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TEXAS STATE / Geography / GEO 3303 / What are examples of projected resources?

What are examples of projected resources?

What are examples of projected resources?

Description

School: Texas State University
Department: Geography
Course: Economic Geography
Professor: Brian cooper
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: EXAM 2 Study Guide (EDITED)
Description: This is an edited version of the Exam 2 Study Guide
Uploaded: 03/08/2017
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GEO 3303 Economic Geography 2nd Exam Study Guide 


What are examples of projected resources?



1. Know approximately how many times more resources middle class goods require to  produce as opposed to basic or essential goods like food

6x more: the production of middle class goods (like cars) requires 6 times as many  resources as basic/essential goods (like food)

______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Be able to define carrying capacity 

The MAXIMUM amount of people the Earth can support

______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Be able to define and differentiate between proven resources and projected resources 


What are some examples of proven resources?



Proven:  

- We know they EXIST

- Economically Feasible to extract We also discuss several other topics like How a chemist speeds a reaction: increase temperature to go over barrier?

Projected:

- Could become viable if proven of  existence that are cost-feasible or  we develop technology to exploit  them

______________________________________________________________________________

4. Under the category of renewable resources, know examples of flow resources and example of stock resources Don't forget about the age old question of Why is economic growth considered relevant?
If you want to learn more check out What are the five ethics of research?

Flow: (natural cycles) - WATER

- SUNLIGHT

Stock:

- SOIL

- VEGETATION - ANIMALS

______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Be able to explain how the renewal of renewable resources is not automatic


Which yield can maintain consistent future productivity?



Renewable resources can be DAMAGED, DEPLETED, or permanently reduced by  MISUSE

- We can inhibit the flow of these resources

o EX: Water can be inhibited from use if it is polluted

6. Be able to define maximum sustainable yield 

Yield that can maintain consistent future productivity

______________________________________________________________________________

7. Be able to explain the concept known as The Tragedy of the Commons (preferably in  the context of an example)

- Refers to public resources ruined by the actions of individuals

o EX: Traffic or… If you want to learn more check out What are thetwo kinds of animal nervous system?

o EX: (Scenario) In a village there is a grazing land with 200 sheep for 8 homes.  Therefore, each home is provided 25 sheep. However, some people may want  to put more sheep on the land because they believe they will receive more if  they do, so they put 35 sheep instead of 25. Though if everyone shared the  same mentality and each put 35 sheep on the land, then the land could be  

depleted due to overgrazing. This would be a Tragedy of the Commons.

______________________________________________________________________________

8. Be able to explain why an examination of only daily caloric intake is not sufficient when looking at human food consumption  

- Caloric consumption can often hide the degree of MALNUTRITION (one needs to  looks at the quality of those calories rather than the quantity, quality > quantity) If you want to learn more check out When does intraindustry trade happen?

______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Know which continent has NOT seen food production outpace population growth AFRICA has NOT seen per capita food production keep up with population growth ______________________________________________________________________________

10. Be able to briefly explain how urbanization has contributed to the food problem (think  about what rural-to-urban migration means in terms of agricultural production and  demand) We also discuss several other topics like Here do new ampa receptors come from?

- The supply goes down because many of the people moving from rural areas  contributed to food production through agriculture.

- And even though they are moving to a different area, the demand for food stays the  same. So if demand stays the same, and supply goes down, it can create serious  problems

11. Be able to explain some of the complications that arise during famine (especially in a  capitalist system), particularly those that can be extremely disastrous for the poor

- Under capitalism, food goes to those who can afford it.  

- And when food prices sky rocket, the poor are put at a bigger disadvantage since they  are incapable of buying food (at all).  

- Also when prices sky rocket, the food is sometimes hoarded until prices go down  which leads to spoilage and pests, which can create a food loss of up to 20%.

