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USC / Chemistry / CHEM 105 / What did ernest rutherford discover in 1899?

What did ernest rutherford discover in 1899?

What did ernest rutherford discover in 1899?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Chemistry
Course: Chemistry and Modern Society I
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: chemistry study guide
Description: chapter 4 and 5 study guide
Uploaded: 03/08/2017
4 Pages 150 Views 2 Unlocks
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Chemistry 105­001


What did ernest rutherford discover in 1899?



Chapter 4:

Nuclear Chemistry, the chemistry of protons and neutrons

Names to know: 

Earnest Rutherford(1899)­ found that alpha rays could be stopped a thin pieces of paper

Paul Villard(1900)­ discovered that the high energy, extremely penetrating gamma ray  having characteristics of light waves

Henri Becquerel(1896)­ experimented with phosphorescence of certain 

mineral( uranium)

Madame(Marie) Curie(1859­1906)­ discovered that some elements are more  radioactive than others

Radioactivity­ is the result of an natural change of an isotope of one element into an isotope of a different element resulting in a nuclear reaction We also discuss several other topics like What is the means by which a sender transmits a message?

Nucleons­ protons and neutrons


How did villard discover gamma rays?



Alpha Particle­ Helium nuclei

Beta Particle­ an electron

Gamma Rays­ energy that can be released in the form of highly energetic photons Stability of atomic nuclei­ is based on relative number of protons and neutrons ­when a greater neutron/proton ratio exists( beta decay occurs) If you want to learn more check out Do employees have due process rights?

­when a greater proton/neutron ratio exists( positron emission occurs)

­for elements greater than atomic number 83( alpha emission occurs decreasing the  number of protons and neutrons by 2)

Positron Emission­ a proton is converted to a neutron by positron emission Half­life­ the time required for exactly 50% of the original material to decay  Application of Radioactivity: 


What did henri becquerel contribute to the atomic theory?



Radio carbon dating­ determining the age of a sample using the carbon­ 14 isotope Gamma rays­ from cobalt­60 and cesium­137 are used to irradiate food

Food radiation­ retards the growth of organism such as molds, bacteria, and yeasts Medicine

Diagnosis­ radioisotopes are inserted into the patients body allowing an image to be produced of  the problem area

Energy­Nuclear Reactions

Fission­large amounts of energy are released when heavy atomic nuclei split Fusion­ large amounts of energy are released when small atomic nuclei are combined

Chapter 5:

Atomic Bonding

Ionic Bonds

Octet Rule­ in forming bonds, main­group elements gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve a  stable electron configuration with eight valence electrons If you want to learn more check out How do you find the poh of a weak base?

Ionic Bond­ the attraction between positive and negative ions

Ionic compounds­ compound composed of positive and negative ions

Formula unit­ in ionic compounds, the simplest ratio of oppositely charged ions that gives an  electrically neutral unit

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

Cation= metal= common name (+)

Anion= non­metal= name ends in ­ide(­)

Polyatomic Ions

Polyatomic ion­ a group of atoms with a net charge that behaves as a single particle Covalent Bonds

Covalent Bond­ a bond in which 2 atoms share electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration

Lewis Structure­ electron dot representation of valence electrons in a molecule( the valence  electrons, represented by dots, are placed around the symbol until they are used up or until all 4  sides are occupied) Don't forget about the age old question of What two domains are prokaryotes divided into?

Bonding pair­ pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms in a molecule

Nonbonding pair­ unshared pair of valence electrons in a molecule 

Electronegativity­ is the ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself Multiple Covalent Bonds

Double Bond­  a bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between atoms  Triple Bond­ a bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between atoms  Polar and Non­polar Bonding

Non­polar­ describes a bond or molecule in which charge is evenly distributed, with no positive  or negative regions

Polar­ describes a bond or molecule in which charge is unevenly distributed, creating positive  and negative regions, based on differences in electronegativity 

Properties of Molecular and Ionic Componds

Electrolyte­ compound that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water

Non­electrolyte­ compound that does not conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water,  or does not separate into ions in water

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces­ attractive forces that act between molecules; weaker than covalent bonds Dipole­Dipole forces­ attractive forces between polar molecules

Hydrogen Bonding­ attraction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a highly electronegative  atom (O,N,F) and an electronegative atom in another or the same molecule  We also discuss several other topics like What was the explosion of diversity during the cambrian period about?

The States of Matter

Solids­ fixed shape and fixed volume, non­compressible, very strong intermolecular forces Liquids­ variable shape but fixed volume, strong intermolecular forces, non­compressible Gases­ variable shape and volume, compressible, weak intermolecular forces If you want to learn more check out What are three ways to reduce health care costs?

Things you need to know for the test:  

∙ Symbol for the radioactive decay( beta, positron, alpha, gamma) and the formulas for  each one

∙ Know the medicine isotopes­ name , half­life hours, and the uses  ∙ Know the common ions 

∙ Know all the polyatomic anions ( names and formulas)

∙ Shapes for molecules( linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral) 

∙ Naming Binary Compounds( mono, di, tri, tetra, Penta, hexa, hepta, octa, Nona, deca)

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