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UW / Engineering / PSYCH 210 / How do child rearing practices differ across cultures?

How do child rearing practices differ across cultures?

How do child rearing practices differ across cultures?

Description

School: University of Washington
Department: Engineering
Course: The Diversity of Human Sexuality
Professor: Nicole mcnichols
Term: Winter 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: McNichols, PSYCH 210: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This is my comprehensive study guide covering Chapters 11-17 of PSYCH 210: Diversity of Human Sexuality. Hope it helps!
Uploaded: 03/07/2017
27 Pages 72 Views 2 Unlocks
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Sexuality Across the Lifespan


How do child rearing practices differ across cultures?



Dimensions of Sexuality

- Cognitive

- Sexual meaning develops w language

- Concrete idea of sexuality becomes more abstract

- Social (interpersonal)

- Involvement of others

- Quality of others (love maps)

- Gender

- Undifferentiated - fluid - constant - rigid - resolved

- Orientation

- Ambisexual - homosocial - hetero/homosexual

- Erotic

- Reflexive pleasure - curious excitement - erotophilia/erotophobia

Infant Sexuality (Birth - 2 years old)

- Typical sexual experiences

- Undifferentiated from other needs

- Genital response associated with positive emotions, pleasurable experience - Reflexive erection, vaginal lubrication from sucking, rocking, caress


How do you introduce a role play in the bedroom?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is an abstract idea or image or image of the way something works?

- Orgasm rare but possible (F>M)

Tactile exploration, unfocused masturbation

- Gender Dimension

- Unaware of own gender

- Undifferentiated gender

- Parental stereotyping clothes, toys, interactions with infant

- Rearing differences

- Girls - cuddle, coo, baby talk, seen as dependent, fragile

- Boys - adult talk, less contact comfort, seen as tougher,, independent,r oguh and tumble play

- Fathers more differentiating than mothers

- Erotic dimension

- Reflexive arousal, relaxation

- Pragmatic - feels good, get more; feels bad, get rid of it

- Pleasurable feelings in erogenous zones


How does gender affect social stratification?



- Pleasure affirming vs pleasure withholding

- Body map - positive/negative feelings derived from care-giver

- Social Dimension

- Egocentric - it’s all about me

- Love objects - extension of self

- Attachment to caregivers - basis of future love, sensuality

- Deprivation of contact comfort - sever problems with relationships We also discuss several other topics like What are elder ballard's teachings on the relationship of men, women, and the priesthood?

- Sexual partners - those who provide pleasure (caregivers)

- Infants pat, hugh, kiss, gaze at others

- Transitional objects are important

- Orientation dimension

- Unaware of own or others gender

- Orient to the familiar - smell, sound

- Preference for higher pitched voices

Early Childhood Sexualit (2 - 8 years old)

- Typical sexual experiences

- Common - kiss, hug, stroke, undress, expose, body, rub bodies, talk sex, view others, play doctor

- Uncommon - oral, anal, vaginal penetration

- Mothers report - masturbation 77%, genital play w/ peers/sibs 47%, intrusion in parental body/nudity 27-42%, accidentally view parent sex activity 20% We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of descartes?

- Rehearse sexual roles - play house

- Masturbation as self-care

- Cognitive dimension

- Conscious “sexual” label for self, body, behavior

- Parental non-labeling , mislabeling, negative labeling impedes development of body map

- Curiosity - lots of questions

- Development of “love map” begins

- Gender Dimension

- Conscious awareness of gender label and gender-correct behavior (gender map) - Gender based on clothes/hair, later based on genitals

- Fluid to constant core gender identity

- Gender role rehearsal - entrenches toy, play preference

- Rearing differences

- Girls - more restrictions of nudity, no sexual label for genitals, androgyny is accepted

- Boys - wean from contact comfort earlier, connect genitals to adult male role, less tolerance for gender role deviance - must purge the feminine

- Fathers more differentiating than mothers

- Erotic dimension

- Body map - value of body, pleasure (good, bad, clean, dirty) If you want to learn more check out What are the salem witch trials?

- Reduced tolerance for public nudity

- Parental acceptance - healthy adult sex

- Punishment - future sex problems

- Parental imposed “privacy” vs “secrecy”

- Comfort w/ voluntary nudity - comfort with sexuality in adulthood

- No harm from accidental viewing parent sex

- Nudity allows childrent to familiarize themselves iwtha natomical sex differences - Social dimension

- Others as “people’ not “objects”, others as mirrors of the self

- Intense love attachment w/ parents, special playmate

- Chance, occasional sex play with peer, sibling

- Transitional objects - importance wanes

Child Sexual Abuse

- Intergenerational sex:​ neutral term to describe sexual contact between child and adult. Most relevant when describing cultures where sex between adults and children is part of a cultural norms (e.g Sub-Saharan Africa, Botswana)

- Incest:​ Sexual contact between a child a nd a person who is excluded from marriage based on kinship status and/or biological relatedness Don't forget about the age old question of What best describes the biological species concept?

- (Burundi are a tribal group in Africa that believe if umbilical cord touches boys penis during birth it will cause erectile dysfunction. Mother-son intercourse to rectify.)

- Child Sexual Abuse:​ any sexual behavior between adult and minor. Dominant, powerful position of adult/older teen that allows them to force child into sexual activity, - Sexual touching between children can also be sexual abuse when there is a significant age difference (often defined as 3 or more years) between the children or if children are in different stages of psychological development. We also discuss several other topics like What is hard drive memory used for?

