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MASON / Biology / BIOL 310 / What are the characteristics of progymnosperms?

What are the characteristics of progymnosperms?

What are the characteristics of progymnosperms?

Description

School: George Mason University
Department: Biology
Course: Biodiversity
Professor: Geoffrey birchard
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: gmu, george mason university, Biodiversity, and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL 310 - Study Guide 2 - Chapters 28 and 29
Description: A quick study guide for chapters 28 and 29. I followed the textbook "LIFE: The Science of Biology", 10th edition. Good luck on the second exam, everyone!
Uploaded: 03/08/2017
9 Pages 32 Views 9 Unlocks
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Chapter 28: Plant without Seeds: From Water to Land 


What are the characteristics of progymnosperms?



**FOLLOW AND MEMORIZE IMAGE 28.1 ON PAGE 570** 

(It will make following this study guide much easier)

Plantae​ - primary endosymbiosis is a synapomorphy

● Algae​ - aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes

Glaucophytes

● Sister group to rest of Plantae

● Chloroplast contains little bit of peptidoglycan between inner and outer membrane ○ Peptidoglycan is not found in other photosynthetic eukaryotes

Red Algae

● Almost all multicellular

● Chloroplasts contain:

○ Phycoerythrin​ - the photosynthetic pigments which gives it a red color ○ Chlorophyll a (green)

○ Phycocyanin


What are the main groups of gymnosperms?



○ Carotenoids

● Color of algae depends on intensity of light

○ More light - algae appear green

○ In deep waters - algae appear red

● Grow in both shallow and deep waters

● Some found in fresh water

● Most are attached to a substrate (by holdfast)

Green Plants If you want to learn more check out What were the main points of thomas paine's common sense?

● Contain chlorophyll a and b

● Store photosynthetic products as starch in chloroplasts

● Chlorophytes

○ “Most” green algae

○ Most aquatic (but some are marine, and more in fresh water)

○ Some terrestrial (live in moist area)

○ Size ranges from microscopic unicellular to large multicellular


What is monocot?



○ Ex. Volvox

■ Colonial, unicellular

■ Colonies specialized for reproduction, not for specific organs or tissues Streptophytes If you want to learn more check out What does the short-run aggregate supply curve show?

● Includes all other green algae (apart from chlorophytes) and land plants ● Closest relatives of land plants (are aquatic green algae)

○ Coleochaetophytes ​and Stoneworts

■ Multicellular

■ Eggs found in parental organism

■ Adjacent cells connected through plasmodesmata

■ Similarities in mitosis and cytokinesis

■ Stoneworts​ are sister group of land plants

● Branching and apical

Land Plants (embryophytes)

● Embryo surrounded by parental tissue

● Nonvascular land plants ​(lack tracheids - refer below)

○ Liverworts

○ Mosses

○ Hornworts

● Vascular plants (tracheophytes)

○ The other clades

○ Have vascular systems that transport material throughout plants

○ Contain tracheids​ (fluid-conducting cells)

Plants Colonize Land If you want to learn more check out What are the stages of social evolution by lewis henry morgan?

● First appeared 450 to 500 million years ago

● Adaptations that helped plant survival on land:

○ Cuticle (waxy covering that prevents water loss)

○ Stomata (openings in leaves that allow for gas exchange and water loss) ○ Gametangia (multicellular and enclose gametes so they won’t dry out) ○ Embryos (young plants protected by parental tissue)

○ Pigments (protection from UV radiation)

○ Spore walls (protects sports for desiccation and decay)

○ Mutual benefits with fungi (allows for uptake of nutrients from soil)

Life Cycle

● Alternation of generations

○ Mitosis - Gametophyte produces gametes (n)

○ Gametes fuse during fertilization to form zygote (2n)

○ Mitosis - zygote forms in sporophyte (multicellular, 2n)

■ Sporangia​ are specialized reproductive organs in the sporophyte

○ Meiosis sporophyte produces spores ​(n)

○ Mitosis - spores germinate and develop into a multicellular haploid (gametophyte) Non-Vascular Plants

● Grow in dense mats, usually in moist habitats

● Short because they do not have an efficient vascular system Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the former cold war rivals?

