Ch. 9: Middle Childhood (6-11 yrs) What are some of the causes and consequences of obesity in middle childhood? Consequences: High BP, cholesterol, trouble breathing, Type II diabetes, cancer, sleeping problemsDon't forget about the age old question of uncc surplus
Don't forget about the age old question of good luck studying
We also discuss several other topics like Contrast Surface form from Underlying form.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is self-presentation?
If you want to learn more check out a volcano built of many thin flows of fluid lava is a
We also discuss several other topics like chapter 6 inventories
, early death Causes: overweight parents, low SES, feeding practices, low physical activity (decreased recess times) What roles do nature and nurture play in obesity? Nature: overweight parents, exposure to teratogens Nurture: feeding practices (parents reinforcing overeating), lack of exercise What types of interventions have the most success? A blend of family-based and school-based interventions are most helpful. Describe the concrete operational stage of development. Piaget’s model that describes the movement from Pre-operational to Concrete Operational Thought (ages 7-11). Children use logic and reasoning for concrete operations. Why are operations a major turning point in cognitive development? Operations allow us to make and act on mental representations. They apply best to concrete information, while abstract ideas are still not well understood at this stage. These cognitive changes increase processing speed and develop memory strategies. What are the key characteristics of Piaget’s concrete operational thought and how does it differ from preoperational thought? Decentration ● no longer make centration errors ● can look at a tall and short glass and realize each has same amount of water Reversibility ● use concrete operations (ex. 8-5= ) Hierarchical Classification ● can classify blue and yellow flowers ● grouping based on similaritySeriation ● can visualize/draw lines in order of length rather than just random lines Evaluate the accuracy of Piaget’s theory. Cross-cultural research has found that brain development combined with enriched experiences should allow all children to reach the concrete stage around the same age. Some investigators have concluded that the logistics involved in Piagetian tasks do not emerge at the same time. Training, context, and cultural conditions heavily influence when these logistics emerge. How does information processing change in middle childhood? By middle childhood, processing speed increases due to gains in the capacity of the brain. This prepares children to learn and improves their ability to inhibit behaviors. Describe the development of memory strategies. Rehearsal: ● try but poor at it in preschool ○ harms memory - “Cat, cat, cat” ● repeating information to self ● improves by early grade school ○ combining previous words with new words “cat, dog, rat” Organization: early grade school ● grouping things to help remember later ○ As young children tend to have color bias, they are more successful at grouping things by function. ○ German children who had their parents check their homework were more likely to employ better strategies than Americans. Elaboration: late middle childhood (age 11) ● creating relations between items ● arranging items to create a picture Describe the typical characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. One or more of these symptoms have to be consistently displayed in more than one context: ● Inattention ● Impulsivity● Hyperactivity Symptoms can be combined. Describe the benefits of drug therapy and environmental interventions for ADHD. Stimulant medications are the primary treatment as long as there is careful regulation over dosage. They increase activity in the prefrontal cortex to improve the child's ability to pay and sustain attention. The most effective method combines medication with interventions (especially family interventions) to reinforce appropriate behaviors. Describe Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence. There are 3 broad interacting intelligences: - Analytical - information processing skills - Creative - capacity to solve new problems - Practical - applying skills in everyday situations Intelligent behavior involves a balance to all 3, allowing success in life towards goals for self and for society. Describe Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner’s theory defines intelligence as distinct sets of processing operations that allow individuals to engage in activities valued by culture. He also emphasizes the importance of education to transform any potential into a social role. There are least 8 independent intelligences that each has a unique biological basis that goes with a distinct course of development: linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Describe intelligence tests used with children and the types of items they include. Intelligence tests relate to potential academic and career success. Results on an IQ test can change, because a person’s performance is related to many factors outside of job and academic success. They can have greater change over a longer period. Types of items: verbal, perceptual-and-spatial-reasoning, working-memory, and processing-speed. Why is dynamic assessment useful? The dynamic assessment is an innovative approach where an adult introduces teaching into the testing situation to find out if social support helps children complete the test. . Research has shown the way that a child responds to teaching by transferring that learning into novel problems contributes to increased test performance.What is intelligence quotient (IQ)? IQ is the overall score that represents general intelligence, or reasoning ability, along with separate scores that measure specific mental abilities. Intelligence summarizes capacities that may not be included on the available tests. There are several tests that have consistently shown to measure IQ. What does IQ predict? It is used to predict future success in academic and job performance. How does IQ vary across ethnicity and socioeconomic status? Matching black and white children on parental education and income reduces the black-white IQ gap from the original 10-12 points to 9 points when controlling for SES. This might show evidence of test bias, as their points only decreased by a few. What is test bias, and how can it be minimized? IQ differences across ethnicity and SES can be attributed to test bias, which is attributing these differences to stereotypes, communication styles, and knowledge (such as that of vocabulary words). Test scores need to be combined with assessments of children's adaptive behavior - their ability to cope with everyday environments. Dynamic assessments also help to reduce test bias. Describe the typical characteristics of children with learning disorders. ● Difficult for them to do one or more academic subjects ● Have normal intelligence ○ IQ of 131 is considered gifted ○ Adoption research: Intelligence influenced by Environment + Heredity ● Not caused by any other condition What is creativity and how does it relate to convergent and divergent thinking? Creativity is the ability to produce work that is original yet useful in one way. Tests of creative capacity test divergent thinking, which is the multiple and unusual possibilities that pop up when faced with a task/problem. Convergent thinking involves arriving at a single correct answer, which is measured by most IQ tests. Chapter 10 What Erikson developmental stage occurs during middle childhood? Industry vs Inferiority● Adult expectations & Child’s Drive ● Competency: Industry ○ Realistic self-concept ○ Pride in accomplishments ○ Moral responsibilities ○ Cooperation ● Inadequacy: Inferiority ○ A feeling caused by negative feedback from parents What cognitive changes influence self-concept in middle childhood? Growth of the prefrontal cortex allows children to have more balanced thinking (less all-or-none descriptions). What are social comparisons? People make social comparisons when they can take on different perspectives. Cross-cultural research reveals that gender stereotyping of personality traits increases steadily in middle childhood, becoming adultlike by age 11. What influences a child’s self-esteem? Academic Competence (in school), Social Competence (friendships), Physical Competence (performance in sports), and Physical Appearance (body image) influence self-esteem. How does self-esteem typically change during middle childhood? Self-esteem involves changes in Attributions, which can be: ● Mastery Oriented - attributing success/failure to something you can control ● Learned Helplessness - attributing success/failure to something you can’t control ○ Attributing success to external factors ○ Attributing failures to lack of ability ○ Attribution retraining encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can put in more effort to overcome failure. What roles do culture and parenting play in the development of self-esteem? Child-rearing practices: ● More authoritative parenting is likely to have a positive impact on child’s self-esteem ● Children with controlling parents tend to rely on others to affirm their self-worth. They tend to develop a sense of inadequacy, which is a risk factor for adjustment difficulties in later life.Culture values affect how likely a child is to develop learned helplessness. Asian parents and teachers are more likely to view effort as a key to success and as a moral responsibility, which children are taught. They also pay more attention to failure than to success, as failure shows where improvements can be made. Americans instead focus more on success because it improves self-esteem. What are peer groups, and why are they influential? Peer groups are the friendships between children. Peer groups have unique values and standards for behavior and are made up of leaders and followers. They organize based on proximity and similarity (sex, ethnicity, popularity, aggression). They influence: Reinforcement, Social Comparison, and Modeling Describe the characteristics of friendships in middle childhood. They contribute to the development of trust and sensitivity. Friendship becomes more complex and psychological by age 8. Friendships are mutual relationships where children like each other's personal qualities and respond to one another's needs. As a friendship forms, so does trust. List and define