- Methods to gain participation of child: physical force, psychological coercion (threat, guilt), seduction (physical pleasure, attention, affection), age disparity (superior cognitive level - implied power)

- Common justifications used by perpetrator that never mitigate guilt:

- Absence of harm or negative symptoms in child

- Participation, initiation, enjoyment by the child

- Child’s sexual knowledge, previous sexual experience

- Childs precocious emotional, physical or cognitive development

- Acceptance of intergenerational sex in other cultures

- Rates depend on how age of “child” and “adult” are defined

- In most states the child is : less than 16, and at least 4 years younger than adult - In most states the adult is: greater than 13 years of age, at least 4 years older than child

- Adult and child can also be defined in terms of psychosexual development - According to National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) about 7.5% of women and 2.5% of men report having had at least childhood sexual assault experience with an adult

- Boys under report due to expectations of male sexuality and lack of social support

- 94% of total cases are committed by family or people known to family - Family members: 3-5% of cases

- Siblings: 10-15% of cases

- Non family members known to child (teachers, child-care workers, club leaders, medical personnel): 10-12%

Effects of Child Sexual Abuse

-

Preadolescence

- Puberty is a period of rapid maturation

- Complex chain of hormonal events:

- Bossy mass/weight ration → leptin sends message to hypothalamus - Kisspeptin neurons in hypothalamus - secretion of GnRH

- Secretion of LH and GSH by the pituitary

- Secretion of Sex steroids (mostly androgens and estrogens) by gonads - Effect of these sex steroids on body and brain

- One of the most visible processes of puberty is the growth spurt

- Girls : 9-10 years old

- Boys: >10

- During puberty, visible and invisible changes take place:

- Girls:

- Growth of pubic hair

- enlargement of breast buds

- Menarche, the onset of menstruation

- Boys:

- Enlargement of testicles

- Growth of penis in length and girth

- Deepening of voice

- First ejaculation-- with masturbation or during sleep

- Puberty that begins before age 8 in girls or 9 in boys is diagnosed as precocious - Puberty is the general population has been starting earlier

- Puberty is considered delayed if early signs of puberty do not appear by age 13 or 14 in girls, or by age 14 in boys

- Cognitive Dimension

- True-sexual consciousness begins

- Will pursuit of sex info - development of understanding of coitus

- Abstract jokes, planning, teasing, interest in explicit

- Gender Dimension

- Gender roles constant to rigid

- Self-imposed social gender segregation

- Self-imposed gender stereotyping

- Erotic dimension

- Emerging sense of self as sexual being, feeling sexual curiosity about and attraction to others

- Love map (emotional components of love, sexuality, sensuality) is established - shapes adult sexuality

- Erotophobia - erotophilia emerging

- Social dimension

- Other incorporative (crushes)

- Others as conscious source of sex

- Sex plau planned, secret/ private

- Orientation

- Self-discovery via same gender sex play

- Partner choice based familiarity, comfort, availability

- Adolescence is a time of sexual exploration

- Adolescence refers to the teen years (13-18 or 20)

- Many cultures have coming-of-age ceremonies

- Sunrise ceremony of western apaches

- Breast ironing

- bar/bat mitzvah

- Quinceanera

- Teen sexuality is central to identity development

- For some adolescents sexual exploration involves serial monogamy - Traditional social patterns have been modified

- Teens increasingly tend proms and other events solo or in groups of friends

- Teens are increasingly aware of gender and sexual orientation issues - Coitus has become more common among teens

- Foremost among these social changes are:

- Introduction of oral contraceptives

- Legalization of abortion

- Effective treatment for some STIs

- Feminisms effect on women

- Increased college attendance

- Entrance into the workforce

- Postponement of marriage

- Sexual education for children

- What type of society do I want?

- celibate/repressive

- Knowledge corrupts -sex is taboo

- Stress fear, harm, danger of sex

- Chase/restrictive

- Knowledge to correct problems

- Regulate access on a need to know basis

- Stress avoidance of harm, ignore pleasure

- Active/permissive

- Knowledge prevents problems

- Experience left to peer activity

- Acknowledge pleasure, stress responsibility

- Expressive/Supportive

- Knowledge enhances life

- Formal adult/peer mentors teach facts and skills

- Goal to enhance sexual pleasure and expression

- Informal Parental Education

- Use of language - barrier vs. bridge for communication

- Seek knowledge - nurturing vs. inhibiting curiosity

- Modeling adult sexuality - children around the world are privy to parents sexuality - Promoting Safety w/out promoting fear

- Autonomy - ownership of body, personal boundaries

- Security - no coercion, exploitation

- Safety - no pregnancy, no STDs

- Intimacy - sharing and caring

- Egalitarian - no age, power differ

- Young adulthood

- Young adulthood is a time when sexual relationships continue to develop - Man different forms and types

- Cohabitation is an increasingly prevalent lifestyle for young adults - Cohabitation has diverse meanings to those involved

- An alternative to marriage

- Different expectations, roles

- Preservation of financial independence

- A “trial marriage”

- An alternative to dating

- The History of Marriage

- Historically, marriage has served many functions:

- Paternity rights - children

- Property rights - lands, goods, money

- Labor and services - sexual, domestic

- Passionate love (as a precursor to marriage)

- Defined as the desire for union - physical, emotional, psychological - A universal human emotion - in all times, place

- Rarely encouraged as the basis for adult bonding - threat to social, political, religious order (disastrous consequences)

- Love emerges as the social ideal in the 1500s; West diverges from rest of world - The rise of individualism, democracy reinforces romantic love as the basis for marriage

- Bloom of democracy - love marriage sweeps the world

- There are many marital forms

- Monogamy

- De facto in most of world’s population, but most common in industrialized societies

- Lifetime versus serial

- Polygamy

- Most societies permit some individuals

- Polygyny (82%) versus polyandry (2%)

- More common in agrarian societies

- Polygynandry (polyamory)

- Group marriage (rare)

- Psychological consequences of marriage

- Companionate marriage is seens as an intimate and affectionate

partnership, and thus requires access to divorce

- Married people are significantly happier than unmarried people

- Most long-term couples are satisfied with their sex lives

- Statistically, marital sex is less frequent and adventurous than unmarried sex, but married people are generally satisfied with it, especially women

- The frequency of sex declines during the course of a marriage

- Many factors bring relationships to an end;

- 45% of marriages end in divorce

- Marital disruption can have negative and positive consequences

- Divorcees may suffer physical, psychological, and economic hardship, but these difficulties may have been present within the marriage, too

- Divorce may be the start of a new life

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

- Throughout history STIs have added an element of risk to sexuality, and have influenced - By 1918 - 1/22 Americans suffered from syphilis

- Little sympathy for sufferers

- Likely columbus and his crew brought disease to america

- Now known as STIs

- Nearly 20 million new STI infections occur in the United States each year - ABout half of these occur in 15- to 24-year olds

- 1 in 2 sexually active Americans acquire an STI by age 25

- The US .. .

- Pubic lice (“crabs”) are very small .. .

- Scabies mite (similar to above) .. .

- Trichomoniasis is Caused by a Protozoan

- Can be treated with simple antibiotic

- Bacterial STIs

- Can usually be treated with antibiotics and exclude

Guest Speaker - Dr. Denise Galloway

- HPVs are a large family of viruses

- Genital warts

- Genital cancers

- HPVs associated with cervical cancer by region

Cervical Cancer - Most common HPV associated disease worldwide

- The rates of cervical cancer are highest in sub-saharan africa and south asia

- 530,000 cases of cervical cancer per year

- 275,000 deaths by cervical cancer per year

- Costs of screening and prevention: $6 billion

HPV: Pathway of Infection

- Viruses enter through cracks in the epithelial layer

VAERS: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

- HPV Vaccine Safety Monitoring

- Ongoing safety monitoring has shown most reports are non-serious

- Among the 7.6% of reports coded as serious, most frequently cited possible side effects are .. .

VSD: Vaccine Safety Datalink

- RCA allows VSD to detect adverse events following vaccination in near real time - After approx. 600,00 HPV 4 doses among females, no significant risk for any of the pre-specified

Sexual Orientation

- Sexual Orientation​: an enduring pattern of romantic and/or sexual attraction ( or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender

- According to the APA, sexual orientation also refers to a person’s sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions

- Sexual behavior and sexual orientation label may not always match

Cross-Cultural Data

- Same sex behavior (SSB)​ is virtually universal in human societies

- Homosexual role really only occurs in monosexual cultures

- Many variant patterns of SSB (e.g age, roles, gender)

- Numerous lifestyles of SSB (e.g level of visibility, stability, fidelity, parenting) Evolution of Sexual Behavior

- Reproduction​ = coitus when female is ovulating

- Non-reproductive​ = everything else (masutrbation;paraphernalia; oral, anak, amnual sex; coitus before puberty, after menopause, when the female is sterile, using B.C, not ovulating when male is not ejaculating, same-sex behavior)

Spectrum of Sexual Orientations

- Although the majority of individuals in the US are hetero, approximately 2% of women and 3% of men categorize themselves as exclusively attracted to the same sex Bisexual Sexual Orientation Over Time (Females)

- In one study over 10 years, ⅔ women changed identity labels they had claimed at beginning of the study and ⅓ changed labels 2 or more times

- More women ADOPTED bisexual.unlabeled identities than GAVE UP these identities - Put simply, few bisexual women ended up identifying as lesbian or heterosexual - Summary: bisexuality is not a transitional stage between identifying as heterosexual or homosexual

LGBTQ Community

- According to most recent NHSL data, % who identify as gay or lesbians - Urban area: 8% males, 9% females

- Suburban, towns: 3-4%

- Rural areas: 1%

- Traditional​ - relationship-based, monogamous, family-oriented, mainstream - Radical ​- break down sexual taboos, overturn gender stereotypes, activism - Gay subcultures ​- queens, muscle/pretty boys, bears (big, burly, bearded) - Lesbian subcultures​ - lipstick lezzies, motor-cycle dykes, feminists - Impact of feeling rejected form communities can cause intense feelings of rejectiona nd isolation

- E.g biseuxal men and women sometimes have their sexual orientations questioned from within LGBTQ communities

- Bisexual men and women often report that they dont feel included in LGBTQ communities

Minority Stress

- Excess stress to which individuals from stigmatized social categories are exposed as a result of their social, often a minority, position

- Leads to increased distress and sometimes mental health difficulties - E.g rejection, hostility, sexualizing, stereotyping, invalidating

- Getting kicked out of the house by family

- Difficult to adopt children

- Gay males can’t donate blood

- “It’s just a phase” excuse

Models of Orientation = Historical Perspectives

- Dichotomy Model: heterosexual or homosexual

- Continuum Model: exclusive homosexual to exclusive heterosexual and everything possible in between

- Vectors Model: (google it)

- Dimensions (profile) Model (KSOG) - Current Thinking

- Partner selection based on gender

- Attraction

- Attachment

- Behavior

- Fantasy

Etiology of Same-sex Sexual Behavior

Psychodynamic Theories

- Most theories of sexual orientation are either psychodynamic or biological - Psychodynamic theories lack any concrete evidence

- Freud believed that homosexuality resulted from disruption of normal psychosexual development-- no evidence supports this theory

- Sexual orientation has been attributed to socialization and early sexual experiences-- no evidence supports this theory

- Biological Explanations

- Biological theories focus on genes and hormones

- The basics:

- Fetuses exposed to high levels of androgens (e.g testosterone) are more likely to become attracted to females -- they become gynephilic

- Fetuses exposed to low levels of androgens are more likely to become attracted to men-- they become androphilic

- Prenatal hormone theory of sexual orientation: ​could explain why gays and lesbians, are on average, gender atypical on a variety of traits other than sexual orientation (androgen level during sensitive period and threshold value)

- Evidence supporting this theory:

- women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (naturally

exposed to more androgens during pregnancy) are

statistically more likely to be attracted to women than

unaffected sisters

- Provides evidence that more androgens during prenatal

period does increases chances of being gynephilic

- Within the medial preoptic area is a group of neurons

called INAH3 that is typically larger in males than in

females. The size of this area is believed to be controlled

by prenatal hormones (androgens)

- The hypothalamus and male sexual orientation:

- Autopsy studies showed that this region in

gay men is more similar in size (i.e smaller)

to women than to straight men

- fMRI studies of brain response to ordinary

odors and sex-related pheromones

- Ordinary odors - detected by scent

regions of the brain

- Sex pheromones - detected in

hypothalamus

- No difference between individuals

with different sexual orientations with

regard to ordinary odors

- Androphiles (gay males and hetero

females) have similar fMRI response

to male sex pheromones (same true

for gynephiles-- lesbians and hetero

males)

- Researchers aren’t sure if these

differences are due to hormones,

genes, environment, or the

interaction of all three

- Biological Variant: Gay Gene?

