BIO 181 Study Guide for Endocrine and Muscle System Test 4
BIO 181 Study Guide for Endocrine and Muscle System Test 4 BIO 181
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Sekito on Thursday April 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 181 at Arizona State University taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 04/23/15
BIO 181 Review Test IV Andrea Sekito 042315 BIO 181 Test 4 Review Review for Musculoskeletal system Muscle bers long slender cells that make up skeletal and cardiac muscle ssue Myo brils make up each muscle ber may be striped or striated Sarcomeres make up the myo brils dark and light areas become shorter as myo brils contract longer when sarcomere relaxes Thin laments made up of actin Thick laments made up of myosin Actin and Myosin make up sarcomeres both proteins overlap in the dark bands Troponin in addition to actin thin laments have troponin regulate muscle activity works with tropomyosin to block the myosin binding sites on actin Sarcoplasmic reticulum contains Ca2 channels releasing Acetylcholine parasympatheticstimulates contraction of smooth muscle in stomach and intestine Epinephrine adrenaline released by the adrenal glands Norepinephrine sympathetic inhibits contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach and intestine Slow bers Red high myoglobin concentration get most ATP from aerobic respiration slow oxidative many mitochondria specialized for endurance Intermediate ber Pink or red high myoglobin concentration get most ATP from glycolysis and aerobic respiration slow glycolytic many mitochondria Fast ber White low myoglobin concentration get most ATP from glycolysis few mitochondria specialized for bursts of activity Bone hard ECM has CaPO4 with small amounts of calcium carbonate and protein bers Cartilage made of cells scattered in a gelatinous matrix polysaccharides and protein bers Tendons brous CT collagen that connect skeletal muscles to bones Ligaments brous CT bind bones to other bones and stabilize joints Flexor muscles pull bones closer together Extensor muscles increase the angle of a joint Locomotion movement relative to environment movement of entire body How does the sliding lament model work 0 Slide past each other during a contraction thin lament moves closer to thick lament lengths of thin and thick laments don39t change they just slide past one another How do actin and myosin interact to facilitate contractions What do troponin and tropomyosin do 0 Myosin head binds ATP and actin Myosin molecules consist of two subunits coiled together and their two heads exposed 0 Head contains ATP and actin binding sites 0 Start with myosin head rmly bound to actin subunit of thin lament O ATP binds to myosin head release from thin lament ATP hydrolyzed head pivots binds to new actin subunit Pi released moves laments ADP released Troponin and tropomyosin are proteins in thin lament serve to block the myosin binding sites on the actin they also regulate muscle activity 0 How do action potentials trigger muscle contraction O O O O 0 Action potential comes and releases Ach The Ach binds to Ach receptors Action potentials propagate across plasma membrane and into muscle cell via T tubules Ca2 channels open into sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2 is released sarcomeres contract 0 Be able to compare and contrast various types of muscles 0 O 0 Smooth muscle Location Intestines arteries other Function Move food help regulate blood pressure Cell characteristics single nucleus unstriated unbranched no sarcomeres activity is involuntary signal from moto neuron is not required Cardiac Muscle Location Heart Function Pump blood Cell characteristics 1 or 2 nuclei striated branched intercalated discs for direct cytoplasmic connection end to end contains sarcomeres activity is involuntary Skeletal Muscle Location attached to the skeleton Function move skeleton Cell characteristics Mutinuceate striated unbranched contains sarcomeres voluntary signal from somatic motor neurons is required 0 What are the structures and functions of the various skeletal muscle ber types 0 O 0 Slow ber Red high myoglobin concentration derive most ATP via aerobic respiration slow oxidative many mitochondria fatigues slowly Fast ber White low myoglobin concentration derive most ATP via glycolysis fast gycoytic few mitochondria fatigues quickly Intermediate ber Pink or red High myoglobin concentration derive ATP from glycolysis and aerobic respiration slow gycoytic many mitochondria intermediate fatigue 0 How do muscle ber patterns affect contractile properties 0 Most muscles have bers arranged in a parallel or pennate pattern 0 Small cross section small force long length 0 Large cross section large force small length change o What are the functions of the skeletal system 0 Four main functions 1 Protection 2 Maintenance of body posture 3 Reextension of shortened muscles 4 Transfer of muscle forces 0 Muscles forces and shape changes are transmitted to other parts of the body and to the environment via skeleton How do vertebrate endoskeletons move and what are their major components 0 Made of rigid levers bones separated by joints 0 Vertebrates change shapes of bodies largely by changing joint angles between bones o Skeletons move by means of changes in joint angles controlled by antaoonistic muscle drouos o FOUR MAIN ELEMENTS Bones Ca Hage Tendons Ligaments What do exor and extensor muscles do 0 Flexor muscles pull bones closer together 0 Extensor muscles increase angle ofjoints spread away 0 What is locomotion and how is it studied 0 Locomotion is the movement relative to the environment 0 Studied at different levels material properties structure motion forces energetics Within an evolution and ecology context 0 Regarding locomotion what forces are involved in land air and water 0 Land dominated by gravitational and inertial forces 0 Water must overcome drag resists forward motion through uids 0 Air overcome drag and generate enough lift to overcome gravitational forces 0 What is the relationship between energy cost and body mass Which type of locomotion is the least energy consuming 0 Cost of locomotion for swimming running and ying animals decreases with mass 0 Swimming is least energy