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435 towson way

Description


Why HCI matters to companies?




What is the goal of HCI?




What is Human Computer Interaction (HCI)?



Exam 1 Study Guide Notes: Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1: Intro to HCI What is Human Computer Interaction (HCI)? • The study of how humans interact with computers • A discipline concerned with the design, evaluation, and implementation of  interactive computing systems • Can be viewed as being the study of how humans interact with other  humans through computers What is the Don't forget about the age old question of vector addition is used when motion involves
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goal of HCI? • Reduce negative aspects if the user experience while enhancing the  positive ones • Design computing systems that support people in a way that they can carry  out their activities and productivity safely as well as happily • Improve specific projects, not generalize to other areas • Influence the design (User Research = HCI Practice) Ways to think about HCI • Think architects, civil/structural engineers (architecture) • Can be thought of as a hybrid of design and engineer HCI is about the following: • Finding a good solution • Justifying costs • Dealing with real users who usually don’t like change • Ensuring backward compatibility• Dealing with tradeoffs What is usability? • The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve  specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction • Effectiveness: accuracy and completeness with which users achieve  specified goals • Efficiency: resources expended for users to achieve goals • Satisfaction: freedom from discomfort and positive attitudes towards the  use of the product Highlights on HCI History • 1980 – Publication of Shneiderman’s “Software Psychology” • 1982 – First conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems  • 1983 – Publication of Card, Moan, and Newell’s “Psychology of Human  Computer Interaction” • Mid 1990’s – Focus on online communication • 2002 through 2003 – Research started moving towards portable as well as  mobile technology • 2012 – 30 years of CHI • 2017 – CHI 2017 Why HCI matters to companies? • Looking for the “user experience manager” • Product differentiation • Increases sales • Improved public image • More productive users or customersHCU design involves: • Users • Goals (tasks) • Environments (context of use) HCI evaluation deals • Quantitative data – user experience, task performance, time performance,  user satisfaction, error rate, time to learn (retention overtime),  physiological measures HCI draws many fields such as: • Computer Science • Psychology • Sociology Costs (Justifying Usability) • Estimate costs • User salaries • Training costs • User support Estimate Benefits • Increased user productivity • Decreased user errors • Decreased training costs • Decreased user support Examples of Recommender Systems• Amazon • Netflix • Facebook Inherent challenges in HCI • There are always different stakeholders with different design goals • Tradeoff between usability and security • It costs money to design a good interface and it can be challenging to  cost/justify it • You need interaction with real users (no substitutes) What is A/B testing? • Using mirror tweaks and testing them out live to see which one turns out to  be most successful What to measure: Users, tasks, and environment? • In HCI, focus on 3 measures: Users, tasks, and environment • Users: who are they, how much experience do they have? Education? Any  impairments? • Tasks – what needs to get done? What needs to be performed? (Goals) • Environment – Where will this take place? Desktop? Laptop? PDA? On the  go? Noise? Multiple channels of feedback? The User Experience: UX ➢ The “user experience” – how real users perform real tasks in a real  environment➢ Includes their emotions, their sensual effect of small details and clicks  and ergonomics ➢ Design – ties in with later concepts of “coolness”, however, this is hard  to predict Quantitative metrics for measuring usability (How we measure): • Task performance • Time performance • User satisfaction • Error rate • Retention over time • Time to learn • Newer ways: emotion and body measurements Standards (meaning one): 1. Task performance 2. Time performance 3. User satisfaction (Listed above are ways of measuring usability) Some important things to remember: • Users are not designers and designers are not users • There isn't a "right" or "wrong" number of users in usability testing, but  instead, the number of users should be driven by the reality of the project  timeline/budget/politics. • HCI is a science, based on analytics and/or observing and documenting user  behavior • There isn’t a limit of three clicks to find information on a website, or a limit  of 7+-2 menu items…you can do more• A user interface is not just a blank slate opportunity to be visually creative Places to Look for Jobs in HCI: • Usability/UX consulting firms • IT depts. in an organization • Usability Groups at larger companies • Universities IT Departments in an org. Most IT departments have at least 2-3 employees focusing on HCI/UX: • End-user specialists • User experience managers • Help desk managers • UI designers • Information architects • Interaction designers Usability groups • Microsoft • Apple • Google • Bloomberg • AOL • SAP • IBM • Yahoo! • EBay3 Hands On Skills Needed for HCI: 1. Know how to plan and moderate a usability test 2. Know how to plan and implement a card sort and prototype, to improve  information architecture 3. Know how to evaluate a web page for accessibility for people with  disabilities Metaphors: • Simple and iconic • Analogies to items from every day, physical life such as: tablets and folders  or trash can/recycle bin • Curb cuts – a metaphor for accessibility • Annotation: caption like post-it notes or marked-up papers Predictability: • User like feeling in control  • User like predictable input/output • User expect: - On typing and input .10 second response time - On simple tasks: 1 second response time - On more complex tasks: a few seconds  • Let users know it will be longer than expected response time • Need to let user know how long/why: (overestimated time vs. percentage  complete) • Long response times: - Influence perceptions of quality (lower quality) - May be perceived as if an error has occurred Motor tasks• Motor performance is influenced by complexity of the task (distance, size of  target). • Age (not part of original Fitts’ law, but discovered to be true) • Motor skills (Do you have a disability?) • Speed-accuracy trade-off in motor movements, especially pointing - The faster you go, the less accurate it will be - The slower you go, the more accurate Pointing Tasks: Fitt’s Law • Applies to mouse, touchpad, trackball • According to Fitt’s law, performance (movement time) is a function of size  of target and distance to target. • Fits’ law states: The farther away you must move a cursor, and the smaller  the target object is, the longer it takes. So, to make it faster, require les  distance to travel, and have bigger clickable icons. • Consists of tile-style screen layouts, which means moving from mouse  pointers to fingers (Bigger targets are better) Individual mental models of users • Mental models: user representations of objects, processes, and systems,  that allows users to predict what will happen given a set of circumstances • How to use it vs. How it works - Operating a TV is different from fixing a TV - Different users may have differing mental models - Important to understand the user’s mental models • Users have trouble with large information structures with multiple levels  and unclear structure • With a bad mental model, users will perform meaningless actions • You can give users a visualization of what conceptual model drives interface  such as: Sitemaps, flowcharts, and structure chartsGeneral user differences • Novice vs. expert computer users • Gender • Socioeconomic status (access to technology and decent bandwidth to  access networks?) • Educational level • Cultural factors (together or individual?) Language/International Diversity • Reading direction (Western vs. Middle Eastern vs. Asian) • Use of color • Use of pictures and icons • Numbers (1,234.56 or 1234,56 or 1’ 234.56) • Dates (9/13/2013 or 13/9/2013) • Time (18:00 or 6pm) Language Differences • Americans tend to think differently about this than the rest of the world • Most multi-national interfaces must be multilingual • Human translation is needed (automated translation isn’t good enough for  business) • Effective use of consistent and predictable layouts and icons can mean that  users a navigate in a language that is not their own • Watch out for slang and local usage General user differences • Perceptual impairments (blind, low vision, deaf, hard of hearing, color  blind) • Motor impairments (limited use of hands, limited use of voice, spinal cord  injury, partial or full paralyzation)• Cognitive impairments (born with, develop over time, or incidental) • There are other disabilities (as classified by the ADA) that don’t change the  UX: mental health, celiac disease, diabetes User differences in technology adoption • Five classes of adopters of innovations: 1. Innovators (like risk and uncertainty) 2. Early adopters (successful, respected by peers) 3. Early majority (largest category) 4. Late majority (pressure from peers) 5. Laggards (suspicious of innovations) How do we address user diversity in User Interfaces? • Shortcuts and command lines (for experts) • Menus (for novices) • Wizards • Clippie! • Adaptive interfaces (think training wheels!) • Interfaces that can work with assistive technology/accessible interfaces • Multiple personal controls (color, layout) • Scrollwheel (novice, intermediate, expert) • Contextual help, how-to videos Information Overload • Problem - We receive too much information to process and remember (PIM) - We can’t keep track of where data is (both in subdirectories and on  multiple storage devices and web sites). • Solution- So, we often store copies in multiple sites, which creates a new  problem (versioning) - Over time, organized lists are less useful than search features - We don’t plan the IA for our hard drive as well as we do for web sites Information overload: Design implications • External aids - Calendars - Voice notes - Reminders - “Flags” for important e-mails • Annotations - In documents: reminders of when we changed something, who  changed it, and why - On photos: who was in the photo, when it was taken, and what it  was • Passwords • We tend to use shorter passwords, and use the same passwords on  multiple sites, even though they aren’t secure The power of defaults • A large percentage of user choices are influenced by defaults • Users are overwhelmed, so they tend to use defaults - custom installations vs. default installations - default selected on buttons - opt-in vs. opt-out It’s hard to change • For many human cognition-based reasons, users tend not to like changes in  their interfaces • defaults • overload• mental models • fear of making errors or being unable to complete tasks • loss of their knowledge base • generational differences • fear of data loss Chapter 2: Human Cognition The Human: Cognition • The most important part of HCI is the human • Cognition - the process by which we become acquainted with things = HOW  WE LEARN • Cognition – mental processes of knowing (how we become acquainted with  things includes perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, reasoning • experiential vs. reflective Perceptual system • How we take in stimuli from our environment • Vision (most common in HCI) • Quality of vision? Visual search (How long to find an item?) • Hearing (2nd most common in HCI) • Loudness? Pitch? Timbre? Envelope? • Touch - becoming common in gaming (haptic), braille, and pin displays • Smell - using vaporized oils or mists, “digiscent” or “olphoto” • Taste - includes pressure and texture (see Iwata, 2008, very rare in HCI) What is a chunk? • items with meaning such as a number, word, or phrase • We can hold 7 ± 2 chunks of information in short-term memory• Task domain of expertise • 7 ± 2 applies to recall, not recognition • It’s better to provide options (visual or audio) rather than to ask users to  recall a command line. (Offer multiple ways to remember something) • We are better at recognition than recall Cognitive system: Long-term memory • Long-term memory, estimated to be 2.8 x 10^20 bits of information • long-term memory recall - How recently has it been used? Recently used → easier to recall (That’s why they do training exercises in the military) Cognitive system – design implications • Information is often encoded within a certain context • Users may have trouble recognizing how to do a task • “Modes” are often problematic • Users aren’t aware of which mode they are in • Similar to how your neighbor may have trouble recognizing you at a  baseball game Motor System • All forms of human output such as: our hands, our voice, our feet, or even  our head movement Attention • The process of selecting things to concentrate on at a point in time, from  the range of competing stimuli • Involves auditory and/or visual senses • Our goals influence what you pay attention toAttention – Design Implications • avoid designing competing stimuli within the UI • organize tasks • a user has only one active window at a time, that they can pay attention to Attention – Exception • automated cognitive processes (ACP) • activities that you do so often that they become a script • Your performance improves because you aren’t focusing on the steps, you  literally can’t do something different Lecture Video: Information Visualization for Knowledge Discovery • Scientific approach ➢ Specify users and tasks ➢ Predict and measure ▪ Time to learn ▪ Speed performance ▪ Rate of human errors ▪ Human retention over time ➢ Assess subjective satisfaction ➢ Input devices & strategies ▪ Keyboards, pointing devices, voice ▪ Direct manipulation ▪ Menus, forms, commands ➢ Output devices & formats ▪ Screens, windows, color, sound ▪ Text, tables, graphics• Visual bandwidth is enormous: ➢ Human perceptual skills are remarkable ▪ Trend, cluster, gap, outlier ▪ Color, size, shape, proximity ▪ Human image storage is fast and vast • Three challenges: ➢ Meaningful visual displays of massive data ➢ Interaction: widgets & window coordination ➢ Process models for discovery ▪ Integrate statistics and visualization ▪ Support annotation and collaboration ▪ Preserve history, undo and macros  • Data Types: ➢ 1-D Linear ➢ 2-D Map ➢ 3-D World ➢ Multi-Var ➢ Temporal ➢ Tree • Temporal Data: TimeSearcher 2.0 ➢ Long Time series (>10,000 time points) ➢ Multiple variables ➢ Controlled precision in match (Linear, offset, noise, amplitude) • TreeMap: Ontology ➢ Space filling ➢ Space limited ➢ Color coding ➢ Size coding ➢ Requires learning • SocialAction ➢ Integrates statistics and visualization • NodeXL: ➢ Network Overview for Discover and Exploration in Excel • Discover Process: The Sense-Making Loop ➢ Gather Information ➢ Produce Results ➢ Develop Insight  ➢ Re-represent • Visualization