the four categories of peer acceptance. Popular ● Externalized behaviors (lashing out, blaming others) ● Popular-prosocial ○ Follow most rules ○ Lots of friends ● Popular-antisocial ○ Use bullying tactics ○ Rebellious (greasers from Grease) ■ Against others ■ Some only against authority Rejected ● Internalized behaviors (blaming self) ● Rejected-aggressive ○ Other people are perceived as malicious ○ Intrapersonal aggression ● Rejected-withdrawn ○ Socially-anxious ○ Prosocial behavior, but shy ○ Lonely behaviors ○ Get less social attention ○ Behaviors perceived as “awkward”Controversial ● Could fall into more than 1 category ● Temporary category Neglected ● People are well-adjusted, but less socially skilled ● Decreased attention from peers ● Display different characteristics than rejected-withdrawn group ● Temporary category ○ Receiving greater attention from peers may cause a shift to different group What is coregulation? Coregulation is a supervision where parents watch a child take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. It grows out of a warm cooperative relationship based on give and take. Describe how divorce and blended families impact children. Divorce ● Negative impact on: ○ School achievement ○ Conduct ○ Adjustment ○ Self-concept ○ Parent-child relations ● Younger children may blame themselves ● Adolescents: more likely to be a teen parent ● Development may be affected by: ○ Loss of a parent role model ○ Economic struggles ○ Parental conflict ● Children who are more emotional are more negatively impacted ● Parents can reduce impact through authoritative parenting Blended Families ● School-aged boys benefit from having a stepfather around ○ In mother-custody families, boys are at a greater risk for serious adjustment problems ● Older children have more trouble adjusting ● Children living with remarried father ○ Marriage may lead to more problems○ Girls: more problems initially, but may benefit eventually Chapter 11: Adolescence (12-17 years) What is puberty? Occurring in early adolescence, puberty is a period in which there is rapid physical maturation with hormonal and body changes. How does puberty impact adolescents? Between ages 6 and 8, girls are slightly shorter and weigh less than boys. By age 9, girls grow taller and heavier as they approach puberty faster than boys. Girls are better than boys at hopping and skipping, while boys are better at throwing and kicking. Describe the characteristics of physical growth and sexual maturity during puberty. Physical growth: Growth spurt (14-16 for girls, 16-18 for boys). Increased height and weight. Discoordination (due to reverse of cephalocaudal growth trend), organ growth/maturation, changes in Prefrontal Cortex Sexual maturity: Primary (maturation of reproductive organs), Secondary (Development, not involving reproduction) What are primary and secondary sexual characteristics? Primary - Maturation of reproductive organs (Menarche and Spermarche) Secondary - Pubertal development, but not involved in reproduction (Breasts in girls, Voice change in boys) What are menarche and spermarche? Menarche: age at which menstruation begins in girls (12.5 yrs) Spermarche: first ejaculation of semen (13.5 yrs) What is the secular trend? Standard of living correlates with age of onset puberty across several countries AND considers the role of teratogens When does puberty typically occur for females and males? How does early and late maturation affect girls and boys? Females - 12.5-13 yrs● Early ○ Unpopular, withdrawn ○ More deviant behavior ○ Negative body image ○ Long-term problems ● Late ○ Popular, sociable ○ Positive body image Males - 13 yrs ● Early ○ Popular ○ Confident, independent ○ Positive body image ○ Higher psychological stress ○ More problem behaviors ● Late ○ Unpopular ○ Anxious, talkative, attention-seeking ○ Negative body image How does the formal operational stage differ from the concrete operational stage? Piaget did not view language as a central role in the concrete operational stage, but he acknowledged its importance in the formal operations stage. Does everyone reach the formal operations stage? Formal operational stage happens around age 11 for most people - however, Piaget had overestimated children’s competence, as the shift from concrete to formal stage is more of a continuum -- not everyone will reach this stage. Researchers have commented on Piaget’s view by saying that certain factors influence the movement from concrete to formal operations, such as training and culture and education. Researchers have also debated whether the improvements in information processing are continuous or discontinuous throughout life. What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning? Piaget believed that young people first become capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning at adolescence. When faced with a problem they start with a hypothesis and deduce inferences from that. They then isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences make sense in the real world. This form of problem solving begins with possibility and leads to reality. In contrast, concrete operational children start withreality, and if these predictions are not confirmed, they usually cannot think of