● Lack true leaves, stems, and roots

● Have leaf-like structures that hold onto water when it splashes into them ● Water moves by capillary action

● Minerals distributed by diffusion

● Material tissue protect embryos

● Some have a cuticles

● Can grow on soil, vascular plants, rocks, dead and fallen trees, and buildings ● None live in oceans

● Life Cycle:

○ Haploid gametophyte contain chloroplasts

○ Gametes form into sex organs called gametangia

■ Archegonium​ (2n) female sex organ - single egg

■ Antheridium ​- male sex organ - sperm with two flagella

○ Sporophytes depend on gametophyte

Liverworts

● Most have leafy gametophytes, some have thalloid gametophytes

● Liverwort sporophytes shorter than those of mosses and hornworts

○ Has a stalk

● Ex. Marchantia

○ Asexual reproduction by fragmentation

○ Asexual reproduction by gemmae cups (gemmae dispersed by raindrops)

Mosses

● Found on damp, cool ground

● Have stomata

○ Stomata is synapomorphy for mosses and all other land plants (but liverworts) ● Spore germination Don't forget about the age old question of What is the anti-war movement in world war 1?

○ Branched, filament known as protonema

■ Unique to mosses

■ Some contain chloroplasts

■ Some contain rhizoids

● Anchor protonema to substratum

● Mosses too large for water to transport through diffusion

○ Contain a cell called hydroid

■ When it dies, it forms channel for water to travel through

● Ex. Sphagnum

○ Partially decomposed plant matter is called peta Don't forget about the age old question of What is retrieval?

Hornworts

● Single, large platelike chloroplast

● Capable of growing without a limit

○ Stop growing due to lack of a transport system

● No stalk

● Internal cavities filled with mucilage

○ Often contain cyanobacteria

Land Plant Diversification

● Key synapomorphies is developed vascular tissue

○ Xylem

■ Water and minerals from soil

■ Contain lignin

● Structural support against gravity

○ Phloem

■ Products of photosynthesis

○ Tracheids

■ It evolved about 430 mya

■ Principal water-conducting element of xylem

● All vascular plants except angiosperms and gnetophytes

■ Provided pathway for transport of water and minerals\

■ Contained lignin

● Upward growth

● Branching, independent sporophyte

○ Produces more spores

○ Sporophyte independent of gametophyte

● Initial lack of herbivores on land allowed plants to grow

○ 425 mya vascular plants served as fossils

○ Allowed for arthropods, vertebrates, and animals to move onto land

○ Plant material from forests sank to bottom covered layers of sediment, and through pressure and high temperatures transformed into coal

Different Groups:

● Rhyniophytes

○ Closest relatives to living vascular plants

○ No roots

○ Anchored to soil by horizontal stems called rhizomes

■ Contained unicellular filaments called rhizoids​ (water-absorbing)

○ Aerial branches and sporangia found at tips of branches

■ Sporangia similar to those of mosses

■ Branching pattern is dichotomous

● Apex produced two equivalent new branches

○ Pair of branches diverged at same angle

● Lycophytes

○ Club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts

○ Relatively few species

○ True roots that branch dichotomously

○ Leaflike structures called microphylls

■ Arranged spirally on stem

○ Growth from apical cell division

○ Sporangia (of club mosses) in conelike structures called strobili

■ Spore-bearing microphylls

■ Some do not have strobili and bear sporangia on upper surface of microphylls ● Monilophytes​ (clade)

○ Contains horsetails (only 15 species, all genus Equisetum) and ferns

○ Main stem and side branches are differentiated

○ Horsetails 

■ Reduced true leaves

● Form into distinct circles around the stem

■ Sometimes called “scouring rushes”

● Rough silica deposits found in cell walls

■ Have true roots (branch irregularly)

■ Large sporophyte and small gametophyte

○ Ferns 

■ First appeared in Devonian period

■ More than 12,000 species

■ Most terrestrial, some in shallow fresh water

● Terrestrial

○ Large leaves with branches vascular strands

■ Require liquid water for male gametes to reach female gametes

■ Sporangia of ferns develop on stalks in clusters (sori​)