supports Discovery ➢ Multi-Var ➢ Temporal ➢ Tree ➢ Network Chapter 3: Interface Design • What is an interface? ➢ An interface is any method that users utilize to interact with a  computer • Generations of Interfaces ➢ 1st generation (1980s-early 1990s) ▪ Command Lines▪ Simple WIMP/GUI ➢ 2nd generation (1990s-early/mid 2000s) ▪ Advanced GUIs (including multimedia and InfoViz) ▪ Web interfaces ▪ Speech, pen, and touchscreen ➢ 3rd generation (mid 2000s- ???) ▪ Mobile, tangible, multi-touch screens, wearable, ubiquitous,  social • Interface modes ➢ Interface modes are just standard approaches for interaction ▪ Command lines ▪ Object manipulation ▪ Form ▪ Menus ▪ Natural language ▪ Search boxes ▪ Information Visualization ➢ Think of them as “widgets of approaches” ▪ Users know, Radio buttons vs. checkboxes • Object/direct manipulation ➢ Three principles of direct manipulation: ▪ 1. Continuous representations of the objects and actions of  interest with meaningful visual metaphors ▪ 2. Physical actions or presses of labeled interface objects  instead of complex syntax ▪ 3. Rapid, incremental, reversible actions whose effects on the  objects of interest are visible immediately ➢ For manipulating objects, icons are generally favored over  pictures-???? ➢ Crisper and easier to click than pictures➢ Icons represent objects from our everyday lives (printers, files,  folders, trash cans) ➢ We can manipulate these icons (move them, operate on them, etc.)  based on metaphors ➢ But there needs to be a good match between the icons and what  they represent ➢ Children and older adults need larger clickable objects • Menus ➢ A menu is just a list of choices ➢ There are many different types of menus ➢ Menu bars ➢ Pull-down menus ➢ Cascading menus ➢ Pop-up menus ➢ Pie menus ➢ Alphasliders ➢ Expanding Menus ➢ There are lots of issues to decide: (Test Question) 1. Naming of menu choices 2. How the menu choices will be organized on a single menu 3. How a series of menus will be structured (because you never really  have just one menu) 4. Where on the page or interface will the menus be located? ➢ Naming menu choices: ▪ Make sure that the names are representative and make sense  when standing alone ▪ A web page list of links IS a menu!!! ▪ “Click here” is not a good menu choice name!➢ How do you organize menu choices on a single menu? ▪ Alphabetical ▪ Categorical (organized into categories) ▪ Temporal (do you do certain tasks before others?) ▪ Frequency (how often are certain choices made?) ▪ Think of the expanded menus on MS-Office applications ➢ How do you organize a series of menus? ▪ Think of menus as a tree structure ▪ You can have various choices per level of the tree ▪ And various levels of menus ▪ It’s a balance (you could do 200 choices on one menu, but you  shouldn’t) ➢ Usually, broad, shallow tree structures are the best way to organize a  series of menus ➢ More menu choices on fewer levels• Natural Language ➢ Natural language is when, rather than typing in a command or a  boolean search, you type in your own conversational language ➢ Help features in MS-Office ➢ Ask Jeeves ➢ Typically used in simple tasks, such as finding web items and getting  help • Form Interaction ➢ Is useful for entering large quantities of data…helps users enter data  in correct place using correct format ➢ Can provide data validation➢ Most importantly: it’s a metaphor from everyday life (you fill out lots  of paper forms!) …much better than SQL commands! ➢ Don’t have multiple pop-up form fill-ins • Guidelines for form interaction ➢ Have a meaningful form title ➢ Understandable instructions to fill out the form ➢ Label the fields ➢ Limit data entry values ➢ Provide explanatory information for fields ➢ Provide immediate feedback ➢ Logically group related fields ➢ Required fields clearly marked ➢ Let users know how their data will be used/shared • Dialog Boxes ➢ Appear when the computer needs to get the user’s attention ➢ Might be for a task (print), a series of properties (such as document  properties), or when an error occurs ➢ Either way, it’s placed “on top” of the user’s current task ➢ Must be completed before user moves on ➢ Use sparingly, as dialog boxes can become annoying pop-up boxes  (same concept!) ➢ Dialog boxes should: ▪ 1. Be positive (no “fatal error”) ▪ 2. Let the users know what occurred, in language that they can  understand ▪ 3. Offer suggestions on how to respond • How we search: search boxes: ➢ We use search more than we use organized lists of items ▪ Search boxes scale better over hundreds, thousands, or  millions of items▪ Most users can’t form complex boolean search queries, so we  type in a few keywords ▪ Often use the “did you mean?” feature ▪ Specific fact-finding, extended fact-finding, exploratory, or  open-ended browsing • Searching behavior ➢ People typically search on: ▪ Their hard drives and other storage devices ▪ E-mail ▪ Inside web sites and the entire Web ➢ People search using: ▪ Human names ▪ Dates ▪ Important keywords that are not people (navy blazer) ➢ A sort “by date” is really a search ➢ Also, image search, video/audio search, GIS search • More on searching ➢ Meaning of keywords changes depending on the time context ▪ Hurricane ▪ Britney Spears/Lindsey Lohan ▪ Taxes ▪ Towson University President • Information Visualization ➢ Newer type of data presentation on a screen ➢ “The use of interactive visual representations of abstract data to  amplify cognition”-definition from DTUI book ➢ Enables users to see patterns, trends, and anomalies in large  quantities of data...usually very exploratory in nature ➢ Also, known as/closely relates to visual data mining➢ Used in finance, healthcare, science, geography, and other fields with  very large data sets, including: ▪ Treemaps/bubblemaps (Scatterplots ▪ Interconnected nodes (hyperbolic tree) ▪ Heatmap ▪ Time-based  • Video Games ➢ Gaming is primarily direct manipulation ➢ Action, Sporting, Fighting, Racing, Shooting, Role-playing, and  Children/Family entertainment ➢ Less data, more experience (do you enjoy it?) ➢ Users demand feedback and scores ➢ The recent shifts: ▪ From individual competition to group distributed competition  ▪ From physical devices to natural interaction and gesturing ▪ Utilized for learning objectives • Cad applications ➢ Similar to visualization and gaming, but with a focus on designing  actual physical objects ▪ Automobiles ▪ Architecture ▪ Mechanical engineering ▪ Landscaping ▪ Plumbing ▪ Dentistry ➢ Interface concepts are same: ▪ Direct manipulation ▪ Forms ▪ Menus• Common screen interface pointing gestures: ➢ Tap (select) ➢ Long press (magnify or show a tooltip) ➢ Double tap (depends) ➢ Small swipe (depends, move, or reveal a delete button?) ➢ Large swipe (usually scroll) ➢ Rapid swipe (fast scroll with inertia) ➢ Pinch and spread (zoom in and out) ➢ Variation with two or more fingers (depends) • Design Patterns ➢ Design patterns are often used ▪ A “solution” to a design problem in a certain context ▪ Certain “approaches” that you are familiar with ▪ Patterns are often shared using sites like Github and developer  libraries • Text on graphic displays ➢ 1. For font face, use: ▪ A font designed for displays (generally sans serif fonts such as  Arial, Helvetica, and Verdana), NOT Times New Roman or  decorative fonts ➢ 2. For font color, have a big contrast to background ▪ Use color sparingly (4 per screen, 7 in a sequence) ▪ Recognize inherent coding and cultural meaning ➢ 3. For font size, consider the: ▪ User population (age, both young and old) ▪ Size of the display ▪ Distance between user and the display (PDA, laptop, desktop,  or large display at a train station or airport?) ▪ Make font sizes adjustable by users• Captioning of video presented ➢ A caption is just a transcript with time scans ➢ Designed for Deaf and/or hard of hearing ▪ Used at gyms, bars, and noisy places ▪ And used by ESL learners to learn English ▪ Improves the search ability of a video ➢ Must be accurate, synchronous, verbatim ➢ Google automated captioning isn’t enough! ➢ There’s also video description for movies and video ASL (Note: Showing French video in English is not captioning. Captioning must be in a  different language that’s not your primary language) • Public Kiosk Interfaces ➢ Requirements: ▪ Usable by most individuals, regardless of age, disability, or  computer experience ▪ No training time ▪ Low error rate ▪ No documentation or support staff ▪ “Walk-up-and-usability” ➢ Examples: ▪ Voting machines (a WHOLE other area) ▪ Store self-checkout lines ▪ ATMs ▪ Rapid check-in at airports and hotels (inaccessible: lawsuit!) ▪ Museum exhibit information • Design vs. re-design ➢ New interface: ▪ Get ideas from users▪ Get ideas from other existing interfaces that are similar (since  users come with expectations) ➢ Re-designing an existing interface: ▪ Use data on existing usage ➢ Web sites redesigned every 2-3 years ➢ Software apps redesigned every 3-5 years ➢ An opportunity to make changes, to improve known flaws ▪ Changes in what users’ want ▪ Reaching different user populations ▪ Changes in the law/improving accessibility • Re-designing an interface ➢ Data on existing usage: ▪ How many times did people click on “home” and “help”?? ▪ For web sites, what were the top 10 queries on the search  engine? (they might be good top-level links) ▪ For sites with audience-splitting, which user links were  followed often, and which were not? • Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design: ➢ 1. Strive for consistency ➢ 2. Cater to universal usability ➢ 3. Offer informative feedback ➢ 4. Design dialogs to yield closure ➢ 5. Prevent errors ➢ 6. Permit easy reversal of actions ➢ 7. Support internal locus of control ➢ 8. Reduce short-term memory loadPotential Test Questions Q) Is HCI like AI? A) No, HCI focuses on computers making decisions, while AI has humans making  more of the decisions. Q) What is usability? A) “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve  specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified  context of use” effectiveness: accuracy and completeness with which users achieve  specified goals efficiency: resources expended for users to achieve goals satisfaction: freedom from discomfort, and positive attitudes  towards the use of the product Q) When did HCI start? A) In 1980: Publication of Shmeiderman’s “Software Psychology” Q) Why did we move away from menus and started using search boxes? A) To give users more controls and there’s also more valuable options to find  using search boxes. Q) Describe Procedural vs. Exploratory training? A) Procedural training deals with step by step instructions, while exploratory  training deals with exploring and figuring things out on our own (more hands on).Q) What are 3 core fields to the foundation of HCI? A)  1) Psychology 2) Sociology 3) Computer Science Q) What are the inherent challenges in HCI? A)  ➢ There are always different stakeholders with different design goals ➢ Tradeoff between usability and security ➢ You need interaction with real users (no substitutes) Q) What is A/B testing? A) Using minor tweaks and testing them out live to see which one turns out the  most successful. Q) What are the three measures in HCI? A) 3 measures include: Users, tasks, and environment • Users: who are they, how much experience do they have? Education? Any  impairments? • Tasks – what needs to get done? What needs to be performed? (Goals) • Environment – Where will this take place? Desktop? Laptop? PDA? On the  go? Noise? Multiple channels of feedback?Q) What is UX? A)  ➢ The “user experience” – how real users perform real tasks in a real  environment ➢ Includes their emotions, their sensual effect of small details and clicks and  ergonomics ➢ Design – ties in with later concepts of “coolness”, however, this is hard to  predict Q) What are some of the quantitative metrics for measuring usability? A)  ➢ Task performance ➢ Time performance ➢ User satisfaction ➢ Error rate ➢ Retention over time ➢ Time to learn ➢ Emotions and body measurements Q) What are three hands-on skills needed for HCI? A)  1. Know how to plan and moderate a usability test 2. Know how to plan and implement a card sort and prototype, to improve  information architecture 3. Know how to evaluate a web page for accessibility for people with  disabilitiesQ) What are 3 body systems in HCI? A)  1. Perceptual system 2. Cognitive system 3. Motor system Q) What are some examples of recall? A) ➢ Passwords ➢ Command lines ➢ 7+-2 ➢ Chunk memorization  Q) What is an automated cognitive process? A) Activities that you do so often that they become a script. Q) What are a few designs that can help with scanning/reading? A)  ➢ Grids ➢ White space ➢ Headings Q) Describe Fitt’s Law? A) ➢ According to Fitt’s law, performance (movement time) is a function of size  of target and distance to target.➢ Fitt’s law states: The farther away you must move a cursor, and the  smaller the target object is, the longer it takes. So, to make it faster,  require les distance to travel, and have bigger clickable icons. ➢ Consists of tile-style screen layouts, which means moving from mouse  pointers to fingers (Bigger targets are better). Q) Why did Windows switch to tiles? A) Easier to see and click on (user-friendly) Q) Describe the mental model? A)  ➢ User representations of objects, processes, and systems, that allows users  to predict what will happen given a set of circumstances. ➢ Users have trouble with large information structures with multiple levels  and unclear structure. ➢ With a bad mental model, users will perform meaningless actions. ➢ You can give users a visualization of what conceptual model drives interface  such as: Sitemaps, flowcharts, and structure charts. Q) What is pervasive computing? A) ➢ In pervasive computing environments, computers are embedded into  everyday environment to provide computations everywhere at any time.  ➢ Pervasive computing assists us in our everyday lives, functioning invisibly  and unobtrusively in the background and freeing people to a large extent  from tedious routine tasks.  ➢ Pervasive computing will require the nature human-computer interaction  methods to interact with small distributed and often embedded devices.Q) What are the guidelines for form interaction? A) The main guidelines for form interactions are: ➢ Be positive ➢ Let the users know what occurred ➢ Offer suggestions on how to respond Others include: ➢ Have a meaningful form title ➢ Understandable instructions to fill out the form ➢ Label the fields ➢ Limit data entry values ➢ Provide explanatory information for fields ➢ Provide immediate feedback ➢ Logically group related fields ➢ Required fields clearly marked ➢ Let users know how their data will be used/shared Q) What are the three choices related to text on graphic displays? A) 1. Font Face 2. Big color contrast 3. Make sure font id big enough Q) Who uses captioning? A) People who are learning different languages or even deaf people.Q) Describe video description? A) Must less common than captioning, and is mainly for blind people.  