Study Guide 229 Exam 2 (We didn’t really cover ch. 5 in class, but I decided to add some of the information anyways.) Ch: 5 From the text: Describe the course of physical growth and how they relate to gains in gross motor skills. ● DistWe also discuss several other topics like kumnit nong
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ance and velocity curves show the overall pattern of change in body size: Gain in height and weight are rapid during infancy, slower during early and middle childhood, and rapid again during puberty ● In childhood, physical growth follow cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends. During puberty, growth proceeds in the reverse direction, and sex differences in body proportions appear. Body fat increases quickly during the first nine months, then rapidly again again at adolescence for girls. Muscle accumulates slowly until puberty, when it rises dramatically especially for boys. ● The best measure of a child’s physical maturity is skeletal age, which is based on the number epiphyses and the extent to which they are fused. Girls are ahead of boys, a gap that widens over infancy and childhood. ● In early childhood, body growth causes the child’s center of gravity to shift toward the the trunk, which paves the way for new grossmotor skills. During the school years, improved balance, strength, agility, and flexibility support refinements in running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills. Increased body size and muscle strength lead to continued motor gains in adolescence. As the6 develop, children integrate previously acquired motor skills into more complex. Dynamic systems of action. ● In childhood, boys’ advantage over girls in many grossmotor skills largely reflects parental expectations and practice. By adolescence, sex differences in size and strength play a greater role. How do heredity, nutrition, infectious disease, and parental affection contribute to physical growth and health? ● With adequate diet and health, height and rate of physical growth depend largely on heredity. Although genetic makeup also affects weight, nutrition and eating habits are powerful influences. ● Breast milk is ideally suited to infants’ nutritional needs and is crucial for protecting their health in the developing world. ● Many children in developing countries suffer from marasmus and kwashiorkor, two diseases caused by malnutrition that can permanently impair body growth and brain development. Food insecurity affects children even in industrialized countries. ● Obesity is a growing problem in both industrialized and developing nations. Effective treatments are familybased; schools can also help by serving healthier meals and ensuring physical activity.● Malnutrition interacts with infectious disease to undermine physical growth. ● Growth faltering illustrates the importance of parental affection for healthy infant physical growth. Extreme and prolonged emotional deprivation in childhood can lead to psychosocial dwarfism. Describe sexual maturation in girls and boys. At puberty, changes in primary and secondary sexual characteristics accompany rapid body growth. Menarche occurs relatively late in the girl’s sequence of pubertal events, after the growth spurt, breast growth, and appearance of public and underarm hair. In boys, the growth spurt, the growth spurt occurs later, preceded by enlargement of the sex organs and spermarche. This is followed by growth of facial and body hair and deepening of the voice. What factors contribute to eating disorders in adolescence? ● Girls who reach puberty early, who are dissatisfied with their body image, and who grow up in families where thinness is emphasized are at risk for eating disorders. Heredity seems to make some adolescents more susceptible. ● Anorexia typically affects girls who are perfectionists and have overprotective, controlling mothers and emotionally distant fathers. Bulimia nervosa is often associated with lack of selfcontrol and disengaged parenting. Discuss factors related to sexually transmitted disease and teenage pregnancy and parenthood, noting prevention and intervention strategies. ● Early sexual activity combined with inconsistent contraceptive use, results in high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among U.S. teenagers. ● Life conditions linked to poverty, along with personal attributes, contribute to adolescent childbearing. Teenage parenthood is association with school dropout, reduced chances of marriage, greater likelihood of divorce, and longterm economic disadvantage. ● Effective sex education, access to contraceptives, and programs that build academic and social competence help prevent early pregnancy. Young mothers need school programs that provide job training, instruction in parenting and lifemanagement skills, and child care. They also benefit from positive family relationships and from home visiting programs that provide intensive social support. When teenage fathers stay involved, children develop more favorably. Characteristics of Psychosocial Crisis 1. Our attention is placed on a particular task; that task is at the forefront 2. The way in which we resolve the problem/task/crisis at each stage will have an effect on subsequent stages 3. Resolutions NOT an all or nothing matter4. Crisis is NOT a time of disaster 5. Resolution can be challenged or shaken at any time in later development, for better or worse 6. The resolution of each crisis at