- How do genes function

- Encode the instructions for making proteins -

structural and functional

- Proteins (enzymes) are involved in the production

of hormones (e.g aromatase - convert testosterone

to estradiol)

- Heritability:

- Heritability coefficient (H) - range from 0 to 1

(i.e none to total)

- H - measure of the extent of variation of a

specific trait within a group of people

attributable to variation in genetics

- H - not a measure of the percent of trait in

particular person due to genetics

Maternal Immune System

- Among humans, it has been observed that men with more older brothers tend to have a higher chance of being hoosexual

- Prior pregnancy with XY fetus increases likelihood that subsequent XY fetus will have reduced masculinization of the brain, more gender-atypical behavior traits and become gay

- Mothers develop antibodies to H-Y antigen when pregnant with XY conceptus - Estimate - antibody formation is a fact for 15-30% of gay males

Psychosocial Theories

- Bem’s Model ​- Exotic becomes erotic - heterosexual (opposite for homosexual) - Biological factors create a predisposition for gender-typical behavior

- Gender-typical behavior provides a bond with own gender

- Bond with own gender renders the other gender erotic

- Rush of hormones causes exotic to become erotic

- Model assumes that biological factors create predisposition for gendered behavior

- Gender-nonconforming children grow up to be gay​ (tomboy to lesbian) - Sometimes, yes but usually no…​

- Most gender nonconforming children become straight adults

- Most gays/lesbians did not have prominent gender nonconformity, some straight individuals did

- Although they are not likely to grow up gay, gender nonconforming children DO experience gender role strain​ (constant pushing and stress put on them by others to be gender conforming) or worse and can lead to psychological harm.

- Attachment to the opposite sex or wrong parent cause homosexuality - This theory predicts that children with strong identification with same-sex parent will become straight and with cross-sex parent will become gay

- Child abuse’s effects on influencing homosexuality

- Nope, there is no evidence supporting this

- Most children who are sexually abused grow up to be straight

- gay/lesbian children are abused at higher rates that straight children

- Sexual abuse causes more mental illness - does make them mroe visible as gay/lesbian? Spurious correlation

- Does consensual SSB with peers influence sexual orientation?

- Nope, there is no evidence supporting this

The Gay Community Has Struggled for Equal Rights

- Magnus Hirschfield, a gay Jewish doctor and sexologist, founded the world’s first gay rights organization in Berlin, Germany, in 1897.

- Spent 30 years trying to overturn Germany’s sodomy laws. Came close, but ultimately defeated by Nazi’s who then sent thousands of gays/lesbians to concentration camps

- After WWII, gay activism moved to the US

- A riot outside the Stonewall Inn in NY’s Greenwich Village, on June 28, 1969 began the modern gay rights movement

- Stonewall Uprising film clip played here

- The 1970’s were a period of rapid change

- APA removed homosexuality from their handbook of mental disorders in 1973 - 1970s - first gay rights marches, lesbians recognized by NOW

- Harvey Milk​: First openly gay candidate to win elected office. (Elected to Board of Supervisors in SF in 1977). Assassinated by White in 1978 - Twinkie Defense - released after only 5 years in jail.

- By 1977, 40 cities enacted antidiscrimination ordinances

- In the 1980’s. The AIDS epidemic prompted many gay men and women to become involved in AIDS activism and gay activism. Responsible for 288,000 deaths of gay people by 2006-- incredibly traumatic for gay community.

- Initial reaction of public was t treat AIDS as a “gay” disease and dismiss it - led to huge increases in people joining gay and AIDS activist causes.

- 1983: 30% of people say they know a gay person vs 73% in 2000.

Sodomy Laws

- Typically understood by courts to include anal sex and oral sex. (Non-heterosexual persons particularly targeted).

- Prior to 1962, sodomy was a felony in every state

- Bowers v. Hardwick (1986):​ SCOTUS 5-4 ruling

- Upheld constitutionality of a Georgia law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults

- Lawrence v. Texas (2002): R​ epealed Bowers v. Hardwick, sodomy laws held unconstitutional

- 2015: legalization of gay marriage

Changing Views on Same Sexual Activity

- 1990, 76% thought always wrong / 12% thought not wrong at all

- 2012, 45% thought always wrong / 44% thought not wrong at all

- By 2011, 21 states and most cities have enacted anti discrimination laws - gay people can speak openly about their orientation in military

- Gay rights are a global issue and gay people experience discrimination or persecution in many parts of the world, especially in Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East Spectrum of Sexual Prejudice

- Stereotyped belief - “lesbians are man-haters”

- Negative attitude - ”shouldn’t be teacher”

- Discriminatory action - denied employment

- Verbal abuse - graffiti, name-calling

- Hate crime - physical, sexual assault, arson, property damage

Heterosexism

- Widespread social phenomena (rather than a trait of personality of individuals) - Assumed superiority of heterosexual feelings, acts, persons

- Institutional structure (laws, norms) empowers heterosexual agenda

- Marriage

- Parental custody

- employment , insurance, housing

- Survivor benefits, healthcare oversight

- Discriminatory institutional biases

Homophobia

- Conscious or unconscious hatred of, fear of contamination by, persons who love and sexually desire those of the same sex, engage in same-sex acts

- An aspect of individual personality

- Internalized homophobia

- gays/lesbians internalize the negative attitudes of the society

- Become self-hating

- Gay-bash others

- Subject to stereotype threat

- Extreme Homophobia:​

- Rigid, stereotypical male gender role

- Ultraconservative religious beliefs (fundamentalism)

- Belief that homosexuality is a choice

- High sex guilt (erotophobia)

- Belief sex is fundamentally for procreation

Overcoming Homophobia

- Overcoming homophobia requires grassroots efforts, including passage of nondiscrimination laws, hate crimes statutes, and other public policy initiatives.