consuming locomotion Review for Endocrine System Endocrine system collection of organs and cells that secrete chemical signals into bloodstream Hormones a chemical signal that circulates through body uids and affect distant target cells present in extremely low concentrations last longer than action potentials quotproduced and secreted by specialized cells or glandsquot Autocrine quotsame separatedquot act on the same cell that secreted them 0 Ex cytokines Paracrine quotbeside separatedquot diffuse locally and act on nearby cells 0 Ex insulin Endocrine quotinside separatedquot are hormones carried between cells by blood or other body uids 0 Ex thyroxine Neural signals neurotransmitter diffuse a short distance between neurons 0 Ex dopamine Neuroendocrine quotnerve inside separatedquot hormones released from neurons 0 Ex ADH Exocrine glands deliver their secretions through ducts into a space other than circulatory system Endocrine glands organs that secrete hormones into bloodstream Epinephrine quotfight or ightquot response sympathetic nerves stimulate adrenal medulla releasing epinephrine Cortisol long term stress responses helps animals cope with extended stress it increases cortisol levels Hypothalamus neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus extend directly into posterior pituitary communicate indirectly via blood vessels produces ADH Anterior Pituitary communicate indirectly via blood vessels secretes regulatory hormones Posterior pituitary stores neurohormones What are the ve categories of chemical signals found in animals 0 Autocrine signals act on same cell that secretes them Cytokines are best studied autocrine signals cane also be paracrine o Paracrine signals diffuse locally and act on neighboring target cells Insulin and glucagon are examples of paracrine signaling Produced by the islets of Langerhans in pancreas and act on nearby pancreatic cells 0 Endocrine signals have hormones which are produced and secreted by specialized cells or glands O Hormones are carried between distant cells by blood or other body uids Neural signals have neurotransmitters that diffuse a short distance from a presynaptic cell to postsynaptic cell Bind to membrane receptors and may result in a change in membrane potential Neuroendocrine signals have neurohormones which are released from neurons but are considered hormones because they are carried by blood or other body uids and act on distant cells they don39t act on or at the synapse What are the three types of hormones signaling pathways and how are they regulated o 1 Endocrine pathway sends hormones directly from endocrine cells to effector cells 0 2 Neuroendocrine pathway releases neuroendocrine signals that act directly on effector cells 0 3 CNStoendocrine pathway neuroendocrine signals stimulate cell in the endocrine system respond by producing an endocrine signal that acts on effector cells 0 All three of these hormone signaling pathways are regulated by negative feedback which regulates homeostasis ln negative feedback the product pf the process inhibits its production Name the major human endocrine glands o Pituitary gland below hypothalamus o Thyroid gland in neck 0 Kidneys o Adrenal glands on top of kidney 0 Endocrine component of the pancreas What are the hormone functions in vertebrates 0 Direct anatomical and physiological changes that occur later in life Testosterone induces early development of the male reproductive tract Estradiol member of estrogen family is required for development of the female reproductive tract 0 Hormones coordinate the activities of cells in three areas Development growth reproduction Response to environmental challenges Maintenance of homeostasis Compare and contrast short vs longterm stress response What are the key hormones in each 0 Short term vs long term stress response Short term ght or ight epinephrine released coordinated activities in various organs and systems to prepare an individual to cope with a life threatening situation Long term helps animals cope with extended stress increases cortisol levels primary role maintaining glucose production so brain can use it induces synthesis of liver enzymes that make glucose from AAs and other chemical precursors make adipose tissue and resting muscles resistant to insulin promotes releases of fatty acids from adipose tissue 0 Epinephrine cortisol What roles do hormones play in homeostasis 0 Messages often travel from integrators to effectors in the form of hormones Ex Leptin and energy reserves ADH aldosterone and electrolyte balance EPO and oxygen availability How are triglyceride levels regulated o Homeostatic system regulates it Triglycerides are energy storage molecules abundant in adipocytes How is water and electrolyte balance regulated o ADH is released from pituitary when an individual is dehydrated Increases permeability of collecting duct to H20 so it is reabsorbed EtOH inhibits the release of ADH which may lead to dehydration and nausea o Aldosterone is released from the adrenal cortex when Nat is low It increases reabsorption in the distal tubules of the kidneys How are blood oxygen levels regulated 0 When blood oxygen level falls the kidneys and other cells release EPO Ultimately increases blood viscosity 0 Short or prolonged residency at higher altitudes is associated with increased EPO 0 Which is why athletes train at higher elevations How is hormone production regulated Be able to discuss the signi cance of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland o Hormone production is directly or indirectly controlled by the nervous system Physical link between hypothalamus and pituitary is basis of the connection between the CNS and endocrine system 0 Pituitary gland secretes growth hormone hormones regulate the production of many others 0 The posterior pituitary stores neurohormones o Anterior pituitary secretes regulatory hormones o Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary communicate indirectly via blood vessels How do various hormones act on target cells 0 Steroid hormones can cross plasma membrane easily Can bind to intracellular receptors 0 Peptide and AA derivative hormones must bind to cellsurface receptors
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