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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Cognitive Psych Ch5 - Class Notes

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Clemson - COOP 3330 - Cognitive Psych Ch5 - Class Notes

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background image Chapter 5: Short Term Working Memory    Working Memory  I. Short term memory can usually hold about 7 +/- 2 items  A. Broken into chunks of information (ex: phone numbers are 7 digits and chunked)  1. Recoding: reduces the number of units held in STM by increasing the richness of each unit  B. Cowan said 4 +/- 1  II. Forgetting in short term memory  A. Decay: forgetting over time  1. Brown-Peterson Task  B. Interference: there is a distraction (Peterson and Peterson)  1. Proactive: older material interferes with the current stimulus  a) Release from PI: the decline in performance is reversed because if a change in the  to-be-remembered stimuli  2. Retroactive: newer material interferes current tasks  III. Encoding Information  A. Do we really code/cipher information into a number code? No 
B. Entry, input, acquisition would better describe the process of moving info into memory 
IV. Baddeley's Working memory Model  A. Central Executive: planning future actions, initiating retrieval, and integrating information  1. Frontal lobes  B. Phonological loop: speech and sound component that holds information in a rehearsal-like buffer  1. Phonological store: holds on to verbal information 
2. Articulatory loop: where the rehearsal takes effect 
3. Articulatory suppression effect: people have poorer memory of words if they are asked to speak 
while recalling the words  a) This is true even if they are continuously repeating the same syllable   4. Irrelevant speech effect: it is hard to keep information in the phonological loop when there is  irrelevant speech in the environment   5. Phonological similarity effect: it is harder to remember a set of similar than dissimilar words  a) The words become confused in the phonological store  C. Visuospatial sketchpad: maintains visual and spatial information  1. Activates the right hemisphere 
2. Mental rotation: mentally moving objects in the visuospatial sketchpad 
a) Basic Shepard task: subjects shown equal figures at differing rotations and asked if they  were the same. The larger the difference in rotation, the longer it took for the subjects to 
decide if the objects were the same or not 
3. Stephen Kosslyn’s Island Study (1978): Showed subjects a drawing of a map of an island with  various items on it. The farther a subject is asked to scan their mental image between the items, 
the longer it takes them to do.  
4. Boundary Extension: visuospatial sketchpad adds knowledge of what is beyond an image based  on world knowledge of what should be there  5. Representational momentum: Misremembering the momentum of an object further along its path  of travel, visuospatial working memory seems to simulate to continuous movement  6. Brooks Study 1968:   a) Design:  (1) There were two Presentation conditions (visuospatial and verbal)  
(2) There were three response conditions (visuospatial, verbal, neutral) 
background image b) Results:  (1) It takes longer to make the visual/spatial response with the visual task, and to  make the verbal response with the verbal task  (a) This shows that both mechanisms a limited capacity 
(b) Supports that there is task-specific interference 
D. Episodic buffer: integrates information in working memory with information retrieved from LTM  1. Ex: using semantics to remember words    Assessing Working Memory  I. Dual Task Method: People are asked to do two tasks at once  A. How much interference there is show how much mental resource they share  II. Working Memory Span: assuming that there is one overall capacity for working memory  A. Working Memory Span tasks: Require simultaneous storage and processing   1. Engle (1989): Subjects are shown three arithmetic problems along with three words. They must  read the problem aloud, give the answer, then say the word for each of the three lines. Then, the 
subject tries to recall all three words.   
B. Higher memory spans are correlated with higher SAT scores and intelligence  1. This is especially true for the verbal portion of the SAT 
2. People with lower memory spans have more proactive interference 
C. Higher memory spans are correlated with better reasoning 
D. High memory spans are greater effected by high pressure situations 
E. In relation to attention: 
1. Cocktail Party Effect: people with higher working memory spans are less likely to hear their  name in a dichotic listening task, likely because they are attending to the shadowed message more 
2. Stroop Effect: People with higher working memory spans were better at the tests likely because  they kept the goal in mind more effectively    
Short Term Memory Retrieval  
V. Serial Position Curve: a graph of item by item accuracy when memory retrieval is tested (which is usually in 
verbal learning studies) 
A. Recall test: you have to generate items without hints  1. Free recall: can be in any order 
2. Serial recall: must be in order 
B. Primacy: tendency to better remember items at the beginning of a list  1. You start rehearsing from the beginning, rehearsing in the new items as they're added, so that the  first items are rehearsed enough to move to LTM  2. Longer spaces between items strengthened this, giving even more time for the first items to be  rehearsed and encoded  C. Recency: tendency to better remember items at the end of a list  1. The items are still in their working memory, and still undergoing some kind of rehearsal 
2. A counting task before recalling items decreased this 
VI. Recognition  A. Sternberg Task:  1. Process  a) Memory set: a group of letters for the subject to remember 
b) Have them do a counting task for interference 
c) Probe: a letter for subjects to identify as part of the memory set or not 

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School: Clemson University
Department: Education and Teacher Studies
Course: Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Robert Campbell
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Cognitive Psychology and Psychology
Name: Cognitive Psych Ch5
Description: These notes are a culmination of lecture and textbook notes from Chapter 5.
Uploaded: 03/07/2017
3 Pages 8 Views 6 Unlocks
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