Q) What are Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design? A) 1. Strive for consistency 2. Cater to universal usability 3. Offer informative feedback 4. Design dialogs to yield closure 5. Prevent errors 6. Permit easy reversal of actions 7. Support internal locus of control 8. Reduce short-term memory loadExam 1 Study Guide Notes: Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1: Intro to HCI What is Human Computer Interaction (HCI)? • The study of how humans interact with computers • A discipline concerned with the design, evaluation, and implementation of  interactive computing systems • Can be viewed as being the study of how humans interact with other  humans through computers What is the goal of HCI? • Reduce negative aspects if the user experience while enhancing the  positive ones • Design computing systems that support people in a way that they can carry  out their activities and productivity safely as well as happily • Improve specific projects, not generalize to other areas • Influence the design (User Research = HCI Practice) Ways to think about HCI • Think architects, civil/structural engineers (architecture) • Can be thought of as a hybrid of design and engineer HCI is about the following: • Finding a good solution • Justifying costs • Dealing with real users who usually don’t like change • Ensuring backward compatibility• Dealing with tradeoffs What is usability? • The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve  specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction • Effectiveness: accuracy and completeness with which users achieve  specified goals • Efficiency: resources expended for users to achieve goals • Satisfaction: freedom from discomfort and positive attitudes towards the  use of the product Highlights on HCI History • 1980 – Publication of Shneiderman’s “Software Psychology” • 1982 – First conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems  • 1983 – Publication of Card, Moan, and Newell’s “Psychology of Human  Computer Interaction” • Mid 1990’s – Focus on online communication • 2002 through 2003 – Research started moving towards portable as well as  mobile technology • 2012 – 30 years of CHI • 2017 – CHI 2017 Why HCI matters to companies? • Looking for the “user experience manager” • Product differentiation • Increases sales • Improved public image • More productive users or customersHCU design involves: • Users • Goals (tasks) • Environments (context of use) HCI evaluation deals • Quantitative data – user experience, task performance, time performance,  user satisfaction, error rate, time to learn (retention overtime),  physiological measures HCI draws many fields such as: • Computer Science • Psychology • Sociology Costs (Justifying Usability) • Estimate costs • User salaries • Training costs • User support Estimate Benefits • Increased user productivity • Decreased user errors • Decreased training costs • Decreased user support Examples of Recommender Systems• Amazon • Netflix • Facebook Inherent challenges in HCI • There are always different stakeholders with different design goals • Tradeoff between usability and security • It costs money to design a good interface and it can be challenging to  cost/justify it • You need interaction with real users (no substitutes) What is A/B testing? • Using mirror tweaks and testing them out live to see which one turns out to  be most successful What to measure: Users, tasks, and environment? • In HCI, focus on 3 measures: Users, tasks, and environment • Users: who are they, how much experience do they have? Education? Any  impairments? • Tasks – what needs to get done? What needs to be performed? (Goals) • Environment – Where will this take place? Desktop? Laptop? PDA? On the  go? Noise? Multiple channels of feedback? The User Experience: UX ➢ The “user experience” – how real users perform real tasks in a real  environment➢ Includes their emotions, their sensual effect of small details and clicks  and ergonomics ➢ Design – ties in with later concepts of “coolness”, however, this is hard  to predict Quantitative metrics for measuring usability (How we measure): • Task performance • Time performance • User satisfaction • Error rate • Retention over time • Time to learn • Newer ways: emotion and body measurements Standards (meaning one): 1. Task performance 2. Time performance 3. User satisfaction (Listed above are ways of measuring usability) Some important things to remember: • Users are not designers and designers are not users • There isn't a "right" or "wrong" number of users in usability testing, but  instead, the number of users should be driven by the reality of the project  timeline/budget/politics. • HCI is a science, based on analytics and/or observing and documenting user  behavior • There isn’t a limit of three clicks to find information on a website, or a limit  of 7+-2 menu items…you can do more• A user interface is not just a blank slate opportunity to be visually creative Places to Look for Jobs in HCI: • Usability/UX consulting firms • IT depts. in an organization • Usability Groups at larger companies • Universities IT Departments in an org. Most IT departments have at least 2-3 employees focusing on HCI/UX: • End-user specialists • User experience managers • Help desk managers • UI designers • Information architects • Interaction designers Usability groups • Microsoft • Apple • Google • Bloomberg • AOL • SAP • IBM • Yahoo! • EBay3 Hands On Skills Needed for HCI: 1. Know how to plan and moderate a usability test 2. Know how to plan and implement a card sort and prototype, to improve  information architecture 3. Know how to evaluate a web page for accessibility for people with  disabilities Metaphors: • Simple and iconic • Analogies to items from every day, physical life such as: tablets and folders  or trash can/recycle bin • Curb cuts – a metaphor for accessibility • Annotation: caption like post-it notes or marked-up papers Predictability: • User like feeling in control  • User like predictable input/output • User expect: - On typing and input .10 second response time - On simple tasks: 1 second response time - On more complex tasks: a few seconds  • Let users know it will be longer than expected response time • Need to let user know how long/why: (overestimated time vs. percentage  complete) • Long response times: - Influence perceptions of quality (lower quality) - May be perceived as if an error has occurred Motor tasks• Motor performance is influenced by complexity of the task (distance, size of  target). • Age (not part of original Fitts’ law, but discovered to be true) • Motor skills (Do you have a disability?) • Speed-accuracy trade-off in motor movements, especially pointing - The faster you go, the less accurate it will be - The slower you go, the more accurate Pointing Tasks: Fitt’s Law • Applies to mouse, touchpad, trackball • According to Fitt’s law, performance (movement time) is a function of size  of target and distance to target. • Fits’ law states: The farther away you must move a cursor, and the smaller  the target object is, the longer it takes. So, to make it faster, require les  distance to travel, and have bigger clickable icons. • Consists of tile-style screen layouts, which means moving from mouse  pointers to fingers (Bigger targets are better) Individual mental models of users • Mental models: user representations of objects, processes, and systems,  that allows users to predict what will happen given a set of circumstances • How to use it vs. How it works - Operating a TV is different from fixing a TV - Different users may have differing mental models - Important to understand the user’s mental models • Users have trouble with large information structures with multiple levels  and unclear structure • With a bad mental model, users will perform meaningless actions • You can give users a visualization of what conceptual model drives interface  such as: Sitemaps, flowcharts, and structure chartsGeneral user differences • Novice vs. expert computer users • Gender • Socioeconomic status (access to technology and decent bandwidth to  access networks?) • Educational level • Cultural factors (together or individual?) Language/International Diversity • Reading direction (Western vs. Middle Eastern vs. Asian) • Use of color • Use of pictures and icons • Numbers (1,234.56 or 1234,56 or 1’ 234.56) • Dates (9/13/2013 or 13/9/2013) • Time (18:00 or 6pm) Language Differences • Americans tend to think differently about this than the rest of the world • Most multi-national interfaces must be multilingual • Human translation is needed (automated translation isn’t good enough for  business) • Effective use of consistent and predictable layouts and icons can mean that  users a navigate in a language that is not their own • Watch out for slang and local usage General user differences • Perceptual impairments (blind, low vision, deaf, hard of hearing, color  blind) • Motor impairments (limited use of hands, limited use of voice, spinal cord  injury, partial or full paralyzation)• Cognitive impairments (born with, develop over time, or incidental) • There are other disabilities (as classified by the ADA) that don’t change the  UX: mental health, celiac disease, diabetes User differences in technology adoption • Five classes of adopters of innovations: 1. Innovators (like risk and uncertainty) 2. Early adopters (successful, respected by peers) 3. Early majority (largest category) 4. Late majority (pressure from peers) 5. Laggards (suspicious of innovations) How do we address user diversity in User Interfaces? • Shortcuts and command lines (for experts) • Menus (for novices) • Wizards • Clippie! • Adaptive interfaces (think training wheels!) • Interfaces that can work with assistive technology/accessible interfaces • Multiple personal controls (color, layout) • Scrollwheel (novice, intermediate, expert) • Contextual help, how-to videos Information Overload • Problem - We receive too much information to process and remember (PIM) - We can’t keep track of where data is (both in subdirectories and on  multiple storage devices and web sites). • Solution- So, we often store copies in multiple sites, which creates a new  problem (versioning) - Over time, organized lists are less useful than search features - We don’t plan the IA for our hard drive as well as we do for web sites Information overload: Design implications • External aids - Calendars - Voice notes - Reminders - “Flags” for important e-mails • Annotations - In documents: reminders of when we changed something, who  changed it, and why - On photos: who was in the photo, when it was taken, and what it  was • Passwords • We tend to use shorter passwords, and use the same passwords on  multiple sites, even though they aren’t secure The power of defaults • A large percentage of user choices are influenced by defaults • Users are overwhelmed, so they tend to use defaults - custom installations vs. default installations - default selected on buttons - opt-in vs. opt-out It’s hard to change • For many human cognition-based reasons, users tend not to like changes in  their interfaces • defaults • overload• mental models • fear of making errors or being unable to complete tasks • loss of their knowledge base • generational differences • fear of data loss Chapter 2: Human Cognition The Human: Cognition • The most important part of HCI is the human • Cognition - the process by which we become acquainted with things = HOW  WE LEARN • Cognition – mental processes of knowing (how we become acquainted with  things includes perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, reasoning • experiential vs. reflective Perceptual system • How we take in stimuli from our environment • Vision (most common in HCI) • Quality of vision? Visual search (How long to find an item?) • Hearing (2nd most common in HCI) • Loudness? Pitch? Timbre? Envelope? • Touch - becoming common in gaming (haptic), braille, and pin displays • Smell - using vaporized oils or mists, “digiscent” or “olphoto” • Taste - includes pressure and texture (see Iwata, 2008, very rare in HCI) What is a chunk? • items with meaning such as a number, word, or phrase • We can hold 7 ± 2 chunks of information in short-term memory• Task domain of expertise • 7 ± 2 applies to recall, not recognition • It’s better to provide options (visual or audio) rather than to ask users to  recall a command line. (Offer multiple ways to remember something) • We are better at recognition than recall Cognitive system: Long-term memory • Long-term memory, estimated to be 2.8 x 10^20 bits of information • long-term memory recall - How recently has it been used? Recently used → easier to recall (That’s why they do training exercises in the military) Cognitive system – design implications • Information is often encoded within a certain context • Users may have trouble recognizing how to do a task • “Modes” are often problematic • Users aren’t aware of which mode they are in • Similar to how your neighbor may have trouble recognizing you at a  baseball game Motor System • All forms of human output such as: our hands, our voice, our feet, or even  our head movement Attention • The process of selecting things to concentrate on at a point in time, from  the range of competing stimuli • Involves auditory and/or visual senses • Our goals influence what you pay attention toAttention – Design Implications • avoid designing competing stimuli within the UI • organize tasks • a user has only one active window at a time, that they can pay attention to Attention – Exception • automated cognitive processes (ACP) • activities that you do so often that they become a script • Your performance improves because you aren’t focusing on the steps, you  literally can’t do something different Lecture Video: Information Visualization for Knowledge Discovery • Scientific approach ➢ Specify users and tasks ➢ Predict and measure ▪ Time to learn ▪ Speed performance ▪ Rate of human errors ▪ Human retention over time ➢ Assess subjective satisfaction ➢ Input devices & strategies ▪ Keyboards, pointing devices, voice ▪ Direct manipulation ▪ Menus, forms, commands ➢ Output devices & formats ▪ Screens, windows, color, sound ▪ Text, tables, graphics• Visual bandwidth is enormous: ➢ Human perceptual skills are remarkable ▪ Trend, cluster, gap, outlier ▪ Color, size, shape, proximity ▪ Human image storage is fast and vast • Three challenges: ➢ Meaningful visual displays of massive data ➢ Interaction: widgets & window coordination ➢ Process models for discovery ▪ Integrate statistics and visualization ▪ Support annotation and collaboration ▪ Preserve history, undo and macros  • Data Types: ➢ 1-D Linear ➢ 2-D Map ➢ 3-D World ➢ Multi-Var ➢ Temporal ➢ Tree • Temporal Data: TimeSearcher 2.0 ➢ Long Time series (>10,000 time points) ➢ Multiple variables ➢ Controlled precision in match (Linear, offset, noise, amplitude) • TreeMap: Ontology ➢ Space filling ➢ Space limited ➢ Color coding ➢ Size coding ➢ Requires learning • SocialAction ➢ Integrates statistics and visualization • NodeXL: ➢ Network Overview for Discover and Exploration in Excel • Discover Process: The Sense-Making Loop ➢ Gather Information ➢ Produce Results ➢ Develop Insight  ➢ Re-represent • Visualization supports Discovery ➢ Multi-Var ➢ Temporal ➢ Tree ➢ Network Chapter 3: Interface Design • What is an interface? ➢ An interface is any method that users utilize to interact with a  computer • Generations of Interfaces ➢ 1st generation (1980s-early 1990s) ▪ Command Lines▪ Simple WIMP/GUI ➢ 2nd generation (1990s-early/mid 2000s) ▪ Advanced GUIs (including multimedia and InfoViz) ▪ Web interfaces ▪ Speech, pen, and touchscreen ➢ 3rd generation (mid 2000s- ???) ▪ Mobile, tangible, multi-touch screens, wearable, ubiquitous,  social • Interface modes ➢ Interface modes are just standard approaches for interaction ▪ Command lines ▪ Object manipulation ▪ Form ▪ Menus ▪ Natural language ▪ Search boxes ▪ Information Visualization ➢ Think of them as “widgets of approaches” ▪ Users know, Radio buttons vs. checkboxes • Object/direct manipulation ➢ Three principles of direct manipulation: ▪ 1. Continuous representations of the objects and actions of  interest with meaningful visual metaphors ▪ 2. Physical actions or presses of labeled interface objects  instead of complex syntax ▪ 3. Rapid, incremental, reversible actions whose effects on the  objects of interest are visible immediately ➢ For manipulating objects, icons are generally favored over  pictures-???? ➢ Crisper and easier to click than pictures➢ Icons represent objects from our everyday lives (printers, files,  folders, trash cans) ➢ We can manipulate these icons (move them, operate on them, etc.)  based on metaphors ➢ But there needs to be a good match between the icons and what  they represent ➢ Children and older adults need larger clickable objects • Menus ➢ A menu is just a list of choices ➢ There are many different types of menus ➢ Menu bars ➢ Pull-down menus ➢ Cascading menus ➢ Pop-up menus ➢ Pie menus ➢ Alphasliders ➢ Expanding Menus ➢ There are lots of issues to decide: (Test Question) 1. Naming of menu choices 2. How the menu choices will be organized on a single menu 3. How a series of menus will be structured (because you never really  have just one menu) 4. Where on the page or interface will the menus be located? ➢ Naming menu choices: ▪ Make sure that the names are representative and make sense  when standing alone ▪ A web page list of links IS a menu!!! ▪ “Click here” is not a good menu choice name!➢ How do you organize menu choices on a single menu? ▪ Alphabetical ▪ Categorical (organized into categories) ▪ Temporal (do you do certain tasks before others?) ▪ Frequency (how often are certain choices made?) ▪ Think of the expanded menus on MS-Office applications ➢ How do you organize a series of menus? ▪ Think of menus as a tree structure ▪ You can have various choices per level of the tree ▪ And various levels of menus ▪ It’s a balance (you could do 200 choices on one menu, but you  shouldn’t) ➢ Usually, broad, shallow tree structures are the best way to organize a  series of menus ➢ More menu choices on fewer levels• Natural Language ➢ Natural language is when, rather than typing in a command or a  boolean search, you type in your own conversational language ➢ Help features in MS-Office ➢ Ask Jeeves ➢ Typically used in simple tasks, such as finding web items and getting  help • Form Interaction ➢ Is useful for entering large quantities of data…helps users enter data  in correct place using correct format ➢ Can provide data validation➢ Most importantly: it’s a metaphor from everyday life (you fill out lots  of paper forms!) …much better than SQL commands! ➢ Don’t have multiple pop-up form fill-ins • Guidelines for form interaction ➢ Have a meaningful form title ➢ Understandable instructions to fill out the form ➢ Label the fields ➢ Limit data entry values ➢ Provide explanatory information for fields ➢ Provide immediate feedback ➢ Logically group related fields ➢ Required fields clearly marked ➢ Let users know how their data will be used/shared • Dialog Boxes ➢ Appear when the computer needs to get the user’s attention ➢ Might be for a task (print), a series of properties (such as document  properties), or when an error occurs ➢ Either way, it’s placed “on top” of the user’s current task ➢ Must be completed before user moves on ➢ Use sparingly, as dialog boxes can become annoying pop-up boxes  (same concept!) ➢ Dialog boxes should: ▪ 1. Be positive (no “fatal error”) ▪ 2. Let the users know what occurred, in language that they can  understand ▪ 3. Offer suggestions on how to respond • How we search: search boxes: ➢ We use search more than we use organized lists of items ▪ Search boxes scale better over hundreds, thousands, or  millions of items▪ Most users can’t form complex boolean search queries, so we  type in a few keywords ▪ Often use the “did you mean?” feature ▪ Specific fact-finding, extended fact-finding, exploratory, or  open-ended browsing • Searching behavior ➢ People typically search on: ▪ Their hard drives and other storage devices ▪ E-mail ▪ Inside web sites and the entire Web ➢ People search using: ▪ Human names ▪ Dates ▪ Important keywords that are not people (navy blazer) ➢ A sort “by date” is really a search ➢ Also, image search, video/audio search, GIS search • More on searching ➢ Meaning of keywords changes depending on the time context ▪ Hurricane ▪ Britney Spears/Lindsey Lohan ▪ Taxes ▪ Towson University President • Information Visualization ➢ Newer type of data presentation on a screen ➢ “The use of interactive visual representations of abstract data to  amplify cognition”-definition from DTUI book ➢ Enables users to see patterns, trends, and anomalies in large  quantities of data...usually very exploratory in nature ➢ Also, known as/closely relates to visual data mining➢ Used in finance, healthcare, science, geography, and other fields with  very large data sets, including: ▪ Treemaps/bubblemaps (Scatterplots ▪ Interconnected nodes (hyperbolic tree) ▪ Heatmap ▪ Time-based  • Video Games ➢ Gaming is primarily direct manipulation ➢ Action, Sporting, Fighting, Racing, Shooting, Role-playing, and  Children/Family entertainment ➢ Less data, more experience (do you enjoy it?) ➢ Users demand feedback and scores ➢ The recent shifts: ▪ From individual competition to group distributed competition  ▪ From physical devices to natural interaction and gesturing ▪ Utilized for learning objectives • Cad applications ➢ Similar to visualization and gaming, but with a focus on designing  actual physical objects ▪ Automobiles ▪ Architecture ▪ Mechanical engineering ▪ Landscaping ▪ Plumbing ▪ Dentistry ➢ Interface concepts are same: ▪ Direct manipulation ▪ Forms ▪ Menus• Common screen interface pointing gestures: ➢ Tap (select) ➢ Long press (magnify or show a tooltip) ➢ Double tap (depends) ➢ Small swipe (depends, move, or reveal a delete button?) ➢ Large swipe (usually scroll) ➢ Rapid swipe (fast scroll with inertia) ➢ Pinch and spread (zoom in and out) ➢ Variation with two or more fingers (depends) • Design Patterns ➢ Design patterns are often used ▪ A “solution” to a design problem in a certain context ▪ Certain “approaches” that you are familiar with ▪ Patterns are often shared using sites like Github and developer  libraries • Text on graphic displays ➢ 1. For font face, use: ▪ A font designed for displays (generally sans serif fonts such as  Arial, Helvetica, and Verdana), NOT Times New Roman or  decorative fonts ➢ 2. For font color, have a big contrast to background ▪ Use color sparingly (4 per screen, 7 in a sequence) ▪ Recognize inherent coding and cultural meaning ➢ 3. For font size, consider the: ▪ User population (age, both young and old) ▪ Size of the display ▪ Distance between user and the display (PDA, laptop, desktop,  or large display at a train station or airport?) ▪ Make font sizes adjustable by users• Captioning of video presented ➢ A caption is just a transcript with time scans ➢ Designed for Deaf and/or hard of hearing ▪ Used