EXAM 2 Study Guide
1. Discuss which perspective– evolutionary theory or a cultural perspective– addresses similarities in human behavior or differences in human behavior. a. Evolutionary theory: addresses similarities in human behavior across cultures
b. Cultural perspective: addresses differences in human behavior across cultures
2. Using the principle of natural selection, explain how psychological traits may have evolved over generations.
a. Psychological traits that were beneficial, survived and were passed on genetically to next generations (i.e. sexual preferences)
3. Discuss cultural norms that differ across cultures and those that are similar. a. Differing:
iii. Personal space
iv. Hand gestures
v. Eye contact
i. Friendship norms
ii. Universal personality traits
iii. Status norms
iv. Incest taboos
4. Define “gender” according to psychology and discuss whether males and females are more similar or different from one another.
a. Gender is defined as “the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.” Males and females are more similar than different
5. Explain the major ways in which men and women tend to differ from one another. Be sure to include a discussion of relationships, social dominance, aggression, and sexuality.
a. Males tend to seek out vocations with more goals driven opportunities while women tend to seek connections in the work place. In response to stress, men tend to exhibit a fight or flight response while women with a “tend and befriend” response.
b. Social dominance: Men tend to be more socially dominant Don't forget about the age old question of How do you introduce a role play in the bedroom?
c. Aggression: Men are more likely to engage in physical aggression while women are more likely to exhibit less assaultive forms of aggression. d. Sexuality: Men tend to be attracted to youth and fertility while women tend to seek cues of resources, power, and ambition.
6. Compare the explanations of gender differences proposed by both evolutionary and cultural perspectives.
a. Our biology and our environment interact; therefore, we may be
biologically predisposed to behave in such a way, but our environment determines if that behavior is appropriate
7. Discuss the three ways in which situational influences and individual differences interact.
Additional Key Terms you should know:
o The ability to feel or imagine another person’s emotional experience • androgynous
o Having both masculine and feminine characteristics
• gender roles
o Gender roles can be defined as our expectations of how men and women should behave. Gender role vary over time and across
1. Define conformity and compare the three varieties of conformity—compliance, obedience, and acceptance.
a. Conformity is a change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
i. Compliance: Complying with a request even though inwardly disagreeing. We also discuss several other topics like What is an abstract idea or image or image of the way something works?
ii. Obedience: Compliance in accordance with a direct command. iii. Acceptance: Acting and believing in accordance with social pressure
2. Describe Sherif’s study of norm formation and explain what it demonstrates about the power of social contagion.
a. Participants were put in a dark room with one point of light. They were then brought together and asked how far the light had moved. This procedure was repeated during four days of testing. The participants’ answers, while initially varying by a considerable degree, converged more each day until they were all very similar measurements. The light never actually moved in the room. This demonstrates conformity within a group. 3. Describe Asch’s study of group pressure and explain what it demonstrates about the power of social influence.
a. When presented with 3 lines for comparison of length, participants conformed to obviously wrong answers given by the majority of the group 37% of the time when they were alone in their conclusion. Conformity dropped to 5% when the participant had a partner who agreed with him. 4. Describe the details of Milgram’s study on obedience and explain the 4 factors that predict obedience.
a. In this study, participants were asked to deliver electric shocks of increasing intervals to a confederate whenever he gave the wrong answer to a question. The voltage of the shocks administered were increased to aDon't forget about the age old question of What are elder ballard's teachings on the relationship of men, women, and the priesthood?
deadly level and the participant was encouraged to deliver the shock. 65% percent of the participants in the initial experiment delivered the deadly shock, though they admitted to being uncomfortable doing so. b. factors predicting obedience
ii. Authority figure
iii. Prestige of experiment
iv. Group influence
5. Explain how the classic experiments on conformity covered in this chapter demonstrate concepts we have discussed in earlier chapter.
a. The principles explored in these experiments play heavily on the relationship between behavior and attitude.
i. External influences outweighed the participants moral feelings. ii. Footinthedoor phenomenon We also discuss several other topics like Who proposed typological species concept?
iii. Cognitive dissonance
b. Also demonstrates the power of situations. (sometimes good people do bad things because of situational influences
6. Describe each of the factors that predict when people will conform. a. Group size (35 is optimum)
i. In Asch’s study, even one dissenter decreased conformity
i. There is more pressure to conform in a more cohesive group d. Status
i. Individuals with higher status have increased influence in groups e. Public response
i. Subjects are more likely to conform when they answer in front of others
f. Prior commitment
i. Subjects are much less likely to conform if it conflicts with a prior commitment or obligation.
7. Define and provide examples of the two main motivations behind conformity. a. Normative
i. Conformity in order to be liked or accepted (pier pressure) b. Informational
i. Conformity as a result of a desire to be correct.
8. Describe the factors that explain why some individuals may be more likely to conform than others.
a. People in collectivistic cultures are more likely to conform b. Adapting to social roles (student, father, daughter) all require conformity 9. Explain why people do not completely conform to each other. a. reactance theory
i. Behaving opposite of the pressured conformity in an effort to preserve one’s freedom or individuality
Chapter 7 Learning Objectives
1. Define the two different routes to persuasion, and explain the audience characteristics, type of processing, and persuasion effects associated with both routes.
a. Central: Uses solid arguments requiring high effort to process with elaborative information targeting an analytical and motivated audience. b. Peripheral: Uses triggers to cue heuristics requiring only low effort to process targeting an audience that is not analytical or involved. 2. Describe the characteristics of a communicator that make them more or less persuasive.
b. Attractiveness and likability
3. Explain how the contents of a message may make it more or less persuasive. a. Reason: Geared toward well educated, analytical, involved audiences that respond to rational appeal.
b. Emotion: Uninterested, lessinvolved audiences tend to respond to emotional appeal.
c. Messages are more persuasive when associated with good feelings. happy people are more likely to respond to peripheral cues.
d. Fearful messages are most persuasive when accompanied by possible solutions.
e. Discrepancy: how different is the message from the audience’s previously held beliefs? high credibility with high discrepancy results in increased persuasion. Low credibility with high discrepancy results in decreased persuasion.
f. One sided vs two sided arguments. One sided arguments are best for audiences who already agree with subject matter. Two sided arguments are most persuasive for audiences who initially disagree with the discussion matter.
g. Primacy vs recency
i. Primacy: Information presented first has the most influence ii. Recency: Information presented most recently has the most influence.
4. Discuss how the way in which a message is communicated (i.e., channel of communication) influences its persuasiveness.
a. Active experience: this is the most affective way to form and strengthen attitudes.
b. Passive reception: It is very difficult (though not impossible) to change attitudes through passive reception
c. Personal communication: Facetoface communication. This is usually the most effective mode of communication
d. Media influence:
i. Two step influence: influences flows from media to opinion leader and then to others
ii. More lifelike media (i.e. a videotape) is more persuasive
iii. Difficult messages are most persuasive when written down. 5. Explain the characteristics of the audience that influence the persuasiveness of a message.
a. Age attitudes change with age
i. Generational effect: as people grow older, they tend to hold onto beliefs they adopted when they were younger.
b. What is the audience thinking about the message?
i. Has the audience been forewarned? Is the audience distracted? How involved is the audience
6. Identify some of the social psychological explanations for how average people may fall victim to dangerous, or even deadly, cults.
a. Attitudes follow behaviors
i. Cult members are asked to commit their lives gradually
ii. the more the cult members commit, the more they justify there efforts (with new beliefs).
7. Describe two ways in which persuasion may be resisted.
a. Strengthened personal commitment
b. Develop counter arguments
Additional Key Terms you should know:
• sleeper effect
o In advertising, even if the audience initially discredits the add, it could still affect the subjects decision making later on.
1. Define what a group is and provide examples.
a. two or more people who interact with and influence one another for a significant amount of time and define themselves as “us.”
2. Describe social facilitation and explain some of the possible explanations for this phenomenon.
a. Social facilitation: Strengthening of a dominant response in the presence of others
b. Mere Presence: Increased performance just based on the fact that others are present, even if the performer is not distracted and does not feel as if he is being evaluated
c. Evaluation apprehension: Concern for how others are evaluating us d. Driven by distractions: Paying attention to others distracts us from a task
e. (Animal display social facilitation. i.e. cockroaches.)
3. Explain social loafing and describe some of the factors that reduce this phenomenon.
a. People reduce their efforts when combining efforts towards a common goal
b. Social loafing can be reduced by:
i. Having a task that is challenging or appealing
ii. When individuals view their effort as indispensable
iii. When there is high cohesiveness in the group
4. Describe deindividuation and identify circumstances that trigger it. a. Deindividuation combines arousal, diminished selfawareness, and diffusion of responsibility resulting in people doing things while part of a group that they might otherwise not do as an individual.
b. Factors that trigger deindividuation:
i. Larger groups. The larger the group, the greater the perceived anonymity which decreases personal responsibility
ii. Anonymity: People will behave in unacceptable ways when their identity is concealed (i.e. Baiting suicide jumpers, internet
c. The opposite of deindividuation is selfawareness. In order to minimize deindividuation, selfawareness can be increased by factor such as mirrors, cameras, name tags, and bright lights.
5. Describe the phenomenon in which likeminded people develop more extreme attitudes than they might hold on their own. Explain why this might occur. a. Group polarization : discussion within a group typically strengthens the average inclination of group members.
b. Informational influence contributes as manifested with increased arguments in favor of the dominant viewpoint.
c. Normative influence plays a role exhibited by social comparison, pluralistic ignorance (underestimating other peoples’ attitudes), holding to a false impression of what other people are thinking
d. Bandwagon Effect (‘cause it’s the thing to do)
6. Describe groupthink and a few historical examples (both from your book and from lecture) of this phenomenon.
a. Groupthink: type of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than considering fact in a realistic manner.
b. Challenger launch
c. Bay of Pigs
7. Review the antecedents and symptoms of groupthink.
i. Highly cohesive group
ii. Isolation from dissenting viewpoints
iii. A directive leader who makes his/her opinion known
iv. High stress situations
v. Poor decisionmaking procedures
i. An illusion of invulnerability (Orings will hold despite test data) ii. Unquestioned belief in the group’s morality
iv. Stereotyped view of opponent (e.i. Cubans are just a ragtag band) v. Conformity to pressure (normative influence)
vi. Selfcensorship (Holding back dissenting opinion in attempt to maintain group cohesions)
vii. Illusion of unanimity
viii.MindGuards (“take off your engineering hat”)
8. Explain the reasons that group decision making can be helpful and describe the things that groups can do to prevent groupthink.
a. Preventing group think:
i. Be impartial
ii. Encourage critical evaluation
iii. Subdivide for discussion, then reconvene and evaluate
iv. Welcome critiques from outside of the group
v. Cal a “secondchance” meeting before implementing the plan. b. Groups often arrive at more accurate conclusions than individuals as they tend to generate more and better ideas.
c. Optimal brain storming incorporates both group and individual effort. 9. Explain the individual characteristics that enable minority positions to influence the majority.
c. Defection from the majority
i. One defector opens up the opportunity for others
ii. Defectors from the majority are more convincing than consistently holding the minority position
10. Review task leadership, social leadership, and transformational leadership. Describe how each type can be effective in influencing the majority. a. Task leadership
i. Focuses on setting standards, reaching goals, and organizing work ii. Usually giving orders (more authoritarian)
b. Social leadership
i. Focusses on building teamwork, mediating conflict, and supporting team members
ii. Permits members to give input on decisions
c. Transformational leadership (Common in cults)
i. Leadership that motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to a groups mission
ii. Characteristics that help minority leaders be more persuasive are being charismatic, energetic, selfconfident extraverts