alfred Binet (1900s) ▪ French Ministry of Public Education wanted early  identification of children who wouldn’t do great in  ordinary public schooling ▪ wanted to arrange special education to help them!  ▪ Made 2 major assumptions: a) Mental abilities increase with age b) A person’s rate of increase is roughly constant  over their development ▪ i.e. someone lagging at age 5 will still lag at 10 ▪ Devised tests with questions that a typical child of  age X could answer ???? mental ageEXAMPLESINTELLIGENCE IN  HISTORY ▪ William Stern ▪ Took Binet’s concept of mental age and made it into a  relative score – an Intelligence Quotient ▪ IQ = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) * 100  ▪ e.g. an 8-year-old performing at the level of a typical  10-year old ???? IQ = __________ ▪ e.g. a 16 year old performing at the level of a typical  12 year old ???? IQ = __________  ▪ Note: current IQ no longer uses idea of mental age ▪ Works well for kids, but not adults (>16yrs) ▪ Also, elderly people show an intellectual declineINTELLIGENCE  TESTING ▪ Intelligence Tests ▪ Wechsler Tests (WAIS, WISC) are most  popular ▪ Remember, he thought Stanford-Binet test was too  heavy on verbal/language questions ▪ WAIS-IV (recent revision) includes 4 index scales: a) Verbal Comprehension b) Perceptual Reasoning c) Working Memory d) Processing Speed 4 index scores, plus  one full-scale IQ scoreKEY CONCEPTS IN  PSYCH TESTING ▪ 3 Key Concepts in (all) Psych Testing: 1. Reliability ▪ How consistent a measurement is 2. Validity ▪ How well a test measures what it’s supposed to  measure 3. Standardization ▪ Define controlled testing procedures ▪ Everyone takes the test under the same conditions ▪ Developing norms  ▪ “normal” or bell curve for different ages, etc…KEY CONCEPTS:  RELIABILITY 1. Reliability ▪ How consistent a measurement is A. Test-Retest Reliability: ▪ Are scores stable over time?  ▪ e.g. Weigh yourself 5x in a row ???? same # each time ▪ IQ isn’t perfect, but has decent test-retest reliability ▪ IQ at age 9 correlates with age 40 (r ~ 0.7)  B. Inter-Judge Reliability: ▪ Would different people agree on the same scores for  the same person’s test?  C. Internal Consistency: ▪ Do all parts of the “Verbal Reasoning” section seem  to be measuring the same thing (i.e. correlate)? KEY CONCEPTS:  VALIDITY 2. Validity ▪ How well a test measures what it’s supposed to… A. Construct Validity: ▪ Does the test measure the construct of interest?  ▪ Construct = intelligence ▪ Operational definition = scores on IQ test ▪ Might anything other than intelligence affect scores? B. Content Validity: ▪ Does the test measure all aspect of X (intelligence)?  ▪ e.g. don’t use only addition problems for math score C. Criterion-Related Validity: ▪ Does score correlate with something meaningful? ▪ e.g. IQ correlate with grades, job performance?KEY CONCEPTS:  VALIDITY C. Criterion-Related Validity: ▪ Does score correlate with something meaningful? ▪ IQ and Grades:  ▪ r ~ 0.6 for High School ▪ r ~ 0.4 for University ▪ IQ and Jobs/Income/Lifespan:  ▪ r ~ 0.7 for IQ and Socioeconomic Status (SES) ▪ Compare siblings (same enviro.) ???? higher IQ (120)  makes $18,000/yr higher salary than avg. (100) IQ ▪ higher IQ ???? better job performance (esp. training) ▪ higher IQ ???? longer life; recover faster from brain injKEY CONCEPTS:  STANDARDIZATION 3. Standardization A. Define Controlled Testing Procedures: ▪ Everyone should take the test under the same cond’s ▪ Static Testing: ▪ Typical type of testing: I give Q’s, you give me A’s ▪ Dynamic Testing: ▪ Some tests allow the tester to give the person  guided feedback ???? how well does the person  use the (new) information? ▪ Assesses learning ability ▪ In some cases, helps students slow down and  focus ???? gives you better picture of abilitiesKEY CONCEPTS:  STANDARDIZATION B. Developing Norms ▪ Normal or “bell” curve for different populations ▪ How many questions does the average 20-year old get correct? Or the average 80-year-old? ▪ Can know where your scores is, relative to others ▪ Average-level performance ???? IQ = 100 ▪ Note: always compare scores within a certain  group (e.g. 20-year-olds) ▪ e.g. Say most 80-year-olds get 500 questions  correct, and most 18-year-olds get 750 questions  correct. Which person has the higher IQ: • 80-year-old getting 700 correct?  • 18-year-old getting 750 correct?NORMAL  DISTRIBUTION OF IQ ▪ Mean: 100 ▪ Standard  Deviation: 15THE NORMAL CURVE ▪Normal Curve: key properties ▪ mean = median = mode ▪ So, 50% of scores are above mean, 50% below ▪ Standard deviation can divide the curve into  known proportions ▪ 68% of scores are within ±1 SD from the mean ▪ 95% are within 2 standard deviations ▪ So, if we know that a variable is normally distributed, we can deduce more informationIQ Q’S ▪What percent of people have an IQ between  70 and 130? 95% ▪ If your IQ is 115, how many people have a  higher IQ than you? How many lower?  Better than 84%, worse than 16% ▪What is the probability of selecting someone  at random, and them having an IQ of 145 or  more?CHANGING NORMS  (FLYNN EFFECT) ▪Flynn Effect: ▪ Steady, population-level increases in intelligence  over time ▪ Test performance has increased ???? “rising curve” ▪ Average IQ is always 100, but that “average” is  getting smarter and smarter! ▪ Some countries have a stronger/weaker effect, but  all show increases ▪ e.g. USA, Canada ~ 1 pt every 3 years  ▪ e.g. Holland, Israel ~ 2 pts every 3 years!FLYNN EFFECT ▪ e.g. Average Dutch  person today time travels to 1950 ▪ IQ (using 1950  norms) = 135 ???? “gifted/superior” ▪ Avg 1950s Dutch person  time-travels to today ▪ IQ (using today’s  standards) = 65 ???? “mentally disabled”

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