● Found on undersurface of leaves

● Euphyllophytes ​(clade)

○ Contains monilophytes and seed plants

○ Synapomorphy - overtopping​ (one branch grows beyond the other)

■ Allows for plant to shade dichotomously branching competitors

■ Allowed for development of new leaf-like structure

● Megaphyll

○ First appeared in Devonian period

○ Large megaphylls more common in Carboniferous period

■ Evolved due to drop in CO2 concentration

Homospory and Heterospory

● Homosporous

○ Single type of spore

■ Develop into a single type of gametophyte that contains both female and male sex organs

● Heterosporous

○ Two distinct types of spores

■ Megaspore ​(formed in small numbers in megasporangia​)

● Develops into female gametophyte (megagametophyte​)

● Produces eggs

■ Microspore ​(formed in large numbers in microsporangia​)

● Developes into male gametophyte (microgametophyte​)

● Produces sperm

Chapter 29: Evolution of Seed Plants 

Pyrogymnosperms

● First seedless vascular plant to have a thickened woody stem

● All species are now extinct

Seeds

● Protection for embryo until conditions are right for germination

● Earliest fossil evidence - Devonian rocks

● Seed ferns

○ Now extinct

○ Contained woody stem

○ Has fern-like foliage with seeds attached to the leaves

● Today’s seed plants are:

○ Gymnosperms​ (pines and cycads)

■ Few groups have swimming sperm, but sperm is transferred through pollen so there is no need for liquid water (modern cycads and ginkgos)

○ Angiosperms ​(flowering)

Seed Plants

● Heterosporous

○ Microspore develops into multicellular male gametophyte - pollen grains

■ Spore wall around pollen grain contains sporopollenin (protects pollen grain from desiccation and chemical damage)

○ Megaspores depend on sporophyte for food & water

○ Megasporangium surrounded by integument ​(protects megasporangium)

■ Megasporangium + integument = ovule ​(develops into seed after fertilization) ● Pollination

○ Arrival of pollen grain close to female gametophyte

○ Pollen grain produces pollen tube

○ End product - multicellular seed

■ Seed has three generations of tissue

● 1st generation: seed coat developed from integument

● 2nd generation: Haploid tissue from female gametophyte provides

nutrients

● 3rd generation: at center, new diploid sporophyte

Secondary Growth

● Increases diameter of stems and roots

○ Secondary xylem and phloem produced

● Provides water transport

● Older wood clogged with resin - provides structural support

● Allows for more growth

GYMNOSPERMS

● Groups:

● Cycads

○ Palm-like

○ Earliest diverging clade

○ 300 species (grow as tall as 20 meters)

○ It’s tissues are highly toxic to humans (when ingested)

● Ginkgos

○ Common in Mesozoic era

○ Ex. Ginkgo biloba ​(maidenhair tree)

■ There are male and female trees

■ Have distinguished X and Y chromosomes

● Gnetophytes

○ Ex. Welwitschia

■ Desert plant

■ Strap-like leaves

● Conifers

○ Most abundant

○ 700 species

○ cone-bearing (pines and redwoods)

■ California redwoods tallest known trees (over 100m)

■ Male and female cones​ contain reproductive structures

● Female (seed bearing) called megastrobilus

● Male (pollen grains) called microstrobilus

○ IMAGE 29.8 on page 595 describes life cycle 

● Except for gnetophytes, (living) gymnosperms only have tracheids within xylem ● Lack vessel elements and fibers

● Dominated during Mesozoic era

ANGIOSPERMS

● Flower​ - sexual structure

○ Single or grouped together (inflorescence​)

○ Stamen​ - bear microsporangia

■ Composed of a filament​ bearing an anther​ (contains pollen producing microsporangia)

○ Carpels​ bear megasporangia

■ One or more fused carpels is a pistil

● Swollen base of pistil contains one or more ovules called an ovary

● Apical stalk is the style

● Terminal surface is stigma​ (receives pollen grains)