at gyms, bars, and noisy places ▪ And used by ESL learners to learn English ▪ Improves the search ability of a video ➢ Must be accurate, synchronous, verbatim ➢ Google automated captioning isn’t enough! ➢ There’s also video description for movies and video ASL (Note: Showing French video in English is not captioning. Captioning must be in a  different language that’s not your primary language) • Public Kiosk Interfaces ➢ Requirements: ▪ Usable by most individuals, regardless of age, disability, or  computer experience ▪ No training time ▪ Low error rate ▪ No documentation or support staff ▪ “Walk-up-and-usability” ➢ Examples: ▪ Voting machines (a WHOLE other area) ▪ Store self-checkout lines ▪ ATMs ▪ Rapid check-in at airports and hotels (inaccessible: lawsuit!) ▪ Museum exhibit information • Design vs. re-design ➢ New interface: ▪ Get ideas from users▪ Get ideas from other existing interfaces that are similar (since  users come with expectations) ➢ Re-designing an existing interface: ▪ Use data on existing usage ➢ Web sites redesigned every 2-3 years ➢ Software apps redesigned every 3-5 years ➢ An opportunity to make changes, to improve known flaws ▪ Changes in what users’ want ▪ Reaching different user populations ▪ Changes in the law/improving accessibility • Re-designing an interface ➢ Data on existing usage: ▪ How many times did people click on “home” and “help”?? ▪ For web sites, what were the top 10 queries on the search  engine? (they might be good top-level links) ▪ For sites with audience-splitting, which user links were  followed often, and which were not? • Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design: ➢ 1. Strive for consistency ➢ 2. Cater to universal usability ➢ 3. Offer informative feedback ➢ 4. Design dialogs to yield closure ➢ 5. Prevent errors ➢ 6. Permit easy reversal of actions ➢ 7. Support internal locus of control ➢ 8. Reduce short-term memory loadPotential Test Questions Q) Is HCI like AI? A) No, HCI focuses on computers making decisions, while AI has humans making  more of the decisions. Q) What is usability? A) “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve  specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified  context of use” effectiveness: accuracy and completeness with which users achieve  specified goals efficiency: resources expended for users to achieve goals satisfaction: freedom from discomfort, and positive attitudes  towards the use of the product Q) When did HCI start? A) In 1980: Publication of Shmeiderman’s “Software Psychology” Q) Why did we move away from menus and started using search boxes? A) To give users more controls and there’s also more valuable options to find  using search boxes. Q) Describe Procedural vs. Exploratory training? A) Procedural training deals with step by step instructions, while exploratory  training deals with exploring and figuring things out on our own (more hands on).Q) What are 3 core fields to the foundation of HCI? A)  1) Psychology 2) Sociology 3) Computer Science Q) What are the inherent challenges in HCI? A)  ➢ There are always different stakeholders with different design goals ➢ Tradeoff between usability and security ➢ You need interaction with real users (no substitutes) Q) What is A/B testing? A) Using minor tweaks and testing them out live to see which one turns out the  most successful. Q) What are the three measures in HCI? A) 3 measures include: Users, tasks, and environment • Users: who are they, how much experience do they have? Education? Any  impairments? • Tasks – what needs to get done? What needs to be performed? (Goals) • Environment – Where will this take place? Desktop? Laptop? PDA? On the  go? Noise? Multiple channels of feedback?Q) What is UX? A)  ➢ The “user experience” – how real users perform real tasks in a real  environment ➢ Includes their emotions, their sensual effect of small details and clicks and  ergonomics ➢ Design – ties in with later concepts of “coolness”, however, this is hard to  predict Q) What are some of the quantitative metrics for measuring usability? A)  ➢ Task performance ➢ Time performance ➢ User satisfaction ➢ Error rate ➢ Retention over time ➢ Time to learn ➢ Emotions and body measurements Q) What are three hands-on skills needed for HCI? A)  1. Know how to plan and moderate a usability test 2. Know how to plan and implement a card sort and prototype, to improve  information architecture 3. Know how to evaluate a web page for accessibility for people with  disabilitiesQ) What are 3 body systems in HCI? A)  1. Perceptual system 2. Cognitive system 3. Motor system Q) What are some examples of recall? A) ➢ Passwords ➢ Command lines ➢ 7+-2 ➢ Chunk memorization  Q) What is an automated cognitive process? A) Activities that you do so often that they become a script. Q) What are a few designs that can help with scanning/reading? A)  ➢ Grids ➢ White space ➢ Headings Q) Describe Fitt’s Law? A) ➢ According to Fitt’s law, performance (movement time) is a function of size  of target and distance to target.➢ Fitt’s law states: The farther away you must move a cursor, and the  smaller the target object is, the longer it takes. So, to make it faster,  require les distance to travel, and have bigger clickable icons. ➢ Consists of tile-style screen layouts, which means moving from mouse  pointers to fingers (Bigger targets are better). Q) Why did Windows switch to tiles? A) Easier to see and click on (user-friendly) Q) Describe the mental model? A)  ➢ User representations of objects, processes, and systems, that allows users  to predict what will happen given a set of circumstances. ➢ Users have trouble with large information structures with multiple levels  and unclear structure. ➢ With a bad mental model, users will perform meaningless actions. ➢ You can give users a visualization of what conceptual model drives interface  such as: Sitemaps, flowcharts, and structure charts. Q) What is pervasive computing? A) ➢ In pervasive computing environments, computers are embedded into  everyday environment to provide computations everywhere at any time.  ➢ Pervasive computing assists us in our everyday lives, functioning invisibly  and unobtrusively in the background and freeing people to a large extent  from tedious routine tasks.  ➢ Pervasive computing will require the nature human-computer interaction  methods to interact with small distributed and often embedded devices.Q) What are the guidelines for form interaction? A) The main guidelines for form interactions are: ➢ Be positive ➢ Let the users know what occurred ➢ Offer suggestions on how to respond Others include: ➢ Have a meaningful form title ➢ Understandable instructions to fill out the form ➢ Label the fields ➢ Limit data entry values ➢ Provide explanatory information for fields ➢ Provide immediate feedback ➢ Logically group related fields ➢ Required fields clearly marked ➢ Let users know how their data will be used/shared Q) What are the three choices related to text on graphic displays? A) 1. Font Face 2. Big color contrast 3. Make sure font id big enough Q) Who uses captioning? A) People who are learning different languages or even deaf people.Q) Describe video description? A) Must less common than captioning, and is mainly for blind people.  Q) What are Shneiderman’s 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design? A) 1. Strive for consistency 2. Cater to universal usability 3. Offer informative feedback 4. Design dialogs to yield closure 5. Prevent errors 6. Permit easy reversal of actions 7. Support internal locus of control 8. Reduce short-term memory load

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