each stage leaves us with qualities that become part of our personality PIAGET: According the Piaget, human infants do not start out as cognitive beings. Instead, out of their perceptual and motor activities, they build and refine psychological structuresorganized ways of making sense of experience that permit them to adapt more effectively to the environment. Basic characteristics: ● The stages provide a general theory development, in which all aspects of cognition change in an integrated fashion, following a similar course ● The stages are invariant; they always occur in a fixed order, and no stage can be skipped ● The stages are universal; they are assumed to characterize children everywhere. (Piaget, Inhelder, & Szeminska, 1948/1960) Key Piagetian Concepts ● Schemas: Organized ways of making sense of experience that change with age (categories) ● Adaptation: The process of changing and adding schemes through direct interaction with the environment ● Assimilation: The external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes ● Accommodation: New schemes are created and old ones adjusted to produce better fit with environment ● Equilibrium: assimilation > accommodation ● Disequilibrium: accommodation > assimilation ● Equilibration: the back and forth movement between cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium ● Organization: the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes, so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years) ● Piaget believed that infants and toddlers think with their eyes, ears, hands—their sensorimotor equipment. ● By the end of the 2nd year, toddlers can solve practical, everyday problems and can represent their experiences in speech, gestures, and play. ● So this stage is divided into substages 1. Reflexive Schemes—Birth to 1 month ● Newborn reflexeseye blink, rooting, sucking, swimming, moro reflex, babinski, grasping ● During this stage, babies will suck, grasp, and look in much the same way, no matter what experiences or stimuli they encounter. 2. Primary Circular Reactions—24 months ● 24 months ● Circular Reaction: Means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity ● A sensorimotor action that first occurs by chance but becomes strengthened into a new scheme ● These events are always initially accidental •Centered around infant’s own body ● Motivated by infant’s basic needs 3. Secondary Circular Reactions—58 months ● 58 months ● Attention is turned outward toward the environment ● Infants attempt to repeat interesting events caused during interactions with the external world ● Improved motor control makes it so that infants in this substage begin to imitate the behaviors of others ● Functional Play: A type of play involving pleasurable motor activity with or without objects. When using an object, the object is used for its intended purpose. 4. Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions—911 months ● 911 months ● Infants begin to combine secondary circular reactions into new, more complex action sequences ● Intentional, goaldirected behavior: a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately combined to solve a problem ● Object Permanence: the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight ● AnotB Search error: If an infant reaches for an object several times in one hiding place, then watch it moved, they continue to search in initial hiding place 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions—1218 months ● 1218 months ● “Active Experimentation” ● Circular reactions become experimental and creative ● Toddlers now repeat behaviors with their own variations ● Improved problemsolving ● Last truly sensorimotor stage 6. Mental Representations—1924 months ● 1924 months ● Mental representations are internal images of absent objects and past events MEMORY. ● Problem solving through symbolic means instead of just on a trial and error basis. ● Invisible displacement: finding a toy moved while out of sight ● Deferred imitation: the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not immediately present ● Makebelieve play: Children act out everyday and imaginary activities Preoperational Stage (27 years) ● Most obvious change in this stage is the increase in symbolic (makebelieve) activity ● Development of makebelieve play: ● Play detaches from the reallife conditions associated with it ● Play becomes less selfcentered •Play includes more complex scheme combinations ● Sociodramatic play: makebelieve play with peers Limitations of Preoperational Thought ● Egocentrism: lack of awareness of any perspectives other than one’s own ● Animistic thinking: the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities ● Centration: focusing on only one aspect of a situation •Thinking is perception bound ● Emphasize states vs. transformations Concrete Operational Stage (711 years) ● Conservation: Physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes ● Decentration: Ability to focus on several aspects of a problem at once and relate them. ● Hierarchical classification: Ability to flexibly group and regroup objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses ● Seriation: Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension ● Transitive Inference: Ability to seriate mentally Formal Operational Stage (11 & up)● Hypotheticodeductive reasoning: Predictions that are logical and testable ● Imaginary audience: focus of everyone’s attention ● Personal fable: no one has been through