BIOL 182 EXAM #2 Study Guide Chapter 26 ∙ What is systematics? Taxonomy? ∙ What are the 8 categories of taxonomic hierarchy (in order from species upward to broader classifications)? ∙ Who is the scientist that proposed the current two-partDon't forget about the age old question of unc sport management
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naming system for each species? What are the two parts of any Latinized binomial name? ∙ What is a phylogenetic tree and what is it used for (or what is phylogeny)? ∙ What are the two ways a new species can be formed? ∙ Be able to use phylogenetic trees to identify evolutionary relationships among the species found in the trees. Also be able to identify what members have what shared traits! ∙ What is Homology? ∙ What does cladistics compare? ∙ What is the difference between a primitive character and a derived character? Chapter 22: ∙ Be able to explain and put in a time frame some of the major episodes in the history of life on earth. (The clock analogy) ∙ What organisms, and process they perform, would be responsible for the accumulation of atmospheric oxygen about 2.8 billion years ago? ∙ What are protists? ∙ Explain the two-stage hypothesis for the origin of Eukaryotic cells, and be able to define endosymbiosis. ∙ Understand how protists can be seen as the link between unicellular and multicellular life. ∙ What is the fossil record? ∙ Be able to explain radioisotope dating & half-life. ∙ We talked about several things that could affect the fossil record & create bias. (Table 22.1), be able to identify and explain these factors. ∙ How many mass extinctions have been identified in the fossil record? ∙ Understand and be able to explain the 4 stages in the “Four stage hypothesis for the origin of life” that suggests that the first organisms were products of chemical evolution in four stages. Chapter 23: ∙ What is the definition of evolution? What are the 2 views (levels) of evolution? ∙ What is a population? A species? ∙ What Scientist wrote “The Origin of Species”, the seminal book about evolution? ∙ What are the three observations about the natural world Darwin expressed in the book? ∙ Define Natural Selection. ∙ What is a population? ∙ How were the views of Jean Baptiste Lamarck similar to Darwin’s? What was the major flaw in his theories? ∙ What 2 observations the theory of natural selection based off of? What conclusion (inference) can be made from these two observations? ∙ What type of animal found in the Galapogos Islands did Darwin base many parts of his theory of evolution via natural selection? What was the characteristic that varied among these animals? ∙ Identify and explain the 5 pieces of evidence for evolution we discussed in class. ∙ What are the 3 types of homologies that are seen among species? Chapter 24: ∙ What is population genetics? ∙ Explain a gene pool. ∙ At what level of life’s organization does evolution take place at? Why can evolution not be at the level of the individual (what does an individual lack that must be present for evolution to take place)? ∙ What are the ultimate sources for all genetic variation? ∙ What is the symbol for the dominant allele frequency in a population? What about the recessive? ∙ What is the Hardy-Weinberg formula? How can it be used? ∙ You should be able to calculate allele and genotype frequencies using the H W equations. ∙ What are the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? ∙ What are the 3 main mechanisms of evolutionary change? Which is the most important? ∙ What is relative fitness? Be able to calculate the relative fitness of different genotypes of a population. ∙ Understand, and explain the three general outcomes (patterns) of natural selection. Which one is most likely to lead to new speciation events via anagenesis? How about via cladagenisis? ∙ What is genetic drift? How can it influence allele frequencies in a population? What size populations are most susceptible to genetic drift? ∙ What is gene flow? Does it increase or decrease genetic differences between populations? Does it usually work with or counteract natural selection? Chapter 25 ∙ Speciation is the process when what happens? What aspect of Life evolved through speciation? ∙ What is the biological species concept? ∙ What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation? Be able to identify and give examples of each. ∙ What are prezygotic barriers and postzygotic barriers? Give examples of each (5 pre and 3 post). ∙ Explain the difference between the punctuated pattern and gradual pattern as to how it pertains to the pace of evolution. Which scientist’s views are associated with each of these?∙ What is the geological time scale? There you go, here are some ideas to get you started on studying for your exam. These are the specifics, but be sure to understand the main concepts for each chapter (ppt) and you will be in good shape. Good luck!