○ Specialized sterile leaves

■ Inner are petals a​ nd outer are sepals

○ Calyx​ and corolla​ attract pollinators

○ A flower with both functional mega- and micro- sporangia is called perfect ○ A flower with nonfunctional stamens or carpels is called imperfect

○ Monoecious

■ Micro- and mega- sporangiate occur on same plant

■ Ex. corn or birch

○ Dioecious

■ Produces either flowers with stamens or flowers with carpals

■ Ex. willows and date palms

● Fruit​ (synapomorphy of angiosperms) - protects seeds and promotes dispersal ○ Not always fleshy, can be hard and woody

○ Simple fruit

■ Develops from single carpel or fused carpel

■ Ex. plum and peach

○ Aggregate fruit

■ Develops from several separate carpels

■ Ex. raspberries

○ Multiple fruits

■ Develops from cluster of flowers

■ Ex. pineapples and figs

○ Accessory fruits

■ Developed from parts in addition to carpels and seeds

■ Ex. apples, pears, and strawberries

● Angiosperm synapomorphies

○ Ovules and seeds enclosed in a carpel

■ Prevents self-pollination

○ Reduced female gametophytes

○ Vessel elements​ - specialized water-transporting cells

○ Fiber ​- supports plant body

○ Phloem with companion cells

○ Double fertilization

○ endosperm

Changes in flower structure

1. Fixed number of floral organs

2. Petals and sepals differentiated

3. Symmetry from radial to bilateral

Bush Monkeyflower (Mimulus aurantiacus)

● Pollinated by hummingbirds

○ Stigma serves as a screen (hides anthers)

○ When hummingbird touches stigma, two lobes of stigma retract so humminbird picks up pollen from anthers

○ Helps to decrease chances of self-pollination

Flowers of Yucca Species

● Pollinated by only one species of yucca moth

● Moth can only pollinate one species of yucca

● This relationship provides the plant a reliable mechanism to pollinate its own species Bird-pollinator species

● Often red and odorless

Insect-pollinator species

● Have characteristic odors

Bee-pollinator species

● Have nectar guides (flower markings)

Lifecycle

1. Pollination

a. Microgametophyte onto stigma

2. Growth of pollen tube

3. Double Fertilization

a. Two male gametes participate

i. One gamete combines with egg - develops diploid zygote

1. Zygote develops into embryo

a. Has embryonic axis

i. Becomes stem and root and one/two cotyledons​ (“seed

leaves”)

1. Cotyledon can ask as absorptive organs which

digest endosperm

2. In some they are photosynthetic

3. Often both roles

ii. Second gamete combines with two other haploid nuclei - forms triploid nucleus 1. Gives rise to endosperm

Monocot

● Single embryonic cotyledon

● Ex. grasses, cattails, lilies, orchids, and palms

Eudicots

● Two embryonic cotyledon

● Ex. most herbs (non-woody plants), trees, shrubs, and vines

● Ex. oaks, willows, roses, sunflowers, and snapdragons

Magnoliids

● Sister group to monocots and eudicots

● Ex. avocados, cinnamon, magnolias, and black pepper

Amborella ​(genus)

● Sister group to remaining flowering plants

● Woody shrub

● Lives only in New Caledonia

● 5 to 8 carpel in spiral arrangement

● 30 to 100 stamen

● Xylem lacks vessel elements

Use of plants for medicine

● Taxol

○ Anticancer drug

○ 1962 - Tested extracts from bark of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia)

■ Showed anti-tumor activity against rodent tumors

○ 1971 - Taxol was isolated

○ 1977 - Tested against human cancer

○ 1993 - FDA approved for human use

● Ethnobotanist

○ Study how plants are used by people in their local environment

○ Quinine discovered as treatment for malaria

■ Bark of local Cinchona tree used to treat fever

● Bark was used to treat malaria

○ 1820

■ Identified quinine as active ingredient

Use as food source

● Human cultivated angiosperms to provide reliable food supply

● Ex. corn, rice, coconut, wheat, potato, sweet potato, cassava, sugar cane, sugar beet, soybean, common bean, etc.

● Half of human population depends on Oryza sativa (rice)

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