- Ongoing interactions with relatives, friends, and coworkers may have the strongest influence on attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

Atypical Sexuality

- Sexual variety is the spice of life

- Most people, at some point in their lives experience some sort of sexual fantasy or try out some type of “kinky” sexual act.

- Most sex researchers believe that only a small area within the realm of atypical sexuality needs to be considered “disordered.”

- Fetishes

- Fetishism​ is sexual arousal caused by inanimate objects, substances, or body parts

- More common in men than women

- Feet are especially common:

- Freud - represent penises?

- Hidden?

- Brain map - fee/genitals?

- Body fluid (urine), piercings, hair, material (fur, leather) - also common. - Amputations - less common

- Objectophiles​ - attracted to objects or things, often believe object loves them back.

- Internet has played a huge role in helping people with fetishes to feel accepted and part of a community - have “normalized” behavior.

- Cross-dressing

- Done for many reasons:

- Practicality - including fashion

- Entertainment - drag queen, kings

- Transgender dressing - natural expression of gender identity

- Transvestic fetishism​ - heterosexual men who find wearing female clothes sexually erotic

- Often conceal this from partners (wives), but sometimes are able to be open about it and incorporate into sexual play

- Can develop from a fetish for female clothing to Autogynephilia​ -sexual arousal at thought of being a woman

- Some men aroused by transgender women (“transfans,” “tranny chasers”) - She-male websites, trangender porstitutes al cater to this population - not small

- Sadomasochism

- Sadomasochism​ involves sexual arousal from the infliction or receipt of pain or psychological humiliation

- Sadist​ - cruel person, inflicts pain

- Masochist​ - glutton for punishment

- Pain involves cutting, spanking, flogging, whipping, nipple clamping

- Psychological humiliation includes acknowledging “dominance” of sadist. (i.e licking boots, being put into a humiliating position “bondage”)

- BDSM

- BDSM​ refers to the entire collection of behaviors surrounding the infliction and receipt of pain for the purpose of sexual arousal

- BDSM received 62 million google searches in 2014, suggesting labeling it as a disorder would pathologize a significant proportion of the population

- Involves acting out scenes, safe words, can sometimes include “edge play,” “adult babies” → all require trust, respect and communication

- Most who participate in BDSM feel that the intensity of roles of domination, submission, power - all contribute to heightened feelings of intimacy between participants

- Paraphilic Disorders

- When does an unusual sexual interest become a disorder?

- Criteria for paraphilic disorder include:

- Is intense distress associated with the desire or behavior

- Does it cause harm to others

- Paraphilic disorders cause distress or harm others

- Paraphilias are often exaggerations or extensions of common sexual desires or behaviors.

- Begin at early age - usually puberty

- Far more men than women have paraphilias

- Related to certain personality traits:

- Lack of social skills (especially with women)

- Sense of inadequacy

- Depression

- Rage against women

- The DSM-5 of the APA lists 8 specific paraphilias as well as paraphilic disorders not otherwise specified:

- Exhibitionism​: obtaining sexual arousal by fantasizing about exposing genitals

- Voyeurism​: obtaining sexual arousal from watching unsuspecting people while they are undressing/engaged in sexual behavior

- Frotteurism​: obtaining sexual arousal from physical contact with others without their awareness. 24% women and 7% men report being victims. - Pedophiles and Child Molesters

- Pedophiles​ and child molesters ​ are distinct but partially overlapping populations.

- A pedophile is a person, usually a man, whose sexual interest in

prepubescent children exceeds his sexual interest in physically mature adults

- Pedophilia generally begins in adolescence and persists over a lifetime

- A pedophile may or may not molest children

- Child Molesters

- A sexual offender against children, or child molestor, is any adult (usually male, but female sexual offenders do exist) who has had sexual contact with a prepubescent child, whether the child participated willingly or

unwillingly

- Most child molestation convictions are non-penetrative acts, such

as touching a child’s genitals or buttocks

- Child molesters may be classified as intrafamilial (having sexual

interactions with their own children or stepchildren) or as

extrafamilial (having sexual interactions with children outside their

immediate families)

- Pedophiles

- May be homosexual or heterosexual and may have a preference

for either female or male children

- Heterosexual pedophiles outnumber homosexual pedophiles bu 2 to 1 or 3 to 1

- Recent research suggests that pedophiles have few distinguishing characteristics except for a relatively low level of intellectual

function

- B4U-ACT is an organization that supports men who are sexually

attracted to underage youth or children

- Virtuous pedophiles is a mutual support group for minor-attracted

persons who do not want to act on their attractions

- Sexual Violence can be paraphilic

- When the violence itself is sexuallly arousing, the person probably has a parapilic disorder

- Some serial killers have paraphilic disorders

- Gary Ridgeway : killed 48 women, mostly prostitutes, by strangling during sexxual intercourse

- Some masochists (David Caradine) inflict pain on themselves, as in the case of autoerotic asphyxia.

- Sex offenders do not necessarily repeat their offenses

- Several factors predict recidivism among sex offenders:

- Antisocial tendencies

- Prior offenses- especially if they involved violence

- Theories of Paraphilic Disorders

- A tendency to develop a paraphilia may be inherited

- One study showed a pattern suggesting a gene predisposing to

pedophilia that is transmitted directly from father to son

- Brain anatomy in people with paraphilia differs from unaffected individuals - Less grey matter​ in prefrontal cortex

- Paraphilia may be learned through classical conditioning

- Some evidence shows that paraphilic tendencies can be induced via classical (Pavlonian) conditioning

- Yields interesting, but weak, inconsistent results

- Paraphilia may result from courtship disorders

- Traits such as hypersexuality​ or obsessive-compulsive disorder​ may make the development of a paraphilia more likely

- A cycle of abuse may contribute​ to development of paraphilias

- Theories of Causation have suggested a variety of treatments

- Most paraphiliacs do not seek treatment on their own

- Behavior therapy attempts to reverse the pathological learning processes by such techniques as aversion therapy ​ or masturbatory reconditioning.​ - Psychotherapeutic approaches:

- Cognitive Therapy: ch​ ange cognitions - such as the idea that act is

pleasing to victim

- Relapse prevention therapy: ​ aimed at preventing repeat offenses.

Identify cues in environment that lead to behavior -- thoughts stopping,

practical concerns

- Little evidence exists to conclude that psychological treatment of

paraphilias is effective

- Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs):​ used in the treatment of depression, are also used to reduce or eliminate paraphilic desires and behaviors

- Depo-Provera, Lupron, and cyproterone acetate:​ are prescribed either to lower testosterone levels or to block the action of testosterone

- Surgical castration:​ as last resort

Sexual Disorders

- Two major classes:

1. Deficiencies:

a. Lack of interest in sex

b. Inability to achieve orgasm

c. Difficulty with erection, lubrication orgasm

2. Overexcitement

a. Premature ejaculation

b. Excessive sexual behavior

- Much easier to treat than paraphiliac disorder. Biggest obstacle is making people feel comfortable enough to discuss.

- The NHSLS asked those surveyed about seven kinds of sexual dysfunction: - Of the participants in the survey, 33% acknowledged having some type of sexual problem/disorder/difficulty. These include:

- Lack of interest in sex

- Lack of pleasure in sex

- Pain during sex

- Problems with erection or lubrication

- Inability to reach orgasm

- Climax too early

- Anxious about performance

- Problem with lubrication (women) or erection (men)

- Sexual disorders can be primary​ (lifelong), secondary​ (not lifelong), or situational (occurs in some situations but not others.)

- The preferred approach to treating sexual disorders is multidisciplinary (dependent on primary, secondary, or situational)

- Therapy (sex therapist, physician, physiotherapist)

- When a problem becomes a sexual disorder

- DSM V Criteria:

- Problem occurs:

- For at least 6 months

- Over 75% of the time

- Causes “significant distress”

- 3 female dysfunctions:

- Sexual interest/arousal disorder

- genito pelvic pain/penetration disorder

- Female orgasmic disorder

- 4 male dysfunctions

- Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

- Delayed ejaculation

- Erectile disorder

- Premature ejaculation

- Premature Ejaculation is Men’s #1 Sex Problem

- Premature ejaculation is defined as ejaculation that occurs before the main wants it to.

- Often just a matter of perception:

- Average # minutes of thrusting before ejaculation is less than

people expect (4-6 minutes)

- Often a learned response​ - traditional view

- Usually when it is a situational disorder

- It may result from dysfunction in certain receptors for serotonin

- Usually when it is a primary disorder

- Premature ejaculation can be treated with drugs or sex therapy or both. - SSRIs are the most commonly used drugs to treat the problem

- The stop-start method​ is a treatment exercise: during sexual pleasuring (masturbation or intercourse), stop when onset of ejaculation arises then start again when less aroused

- Multiple Causes for Delayed Ejaculation

- Delayed or absent ejaculation​ is the opposite of premature ejaculation

- It may be caused by masturbatory ractives, excessive pronography viewing, or psuchological challenges, such as a relationship crisis

- It can be caused by biological factors: neurological damage or the use of antihypertensive drugs, tranquilizers, or antidepressants.

- Erectile Disorder has Many Causes and Treatments

- Erectile disorder (also called erectile dysfunction)​ is a recurrent inabiity to achieve an adequate penile erection or to maintain it through the course of the desired sexual behavior

- Effects 50% of men > 60 and most of men > 70

- The major contributing factors to this disorder are:

- Behavioral and lifestyle factors (smoking, obesity, chronic alcohol abuse) - Medical conditions (diabetes)

- Injuries (spinal cord or nerves/arteries in penis)

- Drugs (SSRIs)

- Psychological factors (performance anxiety, stress, depression)

- Developmental issues (childhood trauma, religious taboos)

- May be alleviated through lifestyle changes

- Sex therapy and psychotherapy may be useful in treating performance anxieties - Viagra and similar drugs have become the leading treatment for erectile dysfunction

- Viagra works by increasing the responsiveness of the erectile tissue to nitric oxide, the neurotransmitter responsible for erections

- Cialis and Stendra are alternative to Viagra

- Men May Have Little Interest in Sex

- When low sexual desire interferes with living a full life, it is called hypoactive sexual desire disorder.​ Causes include:

- Hormones (declining testosterone levels with age)

- Lack of attraction to partner

- Bereavement

- Illness

- Disability

- Depression

- Negative attitudes about sex

- Hypersexuality

- Sex addiciton vs compulsive sexual behavior

- Often occurs in four stages:

- Craving for sex

- Ritualized search for sex

- Sexual behavior

- guilt/despair after sexual behavior; leads to craving for sex, beginning of new cycle

- Causes?

- Sexual abuse/childhood trauma

- Treatments:

- Cognitive behavioral therapy

- 12 step programs

- SSRIs

- Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

- Female Sexual Arousal Disorder is the absence or insufficiency of the early processes of arousal such as vaginal lubrication, engorgement of vaginal walls, and clitoral erection.

- Often treated with hormones -estrogens

- Viagra - not effective, except for women on SSRIs

- Eros Clitoral Therapy Device

- Lack of Desire for Sex Among Women

- Prevalence in lack of interest in sex among women estimated to be as high as 30%. Causes include:

- Socioculture factors​ - lack of info about sex, culturally imposed taboos, family/work, obligations, shame about orientation

- Partner and the relationship​ - unequal power, misaligned desires, poor communication

- Psychological factors​ - past traumas, feelings of rejection, attachment disorders, anxiety and depression

- Medical factors​ - most of which make sex painful

- Painful coitus or dyspareunia, i​ s especially common among

young women. Some causes are:

- Developmental malformations

- Scars from childbirth or surgery

- Vaginal atrophy - thinning walls

- Vaginal infections

- Vulvodynia​ - results in pain when vulva is only lightly

touched

- Endometriosis

- Allergic reactions to latex or spermicides

- Vaginismus​ is a female sexual arousal disorder in which

vaginal muscle spasms may make intercourse impossible

- Mental anticipation of pain heightens problem

- Root cause not well understood

- Treated with combination of sex therapy (sensate

focus) and psychotherapy

- Difficulty in reaching Orgasm is common among women

- Persistent and recurring difficulty reaching orgasm is called anorgasmia - Of women, 71% do not experience orgasm regularly during coitus - Anorgasmia can be caused by drugs, medical conditions, pelvic surgery, and menopause

- Reportedly, the vulvas of anorgasmic women are anatomically different than those of orgasmic women.