alternatives. What is proposition thought? Another characteristic of Piaget's formal operational stage, proposition thought is the ability to evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to the real world. School aged children focus on concrete properties of an object, while adolescents analyze the logic of the statements - knowing which statements are true or false regardless of what color the object is. What are imaginary audience, personal fable, and illusion of invulnerability? How do these characteristics of adolescent thought influence teen behavior? These are all the consequences of abstract thought. Imaginary audience: a feeling that everyone is looking at you Personal fable: feeling that nobody understands you or your story Invincibility fable: a belief that bad things can’t happen to you (drinking and driving) These characteristics influence teen behavior based on factors like planning and decision making. ● Inexperience ○ More influenced by social context - peers ○ Without social pressures, more likely to behave differently ■ Teens are biased, they may judge others and not themselves ■ Without peers, they may realize consequences of risky behavior ● Overwhelming options ○ Wanting to avoid even thinking about making a decision (ex. being unprepared to think of other options, like taking an Uber, rather than drinking and driving) Chapter 12 According to Erikson, why is identity development a concern? Teenagers experience an identity crisis which involves distress as they experiment with their options before settling on goals. Erikson refers to this as identity versus role confusion. If young people's earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that don't match what they can or want to do, they might appear directionless and unprepared for adult life.Briefly describe how self-concept is involved in adolescents’ search for identity. Changes in self-concept: ● More balanced, less all-or-none descriptions ● Social comparisons (perspective taking) ● Ideal and real self ● Reference social groups ● Cultural variations Factors that help adolescents achieve identity: 1. Academic Competence: language arts, math 2. Social Competence: peer/parent relationships 3. Physical/Athletic Competence: outdoor games, various sports 4. Physical Appearance According to Marcia, what are the four identity statuses? The four identity statuses have to do with Crisis vs Commitment. Healthy statuses ● Identity achievement - commitment to clear values and goals that give a sense of psychological wellbeing and comfort when thinking of the future ○ commitment ○ facing crisis ● Identity moratorium - individuals who have not yet made commitments, still in exploring with the desire to find goals ○ no commitment ○ facing crisis Unhealthy ● Identity foreclosure - committing to values and goals without exploring other options; accept an identity others have chosen for them ○ commitment ○ no facing of crisis ● Identity diffusion - lack clear direction, not committed to goals or trying to reach them, may not have explored alternatives or found it too overwhelming to do so ○ no commitment ○ no facing of crisis What factors shape the change in self-esteem during adolescence? Self-esteem grows to include new ways to evaluate self: close friendship, romance, and job competence. Although some adolescents experience declines after school transitions, self-esteem rises for most.Self-esteem is shaped by: ● schools and communities ● parenting styles ● societal forces Describe Kohlberg’s three general levels (including six stages) of moral development. ● Pre-conventional Level: Moral reasoning is based on external forces ○ Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation ■ Focus on if there is a punishment for doing something ○ Stage 2: Instrumental purpose ■ Focus on the actual punishment ● Steal something → go to jail ● Conventional Level: look to society’s norms for moral guidance ○ Stage 3: “Good Boy-Good Girl” ■ seek approval from others (interpersonal cooperation) ■ “It might make you a criminal” - other people would see you as a bad person ○ Stage 4: Social Order Maintaining ■ societal expectations are for the good of all people ● show respect for authority ● maintain social order ■ person understands grey area of an issue, but still leans “right” or “wrong” ● good for the whole, but maybe not the individual ● Postconventional or Principled Level: morals are based on a personal moral code ○ Stage 5: Social contract stage ■ Willing to go against society and law ○ Stage 6: Universal ethical principles stage ■ General guidelines (not concrete) ■ A person reasons by taking perspective of everyone in the situation ● Heinz dilemma - who is involved? ○ the law ○ doctors ○ the person with the drugs ○ other patients who need the drugs ● Solution must respect everyone’s rights What are some criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory? Gilligan: applies more to men than women ● only men used in the data sample● sex differences in moral reasoning Does not address cultural differences Eisenberg: dilemmas are unrealistic ● difficult for kids to reason at a high level about an experience they haven’t had ● changed dilemmas - found that kids reason differently than Kohlberg stated