______________________________________________________________________________

12. Be able to explain why price fixes for agricultural products rarely work as solutions  to food problems

When the government fix prices at a low level, it DISCOURAGES FARMERS because  they lose the incentive to grow

______________________________________________________________________________

13. Be able to explain what the Green Revolution was, and some of the problems or flaws  it had

- It was a 1960s initiative to SOLVE WORLD HUNGER by introducing grain seeds  that were specially bred to: increase per acre yield; grow more quickly; be more  resistant to pests and disease; and have higher protein content

- Problems:

o Required capital investment

o Ecologically unstable monocultures

o Benefits went to Western wealthy farmers

o Machinery INCREASED agricultural UNEMPLOYMENT, leading to  INCREASED RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION

14. Be able to explain why we consume far more nonmetallic mineral resources than  metallic ones (other than Iron)

Non-metallic resources are FAR MORE ABUNDANT, and MUCH MORE WIDESPREAD 

(**Note: Iron is one of the most abundant metallic resources; we consume it like non metallic resources)

______________________________________________________________________________ 15. Know the percentage of the volume of world trade that oil accounts for 25%: oil alone accounts for 25% of volume (NOT VALUE) of world trade ______________________________________________________________________________ 16. Know the four major problems associated with coal as a fuel source

1) Coal burning RELEASES MORE POLLUTION, like sulfur, which leads to acid  precipitation

2) Coal is NOT AS EASILY MINED as natural gas and oil; also it is more dangerous  and environmentally devastating

3) Coal is BULKIER, this more expensive to transport

4) Coal is NOT AS GOOD A FUEL SOURCE for transportation like cars ______________________________________________________________________________ 17. Know some of the major issues or problems associated with nuclear energy

1) SAFETY: the problem is that if an accident (which is RARE) were to happen it can  be CATASTROPHIC  

2) WASTE & WASTE DISPOSAL: nuclear waste is usually stored on site

o It would be better to have a place for the waste, but transportation is a HUGE  issue because no one would want to risk an accident with a truck carrying  nuclear waste

18. Be able to generally describe the locational restrictions regarding geothermal power

Since geothermal power uses heat from the Earth, it can only be utilized where the heat is  close to the surface like at fault lines and hot spots – SCATTERED LOCATIONS

______________________________________________________________________________ 19. Know some of the issues and controversies with wind power

1) It needs constant surface winds at 15 mph (which is why many facilities are around  coastal areas and the plains)

2) Can be EXPENSIVE

3) AESTHETICALLY DISPLEASING to the eye (thought to be ugly) ______________________________________________________________________________

20. Know the energy source that accounts for 14% of global energy use, particularly in  the developing world; be able to briefly describe the ethical issue associated with  growing crops for fuel

- BIOMASS accounts for 14% of global energy use

o Biomass is basically charcoal waste and animal poop

- It can be bad when consumed more rapidly than produced

- Issue: a ton of crops are needed just to produce 1 gallon of fuel

______________________________________________________________________________ 21. Know the issues with air pollution at the local, regional, and global scales Local  

- Health issues (allergies, getting sick)

Regional

- Acid rain or acid sleet (can have a pH level as low as vinegar; it can destroy forests,  and deface buildings and statues, as well as contaminate rivers and lakes)

Global

- Depletion of ozone (main greenhouse gases: CO2, H2O, CH4)

22. Know what the leading cause (generally speaking) of species endangerment and  extinction is

HABITAT DESTRUCTION

______________________________________________________________________________ 23. Be able to generally describe the difference between preservation and conservation 

Preservation:

NO USE AT ALL 

Conservation:

USE but USE WISELY 

______________________________________________________________________________

24. Know the two forms of agricultural settlement that the Europeans brought with them to  the New World

1) Farm-family colonies

- Brought to mid latitudes of North America, Australia/New Zealand, South Africa 2) Plantation colonies

- Brought to tropical Africa, Asia, and Latin America (sub-tropical Caribbean) - Cash crops for export

______________________________________________________________________________ 25. Know the four key elements of industrial agriculture 

1) Extreme capital intensity

- HALLMARK of Industrialized agriculture

- We’ve got to invest more – not cheap

2) HIGH energy use

3) Concentration of Economic power

- More Economic power with more wealth brought by industrial agriculture 4) Quest for lower unit costs of production

- Decrease how much a certain product is, to expand profit

26. Be able to explain the general progression of Boserup’s Stage Model of Agriculture,  especially the nature of cultivation and fallow at each stage; know some of the other  changes that coincide with progression through the stages of this model