- Glans is smaller and further from vagina

- If no biological reason for anorgasmia is found, therapy and treatment procedures are recommended, including:

- Directed program of self-stimulation of the clitoris via masturbation

by hand or vibrator

- Encouragement of increased communication between the couple

- Faking Orgasm

- Among sexually active college students 67% of females and 28% of men reported at least occasionally faking orgasms. Reasons include:

- Protecting partner’s feelings

- Heightening own arousal

- Cope with feeling of being “abnormal”

- Wanting to bring sex to an end

- Faking as useful tool vs. establishing pattern of deception in couple

Prevalence of Sexual Assault

- Rates of sexual violence:

- About one in five women and one in 71 men are rapted at some point in their lives.

- About one in five women and one in 16 men are sexually assaulted while in college

- Title IX investigations:

- 124 colleges and universities were under investigation by the US Department of Education for Title IX violations in their handling of student sexual assault as of July 2015.

- Sexual assault:​ any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient.

- Rape:​ “Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.” (FBI)

- Statutory rape: ​rape of a minor or physically or mentally incapacitated person who is considered incapable of consenting to sex

- Marital Rape:​ Rape committed by a marital partner

- Did not become a crime in all US states until 1993

- Date Rape: ​ Rape between dating or socially acquainted couples. Not a legal term. Doe not have to involve an actual “date.”

- Acquaintance Rape: ​ Rape committed by a person known to the victim - Most instances of rape are acquaintance rape

Sexual Consent

- “No means no”: ​Sexual activity is consensual in the absence of a “no.”

- “(Only) yes means yes” (affirmative consent): ​Sexual activity is consensual if and only if “affirmative, conscious, and voluntary agreement is given”. Lack of resistance or a maybe does not constitute consent.

- Split between “yes means yes” proponents on whether “yes” must be verbal - Different responses → importance of communication

- Gendered communication differences:

- 61% of men say they rely on nonverbal cues to indicate consent from a partner - 10% of women say they give consent by body language. Most say they wait to be asked.

- Survivor​: increasingly popular term for people who have experienced sexual violence. Replaces “victim” in an effort to emphasize strength over helplessness.

- Quote from Dana Balder: “‘It places the burden of healing on the individual, while comfortably erasing the systems and structures that make surviving hard, harder for some than for others.’”

Victim/Survivor Identities: Gender, Race, Sexuality

- Lifetime rates of rape:

- 18.3 % Women

- 1.4% Men

- About half of transgender men and women experience sexual violence at some point in their lives. Trans women experience higher rates than trans men.

- Though rare, it is technically possible to force a man to develop an erection and have coitus against his will

- Does not mean he wants sex but ma contribute to feelings of guilt and self-blame - Prison rape -- power dynamics

- Bisexual women​ are especially at risk of sexual violence

- Homosexual and bisexual men are at much greater risk than heterosexual men - Sexual assault is the most under-reported crime.

- 72% of sexual assaults not reported to police

- More than 90% of sexual assault victims on college campuses do not report the assault

- 50% of arrests lead to conviction

- 98% of rapists will never go to jail

- The prevalence of false reporting is between 2% and 10% (similar to that of other felonies)

- Reasons for not reporting include:

- Fear of retaliation

- Wanting to protect the perpetrator

- Concern for privacy and reputation

- Feelings of shame or self-blame

- Fear of being shamed or punished by others

- Concern that they wouldn’t be believed/that no action would be taken - Concern that the reporting/prosecution processes would cause additional trauma - Sexual assault is never the victim’s fault

- Rape Culture​: A term that refers to the ways in which society normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual violence.

- Nearly all rapes and the majority of sexual assaults are committed by men. - Nearly 1 in 3 rapes are committed by juveniles.

- Rape may have evolutionary roots: increases reproduction.

- Evidence of rape across the whole animal kingdom

- Some characteristics distinguish rapists from non-rapists.

- Men who grew up in violent homes or were abused as children are more likely to commit rape

- Rapists tend to be less educated, have poor relationships with their parents, be more self-centered, and have less capacity for empathy

- Research suggests that men with empathy were less likely to be

aggressive toward women, even when all other factors predisposed them to be

- Some extremely violent rapists have personality disorders

- A phenomenon called the “cold-to-hot empathy gap”​ is thought to contribute to date rapes on college campuses

- The changing of one’s conscious ethical boundaries and level of empathy when in a state of arousal

- Alcohol is the most common “date-rape” drug

- Incapacitated rapes constitute more than half of all college rapes

- Alcohol can also facilitate rape by reducing the perpetrators inhibitions - In one survey, two thirds of college women who had been sexually assaulted said the perpetrator had been drinking

- Drugs that have been used to facilitate rape include roofies, ketamine, and Ambien.

- Victims of sexual assault are:

- 6 times more likely to experience PTSD from rape may be called rape trauma syndrome

- Symptoms include: numbness,

- Each rape costs approximately $151,423

- Rape costs the US more per year than any other crime ($127 billion) - Intervention:

- Treatment programs typically employ cognitive-behavioral therapy in group settings.