what I’m going through; I’m special ● Abstract thought: thinking about possibilities Piaget and Education ● Discovery Learning: the idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring was seen as central to the transformation of the primary school curriculum. ● Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn. In a Piagetian classroom, teachers introduce activities that build on children’s current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world. But they do not try to speed up development by imposing new skills before children indicate they are interested and ready. ● Acceptance of individual differences. Piaget’s theory assumes that all children go through the same sequence of development, but at different rates. Therefore, teachers must plan activities for individual children and small groups, not for the whole class. In addition, teachers evaluate educational progress in relation to the child’s previous development, rather than on the basis of normative standards, or average performance of sameage peers. The Core Knowledge Perspective: infants begin life with innate, specialpurpose knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition. VYGOTSKY: ● Vygotsky viewed human cognition as inherently social and saw language as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes. According to Vygotsky, private speech, or language used for selfguidance, emerges out of social communication as adults and more skilled peers help children master challenging tasks within their zone of proximal development. Eventually,, private speech is internalized as inner, verbal thought. ● Intersubjectivity and scaffolding are two features of social interaction that promote transfer of cognitive processes to children. Guided participation recognizes cultural and situational variations in adult support of children’s efforts. Vygotsky and Education: ● A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes assisted discovery through teachers’ guidance and peer discovery through teacher’s guidance and peer collaboration. When formal schooling begins, literacy activities prompt children to shift to a higher level of cognitive activity, in which they proficiency manipulate and control their culture’s symbol systems. ● Vygotskybased educational innovations include reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning, in which multiple partners stimulate and encourage one another. reciprocal teaching: a teacher and two or four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage cooperative learning: small groups of classmates work toward common goals (is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.) ERICKSON: What are the stages of Erikson's psychosocial theory? Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust ● Birth to 18 months ● Expect to be taken care of (cry signals this) ● Can I trust? ● Is the world a safe place? ● Trust warm, responsive, consistent caregiving when an infant's needs are met they develop trust ● Mistrust unresponsiveness, harsh, neglectful, abusive What is trust in infancy? For infants, trust is a state of feeling confident that they are valued and that their needs will be met. Trust→Hope→Optimism→Courage Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ● 10 months 3 years ● Can I do it? (want to try everything) ● Exploration, independence ● Autonomy: patience, encourage ● Shame/Doubt: belittling, discouraging Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt ● 45 years ● What can I do? ● Curiousity ● Free play ● Initiative: allow child to try, encourage, guide ● Guilt: Not allowing child to try scoldingStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority ● 610 years ● Can I keep trying? ● Perseverance ● Capacity to work, to problem solve ● Teachers play a big role Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion ● 1122 ● Who am I? (moving away from childhood, question everything you say) ● Learn from friends, family teachers, coaches, mentors ● Where do I fit in? ● What do I want to do? ● Answering these questions for yourself leads to knowing who you are ● As you get older you begin to share more of who you are Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation ● 2235 years ● How do I love? ● How do I want to be loved? ● What do relationships mean to me? ● Romantic relationships and friendships ● Commitment Stage 7: Generativity vs. SelfAbsorption ● Middle adulthood, 3565 ● What am I doing with my life? ● Giving back (am i doing enough?) ● Community ● Achievement ● What will outlive me? Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair ● Old age, 6585 ● How have I lived my life? ● Finding meaning in one’s life ● Going within Stage 9: Hope + Faith vs. Despair ● Old old age, 90s and up ● transcendence LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: What are the four components of language? Language consists of four subsystems:(1) Phonology, the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds; (2) semantics, the way underlying concepts are expressed in words; (3) grammar, consisting of syntax, the rules by which words are arranged in sentences, and morphology, markers that vary word meaning; and (4) pragmatics, the rules for engaging in appropriate and effective conversation. What is the Behaviorist Perspective? Developed by B.F. SKinner the behaviorist perspective is a theory of psychology that states that human behaviors are learned, not innate. ● Operant conditioning: a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. ● Positive reinforcement: rewarding desired behavior ● Imitation/Modeling What is the Nativist Perspective? It is a biologically based theory, which argues that humans are preprogrammed with the innate ability to develop language. In other words, Will was born with the ability to develop language which was developed by Noam Chomsky. Language Acquisition Device: a biologically based innate system that enables a child to detect certain language categories such as phonology, syntax and semantics What is the Interactionist Perspective? This is the theory that people develop their beliefs, identities and values according to individual and small group interactions and it has 3 major components: ● Native capacity ● Strong desire to interact with others ● Rich linguistic and social environment What are the three components of communication? First is speech which is the way a child pronounces, then you have expressive language, the words or word combinations a child uses, and finally receptive language, the words or word combinations a child understands. Development of speech: Phonation: birth to 1 month sounds are produced with a closed or nearly closed mouth Cooing Stage: 23 months vowel sounds, with spacing at timesExpansion Stage: 46 months frequent playful use of moth; squealing, growling, yelling, raspberries Canonical babbling: 68 months first syllables, consonant vowel combinations Variegated babbling: 912 months (or until true words emerge) increasingly varied consonants and vowels within a single vocalizations How do children develop language? There are 3 preverbal skills that emerge before 12 months which are: Joint attention/joint regard 4 months Turn taking 6 months Preverbal gestures 8 months A baby's first words emerge around 12 months. How does vocabulary development work? At 1218 months toddlers will add 13 words a month then at 18 months they will add 1020 words a week. At age 2 they will have 200 word and 2 word utterances. Telegraphic speech: utterances or high content words At age 6 a can have 10,00 words then at age 14 40,000 words. It is a red flag if the child has less than 50 words by age 2. How do you foster language development? Recasting, echoing, expanding, and labeling ATTACHMENT: What is attachment? Attachment is a strong emotional bond that children form with their primary caregivers. What is protection for babies? Babies need to keep their caregivers nearby and behaviors such as crying, clinging, vocalizing and smiling. Survival for human depends on protection and other people are infant’s primary environment. What is a baby’s secure base? This is the way babies reconcile the need to be protected (staying close to mom) and to explore (move away from mom). What are the three components for attachment security?1. The security of infant attachment will be determined by the quality of early caregiving. 2. The security of early attachment will affect child’s later relationships. 3. The early attachment relationship creates an internal working which is a framework for understanding self and others. Describe the internal working model? Internal: in the mind, usually we are unaware of it, yet it powerfully influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Working: newer completely idle and is always capable of being revised and updated Model: it is our template or framework for how relationships work What are the four phases of attachment? Phase 1. (Birth 2 months) Babies attach to any adult Phase 2. (2 6 months) Babies begin to direct their attachment to primary caregivers Phase 3. (724 months) Babies are clearly attached to primary caregivers Phase 4. (24 months and beyond) Children become comfortable with receiving care from familiar others Securely Attached ● Use mother as a secure base, exhibit distress at mother leaving and stop exploration, seek contact during reunion ● 5560% Insecurely attached avoidant ● Rarely cry during separation; avoid mother at reunion; indifferent to or dislike physical contact to cling ● 1520% Insecurely attached ambivalent ● Distressed during separation; yet during reunion they are not comforted by mother, maybe angry and hit or push mom ● 10% of children Insecurely attached disorganized ● Show confusion; freezing behavior during SS ● Associated with abuse, neglect ● Now associated with too much parental screen time (subtle form of neglect) Can an infant form multiple attachments? 1. They are highly selective in their choices of attachment figures. 2. Not all social relationships can be identified as attachments. 3. Not all attachment figures are equally as important.What is the ethological theory of attachment? The most widely accepted perspective on development of attachment our strong affectionate tie with special people in our lives is the ethological theory, which recognizes the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival. TEMPERAMENT: ● Refers to an innate style of responding to the environment ● An infant has a distinct temperament in thee first few days and weeks of life that is independent of parenting style What are the three types of temperament? Easy child, difficult child, slow to warm How is temperament measures? Temperament is assessed through parental reports, behavior ratings by others familiar with the child, and laboratory observations. Most neurobiological research has focused on distinguishing inhibited, or shy, children from uninhibited, or sociable children.