Describe Gilligan’s view of moral development and how it differs from Kohlberg’s. Gilligan: believed that Kohlberg’s view applies more to men than women ● He only men used in the data sample ● There may be sex differences in moral reasoning? ○ Kohlberg: rights and justice orientation ○ Gilligan: caring for others orientation (ethic of care) ○ both sexes use both orientations ■ females may emphasize care ■ may care more about others’ rights ■ one explanation: females have greater experience as caregivers What influences moral reasoning? Child-rearing practices Those with good moral understanding have parents who engage in moral discussions by encouraging prosocial behavior and by listening and asking questions through higher-level reasoning. Schooling Years of school is a good predictor - education introduces young people to social issues beyond their personal relationships. It makes them consider entire political/cultural groups to advance moral reasoning. Peer interactions Interaction among peers with differing viewpoints promotes moral understanding. When people negotiate and compromise, they realize that the social world can involve cooperation between equals rather than distinction from authority. Culture Individuals in industrialized nations move through Kohlberg's stages more quickly than in village societies. This could be because in village societies moral cooperation is based on direct relations between people who don’t allow foradvanced moral understanding to develop -- which depends on having a larger social structures such as governments. How can we promote moral reasoning? ● Certain parenting practices involve discipline and using moral expectations to shape moral identity. ● Educational environments where the teachers guide students in democratic decision making. ● The more activities shared with a network of people sharing similar worldviews, the higher scores in empathy and prosocial behavior (especially religious education and youth activities) How do relationships with parents change during adolescence? As young people look more mature, parents give them more independence and responsibility, which allows adolescents to solve problems more effectively. They improve their ability to reason about social relationships, causing them to idealize their parents less. Adolescents begin to view their parents as just people, so they no longer bend as easily to parental authority. List the characteristics of adolescent friendships. Friends are similar or become more similar over time in their goals and beliefs. Adolescent friendships consist of: ● companionships ● general lack of conflict ● intimacy & loyalty (exclusivity, disclosure, sharing, trust) ● reassurance of worth How does a clique differ from a crowd? A clique includes 2-12 members who participate in similar activities. A crowd is larger than a clique and has more to do with membership based on reputation. Describe the characteristics, importance, and typical development of romantic relationships during adolescence. Characteristics ● Mixed group activities ● Several pairs of boys and girls ● Well-defined couples ● Provide companionship, trust/support/sign of independence/sexual explorationChanges in dating during adolescence ● Goals change throughout adolescence ○ Early: recreation, group activities, shallow intimacy ○ gradually look for more intimacy ● Internal Working Models: ○ our own ideas of how relationships should work ○ starts forming early ○ attachment in infancy is important Describe the effects of drugs, depression, and delinquency during adolescence. Risky Behavior: any behavior with potential for loss ● sexual behavior ● substance abuse ● driving ● eating Risk Markers: factors with actual risk for loss ● becoming pregnant ● carrying a gun to school ● attempting suicide Risk Factors: factors that may contribute to risk ● poor parenting ● strong peer pressure ● bad neighborhoods Depression and Suicide ● Depression: more likely in adolescence than childhood ● Adolescent girls: ○ higher rates of depression ○ can be due to late/early puberty ○ poor body image ○ hormones ○ girls develop sooner than boys ● Family factors ● Poor peer relations ● May begin with situation where adolescent feels helpless (learned helplessness) What are some of the reasons that U.S. adolescents are so prone to take risks? Adolescent lifestyle is risky● driving car for the first time ● make new decisions for the first time Social context factors ● ex. teenage smoking ● usually begin between 6-7th grade ● more likely to smoke if parents or friends smoke Individual factors (cognitive development) ● emotional/social network develops earlier than cognitive control network (prefrontal cortex) ● illusion of invulnerability (invincibility fable) Erikson’s view ● risky behavior is an attempt to establish an identity (usually a negative one) ● negative identity may be reinforced by support from peers Consequences of risk-taking ● 1 of 1000 US adolescents die yearly (auto accidents, firearms) ● accidental deaths ● risk-taking behavior has dropped over last 15 years ● Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) ○ studies substance use, seatbelt use, alcohol use, and other risky behaviors based off responses from US adolescents