Global Issues Exam 2 Study Guide
Skim/read over the chapters!!!
∙ Chapters in textbook:
o Snarr and Snarr, “The Threat of Weapons Proliferation” (pp. 39-56) o Snarr and Snarr, “The Quest for Universal Human Rights” (pp. 83-106) o Snarr and Snarr, “Conflict over natural resources” (pp. 109-129)
∙ Comic Strip. Adventures of a Would-be Arms Dealer. Available on D2L and at: http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2008/en/Small-Arms Survey-2008-Cartoon-EN.pdf
∙ Documentary posted on icollege
∙ CNN Opinion. Syria’s children suffer and the world just shrugs. By Gayle Tzemach Lemmon. Wed January 1, 2014. Available at:
We also discuss several other topics like Which theory occurs when there is a conflict between goals and means?
http://www.cnn.com/2014/01/01/opinion/lemmon-syria-children/index.html ∙ UDHR (available on iCollege)
∙ Lecture notes and outlines
1. International Security
∙ National security: Government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises. We also discuss several other topics like How is protein kinase a activated?
∙ Collective security: The cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each. If you want to learn more check out What are the four stages of moral decline?
∙ Security dilemma: Actions by a state intended to heighten its security (increasing military size, creating alliances, etc), that drive other states to do the same, creating unintentional tension. ∙ Asymmetric conflict: Conflicts between parties with unequal resources
Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call anything that is produced or consumed?
∙ Renewable Resources: Resources that regenerate themselves (fish, trees, animals ,etc) conflict increases when a renewable resource is consumed faster than its regeneration rate, but still less conflict than nonrenewable resources
∙ Nonrenewable Resources: Resources that do not regenerate themselves (oil, copper, etc.) source of violent conflict over resources (Iraqi invasion of Kuwaiti oilfields) If you want to learn more check out What was the hispanic population like back in 1850s?
∙ Boundary Resources: (connection to conflict?): Resources that occupy a fixed geographic region completely located within the boundaries of one state. Conflict is considered less likely due to the idea of sovereignty (states have the right to control their own resources)
∙ Transboundary Resources (connection to conflict?): Resources that span the borders of two or more states. Can cause interstate (between 2 or more states) conflict depending on whether the two/more states can cooperate (shared river, one state pollutes the river, causes war)We also discuss several other topics like What is the diffference between adaptation and adaptability?
2. Proliferation Prevention
PROLIFRATION: RAPID INCREASE IN NUMBERS
• Horizontal Proliferation: Spread of weapons across borders
• Vertical Proliferation: Development or stockpiling of armaments in one country • Nonproliferation: Diplomacy & treaty obligations
• Counterproliferation: Military preparation to reduce and protect against the threat posed by the WMD weapons and delivery means
Need to know:
Conventional Arms: Machine Guns, Tanks, Bombs, Bullets, Planes, Ships… etc.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs): Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological systems (atomic bombs, etc.) Why do countries create WMDs? security and prestige
3. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) basic definition:
• A nonproliferation initiative that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
• Treaty was met by conservative resistance because it restricted the US, but not other rogue states. • Did not pass.
4. NPT : Agreement to halt the spread of nuclear weapons beyond the five declared nuclear powers (1968)
• key provisions (main elements of the treaty):
o 1. No nuclear weapons state would directly or indirectly transfer nuclear weapons, explosive devices, or control over these weapons to another party.
o 2. No state without nuclear weapons capabilities could receive, manufacture, obtain assistance for manufacturing or otherwise try to acquire nuclear weaponry
o 3. All nuclear states are required to pursue general disarmament under strict and effective international control
• 3 Pillars: Nonproliferation, Disarmament, & Nuclear Energy.
India, Israel (has nuclear weapons but lies to public about having them), and Pakistan did not sign the NPT; North Korea withdrew from the NPT
• Nuclear Weapon States (NWS): States that have detonated nuclear weapons before 1967: USA, UK, France, Russia, China
• NonNuclear Weapon States (NNWS): India, Pakistan, and Israel.
• What are “problem” countries?: India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea
• Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): International organization that attempts to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and prohibits the use of nuclear weapons militarily
5. Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs)
• Definition/Examples: machine guns, hand guns, grenade launchers, portable weapons, etc. • Effects : SALWs are the major cause of civilian casualties in modern conflicts • How are they proliferated?: National arms controls have loopholes and are barely enforced which
causes arms to get into the wrong hands. There are lax controls on the brokering, licensing, production, and “end use” of arms
• Arms Trade Treaty (ATT): an attempt to regulate the international trade of conventional weapons. • Effect on war? Change from inter to intrastate; who is affected? (remember how we talked about civilians, refugees, etc.): 80% to 90% of casualties in modern wars are civilians. (Watch the documentary on women for the example of inter to intra state) (There was an increase in the number of intrastate wars.. know the effects on civilians)
6. Human Rights and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
• Article 14 of the UDHR states that “everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from prosecution”
• history of its development: December 10, 1948 the UN approved.
• Difference between treaty and declaration: A treaty has signed participants who pass legislation. A declaration is the UN declaring something
• Know examples and difference between generations of rights as well as between different obligations imposed on the state: Civil and political: 221 Social and Economic: 2226 Solidarity and Development: 2728
• Why was UDHR not turned into treaty: An international declaration is a statement of importance, and has high moral and often political significance, and is more than a recommendation, but it is less than a treaty, which is binding in international law. It was turned into two treaties instead.
• International bill of human rights: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights