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FSU / Anthropology / ANT 2100 / What is typology?

What is typology?

What is typology?


School: Florida State University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Archaeology
Professor: Tanya lemons
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Archaeology, taphonomy, ethnoarchaeology, zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and bioarchaeology
Cost: 50
Name: ANT 2100 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Study material for ANT2100 Exam 3 Artifact Analysis and Interpretations: After the Excavation Middle-Range Research: Taphonomy, Experimental Archaeology and Ethnoarchaeology Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany Bioarchaeology
Uploaded: 03/09/2017
5 Pages 192 Views 7 Unlocks

ANT2100 Exam III Study Guide

What is typology?

Artifact Analysis and Interpretations: After the  Excavation


∙ Washing- get them clean so it can be analyzed

∙ Conservation- process of treating artifacts so they decay slower ∙ Reconstruction- refitting, mending, putting pieces back together ∙ Cataloging- writing a number on the artifact in ink  

The Hunley: a confederate submarine that sank, the remains found were reburied Analysis of artifacts

Typology: classification of artifacts into types a. Separating into types on the field – general or gross categories If you want to learn more check out When did agriculture start?

b. Separating into types in the lab – finer or more specific categories

Types of Types

Type: class of archaeological artifacts defined by similar attributes

What is fiber-temper ceramics?

1. Morphological type: outward appearance, descriptive

∙ Group of individual artifacts

∙ Similar overall, not necessarily similar in function or chronological period  however

∙ Ex. Stone disks all look like bagels

2. Temporal type: time markers Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four island types?

∙ Ex. Paleoindian points such as Clovis, Suwannee, and Simpson

3. Functional types: what their purpose is

a. All are used for same thing, doesn’t matter what they look like or when  they were made

b. Ex. There are many ways a fishing rod/hook can look in diff cultures but  they are all same functional type


Fiber-temper ceramics: temper is an agent added to clay to make stronger ceramics;  plants

What is middle range research?

Middle-Range Research: Taphonomy,  Experimental Archaeology and  


Middle Range Research: infer behaviors, explains why there’s a necessary  relationship between the artifact’s attributes and makes an inference about it

a. Ex. Theory on Clovis points as spear points? Animals they hunted at the time  were big so Clovis points needed to be big.

b. Link material remains to human behavior/natural processes

c. Principle of uniformitarianism says relationships in present true of the past  because they are inherent to the objects/actions being observed

Taphonomy: Study of how artifacts and features become a part of  archaeological record We also discuss several other topics like What is the social exchange model?

Efremov first published on taphonomy  

∙ Look for patterns in data

∙ To understand human behavior, isolate it by explaining everything natural first (more predictable)  

∙ N-transforms: natural/non-cultural activities

o Weathering on bones, freezing, vegetation growth, bioturbation (animal  burrows)

∙ C-transforms: cultural

o Purposefully buried deposits, burning, cut marks, demolition of structure

Hudson-Meng Bison Bonebed in Nebraska

∙ Human behavior was inferred from patterns in remains.

o The presence of humans, hunting strategy, group size, food storage from  patterning

∙ Tops of bison skulls were missing and Larry Agenbroad knew that Native Americans  use bison brain in tanning hides and decided that that’s what was going on here too

Page/Ladson site in Aucilla River, FL We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?

a. Mastodon tusk found underwater, they found lines and cuts on them that  looked like stone tools so they knew humans were involved. HOWEVER,  can’t just to conclusion that they hunted them.

Experimental archaeology: recreating past behaviors to understand  material remains

∙ Making artifacts

∙ Fired ceramics

∙ How artifacts were used

Ethnoarchaeology: participating/observing current living cultures and  applying to archaeology & material remains, social relationships

∙ Lewis Binford studied Eskimo Hunters in Alaska, made the Binford Drop/Toss  Model around a fire pit

∙ Links human behavior with observable material remain to explain relationship  between people’s behaviors and objects

Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany

Zooarchaeology: study of past human/animal relation from faunal (animal)  remains  If you want to learn more check out What are the four important determinants of productivity?
If you want to learn more check out What are the types of fat substitutes?

Recovery Methods:

∙ Screening with window mesh/screen (standard = ¼ inch)

∙ Floatation

∙ Column Sampling (50x50cm units)

∙ Bulk Samples

Primary Data

∙ Identify it, type of animal, age, sex, what bone it is, what side is it ∙ NISP=number of individual specimens

∙ Any modifications to it? Taphonomic (weathered) or cultural (done by humans)?  

Secondary Data

∙ MNI=minimum number of individuals

o Ex. 5 right adult femurs, 4 left adult femurs, 1 left juvenile femur, at least  6 deer

∙ Biomass: total weight of animal when alive

∙ Species diversity (how many found at site) and Species Equitability Paleoethnobotany: analysis and interpretation of plant remains

Types of macrobotanical remains (nonmicroscopic)

a. Wood, seeds, nuts, nutshells, corn cobs

a. Charred/carbonized, desiccated, waterlogged, mineralized

Types of microbotanical remains

a. Phytoliths (tiny silica particles in plants), pollen grains

a. Sediments, cooking residues, tooth calculus, working edges of tools Other types of evidence for plant use

a. Plant impressions on pottery, plants used as tools, processing tools, depictions,  chemical signatures (residues, isotopes)


Bioarchaeology: study of human skeletal remains

∙ Analyze remains to understand health, life, death, of people in the past ∙ Skeletal remains analyzed in complete or near-complete bone fragments

Osteology: study of bones

Burial population: group of human burials restricted to certain time period/region,  usually in well-defined cemeteries

∙ Mixed burials

o Charnel house: structure that eastern Native Americans used to lay out  the dead where the body would decompose, the bones would be  

buried/cremated after, lead to bundle burial

o Bundle burial: flexed burial, one is put in fetal position and wrapped in  fabrics

Age-of-death identifiable by:

a. Tooth eruption, tooth wear & loss

b. Bone fusion

c. Suture fusion

d. Bone wear

Paleopathology: study of ancient patterns of disease/disorders Porotic hyperostosis: iron deficiency in skull. Spongy appearance Cribra orbitalia: porotic hyperostosis in eyes

Harris lines: horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating trauma, stress,  stop of growth, malnutrition. Disappear later in life  

Enamel hypoplasias: essentially Harris lines on teeth, but stay forever

Osteoarthritis: loss of cartilage between joints from overuse, leads to eburnation (very smooth parts as a result of bones rubbing together)

Paleodemography: study of ancient demographic patterns and trends

a. Life expectancy at birth

b. Age profile of population

c. Patterns in ages of death

d. Mortality profiles (charts that show ages of death)

Diets can be reconstructed from skeletal remains Caries: cavities, form when food stays on your teeth. Bacteria forms on it and it  dissolves tooth enamel and can make holes in your mouth. Can lead to death.

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