- Chief aim is to teach empathy

- Intervention programs reduce recidivism in few (about 6%) people who undergo them

- Prevention:

- Prevention often focuses on teaching people to avoid being assaulted, not to avoid committing assault

- Feb 2015 study in journal Sexuality and Culture:80% of college rape prevention tips concern ways to avoid being raped

- Intimate partner violence​ refers to violent acts committed within supposedly loving sexual relationships

- Simple assault​ is the most common violent crime committed against intimate partners (non-sexual assault)

- Low income groups particularly vulnerable

- Data from the NISVS reveal that 36% of women and 29% of men have experienced some type of intimate partner violence

- Risk factors for intimate partner violence include being female, young, black, divorced or separated, living in a city, and having a low income

- Reason for decline in rate may be due to lower marriage rate in these socio-economic sectors

- Intimate partner violence is particularly problematic on college campuses - These psychological effects are collectively termed battered-woman syndrome​, and women experiencing this syndrome often feel a learned helplessness​ and a sense of inability to escape from the situation

- Intimate partner violence follows an escalating cycle of three phases: - Tension-building phase

- Violence phase

- Reconciliation phase

- Victims often stay w their abusive partners because of social isolation, economic dependence, lack of self-esteem, a belief that separation and divorce are wrong, or fear that children will suffer

- Help is available for battered women

- Services for male victims and for victims of same sex abuse are less well developed than those for women who are abused by men.

- Sexual Harassment:

- Sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual behavior in the workplace or in other structured environments

- Usually carried out by men

- Three kinds of workplace sexual harassment:

1. Quid pro quo harassment​ is the suggestion, whether implicit or explicit, that granting sexual favors will lead to certain tangible rewards

a. Most reprehensible and common

2. Hostile-environment harassment​ involves a pattern of unwelcome sexual attention that makes life difficult for the victim

a. Often involve free speech issue - Yale case 2012

3. Third party sexual harassment:​ Losing out on promotions/working in an environment that is degrading to women.

- The experience of sexual harassment begins early

- Teachers and school officials generally show a lack of concern over sexual harassment between children and adolescents

- LaShonda Davis (1999): SCOTUS - ruled that federally funded schools are liable for not protecting students from sexual harassment

- People who are harassed are likely to experience decreased job satisfaction, physical and mental ill health, and symptoms of PTSD

- Victims of sexual harassment can take steps to end it

- Stalking

- A stalker​ is a person who is emotionally obsessed with a particular victim, with the obsession usually involving a romantic element

- Stalkers put their victims in a state of fear in numerous ways

- Three types of stalking:

1. Intimate partner stalking​: perpetrator = current or former partner. Anger = chief source of motivation

2. Delusional stalking:​ stalker has fixed belief that victim is in love with them. Common with celebrities

3. Grudge stalking:​ stalker seeks revenge for some sort of real or imagined injury. Victim is often NOT a love interest.

- Stalking via the internet, or cyberstalking,​ is an increasing problem

- In delusional stalking the stalker has the fixed belief (called erotomania) that the victim is in love with him or could easily be made to fall in love with them

Sex as a Commodity

Prostitution:

Overview

- Prostitution: the business or practice of engaging in sxual reltaions in exchange for payment or some other benefit

- Legal status

- Varies from country and country

- Illegal in most parts of the US (except Nevada)

- Ranges from being permissible but unregulated, to an enforced or unenforced crime, or a regulated profession

- Total annual revenue generated by prostitution is over $100 billion

History

- Condemned throughout the christian era

- Sometimes condoned as providing a necessary safety valve for the release of male sexual energy

- Late 19th century → “red light” districts in most cities in U.S

- Epidemics of gonorrhea during WWI drove prostitution underground

- Prostitution = less prevalent over the course of the 20th century

- The sexual revolution in the 1960s -- change in sex

- Development of oral contraception

- Expansion of employment opportunities for women

- Hierarchy of Prostitution

- Streetwalkers​: lowest-ranking and lowest-paid prostitutes

- High risks of violence, homelessness, STIs (including AIDs), arrest,

pregnancy, and drug use

- Massage parlors​ and Exotic Dance venues

- Old-fashioned brothels, or whorehouses, now more rare

- Escort services​: most prevalent form of prostitution in the US

- Top of hierarchy = high end of call girls

- Male escorts = gigolos

Sex Trafficking

- Sex trafficking:​ transportation of a person from one place to another for the purpose of prostitution

- Occurs within the US and between countries, such as Vietnam to China - Sex tourism:​ client travels to the home country of the prostitute

Legal Reform

- Decriminalization​ v. legalization with regulation​ -- (Nevada.)

- Decriminalize selling sex, but strengthen penalties for buying sex?

- Consequences of higher regulations = lower conformity (less people following regulation and register)

Sex Work: Beyond Prostitution

- Phone sex: A recent variant on phone sex is sexual webcamming (e.g “Chatterbate”)

Pornography:

Overview

- Pornography: ​ depictions, i any medium, of people or behaviors that are intended to be sexually arousing

- Works that are considered to have literary or artistic merit may be called erotica Legal History

- Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964)

- SCOTUS dispute of whether a film involving sexual content is defined as pornography.

- “I know it when I see it, and the motion picture involved in this case is not that” -Chief Justice Potter Stewart

- In 1973, the US Supreme Court ruled in the case of Miller v. California​ that there is no broad First Amendment protection for pornography, and states may restrict pornographic work under certain conditions:

- Intended to be sexually arousing

- Depicts patently offensive sexual conduct or excretory functions

- The work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific merit

Emergence

- 1950s: Hugh Hefner - Playboy

- 1970s: Deep Throat, starring Linda Lovelace

- Technological advancements → Point of View Pornography

- Development of Gay and Lesbian porn

Morality

Is pornography bad?

- Religious conservatives:​ porn leads to moral decay of society

- Radical feminists​: porn promotes violence/other forms of harm against women - Liberal perspective​: porn encourages sexual exploration, harmless outlet for fantasies Does pornography cause violence?

- Research = inconclusive

- Many studies show positive correlation

- In experimental studies, only men who had a preexisting hostility toward women became more likely to harm women after exposure

Sex and Marketing

- Sex has been used to sell products and services for as long as advertising has existed - It works best with products related to sex (and worse, in fact, with products very unrelated to sex (washing machines, appliances), as it becomes too distracting) -

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