Stage

Name

Cultivation  (years)

Fallow  

(years)

Notes

1

Forest-fallow cultivation

1-3

20-25

• Longest amount of time

• Weak soils, fragile,  needs extra care

2

Bush-fallow cultivation

2-8

6-10

• Gives enough time for  the fallow to recover

3

Short-fallow cultivation

-

1-2

• Stronger soils, shorter  fallows

4

Annual cropping

Can plant  

every  

season

Seasonal

• People can stay in the  area longer because it  

doesn’t take much time

5

Multi-cropping

More than  one  

cropping a  year

A few  

months or  not at all

• Great conditions, get  multiple crops

Changes that coincide with progression through stages

- INCREASING population density

- IMPROVED tools

- INCREASING integration of livestock

- IMPROVED transportation

- A more COMPLEX social structure

- MORE PERMANENT settlement and land tenure

- MORE LABOR specialization

27. Know the major reason why the basic elements of agriculture remain consistent despite  hundreds of different types of farms worldwide

Plants and Animals all NEED SIMILAR CONDITIONS across the globe ______________________________________________________________________________

28. Know the major distinction between the peasant (precapitalist) systems of agriculture and  the capitalist (commodified) systems of agriculture

Peasant:

- People > Machines

Capitalist:

- Machines > People

The major distinction is the LABOR COMMITMENT TO THE ENTERPRISE ______________________________________________________________________________

29. Know the 3 characteristics of regions where subsistence or preindustrial agriculture  dominates

1) Majority of workers are in agriculture instead of manufacturing or services 2) Agricultural methods and practices are technologically primitive

3) Agricultural produce harvested on the farm is used primarily for direct consumption ______________________________________________________________________________

30. Know the regions of the world where shifting cultivation (slash-and-burn) agriculture  dominates; be able to explain the general nature of this type of agriculture

- TROPICAL areas of LATIN AMERICA, ASIA, & AFRICA

- Axes and machetes are used to cut down, then burn what is cut down

o Daily rains mix the burned residence with the soil which makes a great  fertilizer

______________________________________________________________________________

31. Know the MAIN reason why pastoral nomadism takes place in the particular areas of the  world that it dominates

NEED DRY CONDITIONS (where it’s too dry to grow crops, traditional agriculture)

32. Know the two main reasons why subsistence agriculture yields have not risen much

1) Being at the mercy of the  elements

2) Lack of modern technology

______________________________________________________________________________

33. Know the term that we used to describe the “seeding to supermarket” model of  production typical of commercial agriculture

VERTICAL INTEGRATION

______________________________________________________________________________

34. Be able to explain the relationship between crops and livestock in terms of amount of  land needed for each and the amount of profit generated by each on mixed farms 

1) Cereal

(Corn)

2) Root

(Soy beans)

3) Clover

(Forage)

4) Fallow

(Stays fallow)

- Majority of the land is devoted to  crops (these crops are to produce  feed for livestock)  

- The Livestock produced most of  the profits

______________________________________________________________________________

35. Be able to explain why most milk-producing dairy farms are located near major  population clusters

The milk-produced is FLUID MILK, which is HIGHLY PARISHABLE, so it needs to  be transported to markets (where people are) very quickly

______________________________________________________________________________

36. Know the most important crop for world food production (the dominant one in grain  farming)

WHEAT

______________________________________________________________________________

37. Know the major climate factor influencing the development of cattle ranching in particular areas (same as pastoral nomadism above)

DRY CONDITIONS

38. Know the major threat to Mediterranean agriculture operations, and why it is a major  threat

ENCROACHING URBANIZATION & HUMAN SETTLEMENT

______________________________________________________________________________

39. Be able to explain what we mean when we say demand for food products is price inelastic 

- There is only so much we can eat; OUR DEMAND STAYS THE SAME NO  MATTER WHAT THE PRICES ARE

______________________________________________________________________________ 40. Be able to explain the concept of the technological treadmill 

- In order to invest profit, farmers incest in new technology to increase per-acre yields  or decrease production costs. But this increases supply, which causes price drops,  causing more investment.

- ENDLESS CYCLE – never gaining any ground

______________________________________________________________________________ 41. Be able to define parity price and target pricing 

Parity price

- Equality between prices farmers could sell products for and the price they would  spend on goods and services to run the farm

- These were set to 1910 and 1914 levels, but these prices weren’t able to keep farmers  from bankruptcy (like government had planned)

Target Pricing

- Pays the farmer the difference between market selling price and target price by  government

- The government essentially does this to stop being the middleman between the  farmers and the market. Basically expected farmers to go out and sell their own  products at market selling price (higher than their target price) and pay the difference

42. Be able to list the four main effects of U.S. agricultural subsidies

1) Market cannot arrive at equilibrium price through normal supply and demand 2) Farmers produce surplus, more than consumers can buy

3) Buyers pay more and buy less than if market conditions prevail

4) Farmers’ incomes are artificially raised by subsidies and consumer’s incomes are  artificially lowered

______________________________________________________________________________ 43. Know the general qualities of goods for which water transportation is still ideal - HIGH BULK

- LOW VALUE

- LOW PARISHABILITY

______________________________________________________________________________

44. Be able to explain agglomeration economies in the context of why factories concentrated  in large cities like New York and Chicago

- NEED LARGE LABOR POOL  

- EASY ACCESS TO RAIL & WATERWAYS to get resources

- PROXIMITY TO INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIERS (lowers transportation costs) - PROXIMITY TO MAJOR/LARGE MARKETS for finished goods ______________________________________________________________________________ 45. Know the MAJOR reason why the textile industry was attracted to the American South - LOWER LABOR COSTS (“right-to-work” region | it was also hot) ______________________________________________________________________________

46. Know what event kickstarted the process of deindustrialization in the developed or  advanced countries

- The first OIL SHOCK of the 1970s

______________________________________________________________________________ 47. Know the four major reasons why deindustrialization occurred in the developed world

1) Cost of Wages: keep in mind skill level, pension costs, employer-based health care  costs in U.S.

o People were looking for HIGHER WAGES at that time

∗ Now, in the developed world, there is higher cost of wages than in the  developing world

o Skill level replaced by people out of state

2) Technological changes (machines reduced labor per unit output)

o MACHINES REPLACED WORKERS

3) Failure to invest in research and development to stay competitive

4) Inadequate investment in infrastructure and education led to labor shortage and  higher transportation costs

______________________________________________________________________________

48. Be able to describe the nature of Fordism by listing the aspects associated with that type  of manufacturing; know the nature of vertical integration at some of Henry Ford’s  automobile plants

Fordism

- Standardized job tasks, interchangeable parts, the moving assembly line

- The division of labor led to each worker doing highly repetitive tasks suitable for  unskilled labor

- Well-paid unskilled labor became the basis for social mobility for the growing  working class

- Relied heavily on economies of scale

Vertical Integration

- Ford did everything from making his own steel for cars, to using the steel to make his  cars, all under the same roof.

o Even paid workers enough so they can afford the cars

49. Know how the rise of electronics/computerization helped contribute to the rise of Post Fordism 

Computerization enabled them to customize cars and speed up the manufacturing  process; it also allowed them to be more FLEXIBLE

______________________________________________________________________________ 50. Be able to identify the most important quality of the Post-Fordism manufacturing process FLEXIBILITY

______________________________________________________________________________ 51. Be able to explain just-in-time inventory systems (Toyotaism)

- No more large, expensive warehouses full of parts, now we organized immediate  manufacturing and supply relationships among companies to reduce efficiency and  delivery times

o They turn to other companies to do certain specialized tasks/jobs

∗ Example: Instead of making their own steel, they turn to a company  

that specializes in steel to make it for them

______________________________________________________________________________

52. In terms of the “make or buy” decision firms face, be able to explain which choice Post Fordist firms made, and why they made that choice

- They are mainly BUY because it pushes risk to the subcontractor making the parts o It passes on the risk of loss to subcontractor (someone else)

______________________________________________________________________________ 53. Be able to explain why quality control becomes so critical in Post-Fordist manufacturing

- Important for buyers, but also for supplier because suppliers can easily replaced so  more pressure is put on the supplier to have better quality

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