o What is self-presentation? The spotlight effect? How does self monitoring relate to self-presentation? What does it mean to be a high or low self-monitor? -Self- presentation- strategies used to shape what others think -Spotlight effect- tendency for people to overestimate how much attention other people are paying to thIf you want to learn more check out chemistry unr
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em -Self- monitoring relates to self-presentation because self monitoring is how we adjust our behavior in response to self presentation; and in wanting to keep a certain image of ourselves -High self-monitoring people do change their behavior depending on the situation -Low self- monitoring people will not change their behavior depending on the situation o What is the confirmation bias? What is belief perseverance? Why does belief perseverance occur? -Confirmation bias- is the tendency for one to look for information that coincides with what they believe Ex: watching news that you agree with - Belief perseverance- is the tendency for people to still believe in something even though it has been proven wrong- cling to the idea they are still right - Belief Perseverance occurs because we don’t consider the other side and why they might be right o What are the three steps of a self-fulfilling prophecy? 1. Perceiver develops false beliefs about target 2. Perceiver treats target in a manner consistent with the false belief 3. Target responds to the treatment in such a way as to confirm the false belief o What are heuristics? Why do we use heuristics? - Heuristics- shortcuts to make complex judgments- rule of thumb - We use heuristics because we are cognitive miser- don’t want to spend cognitive resources- and there is only so much info. We can process o What is the availability heuristic? How does it relate to the base-rate fallacy? - Availability Heuristic- is the tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily it comes to mind- actual frequencies, the media, over-representation, attention - Availability Heuristic relates to base-rate fallacy because our friend’s opinions are more readily available then the other people who took a survey. o What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic? What does it mean to say that adjustment is often insufficient? - Anchoring and Adjusting- process in which people value by starting from an initial (anchor) and adjusting from that anchor - It is insufficient because we usually don’t adjust enough o What is the representativeness heuristic? - Representative Heuristic- tendency to assume that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member o What is an illusory correlation? - Illusory Correlation- perception of a relationship where none exists result of confirmation bias o How can these heuristics and biases explain why people believe in the “myth of the hot hand?”o What are attribution theories? What is the difference between an internal and an external attribution? - Attribution Theories- theories that describe how people explain the cause of others’ behavior - Internal- disposition, attitude, personality - External- situational, circumstances o What is Kelley’s attribution theory? o What is the difference between “consensus,” “distinctiveness,” and “consistency?” What does it mean to be high or low on these? o How does answering questions about consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency lead to an attribution? What pattern of responses lead to an internal attribution? What pattern of responses lead to an external attribution? o What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Does it exist more in individualist cultures or collectivist cultures? What are some reasons why we exhibit the Fundamental Attribution Error? - Fundamental attribution error- tendency for observers to overestimate dispositional and underestimate situational influences on people’s behaviors - Exist more in individual cultures - We do this because we see behavior not the situation and also because it takes effort to try to figure out the reason behind each behavior o What is the actor-observer effect? - Actor-observer effect- tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational and others’ behavior to personal cause o How do attributions relate to the overjustification effect? What are some implications of the overjustification effect? o What are the three components of attitudes? How can attitudes be measured? What are some problems associated with measuring attitudes? - 3 components: o Affective- emotional reaction o Behavioral- actions/ behaviors o Cognitive- thoughts and beliefs - We measure attitude by self-report, physiological responses - Not all of these components are necessary for attitude o Using classical conditioning and operant (i.e., instrumental) conditioning, explain how people may learn attitudes. Other than through learning, how else do we form attitudes? - Classical conditioning- pair one stimulus with another the same attitude can develop for both stimuli. - Operant- by getting a reward or punishment for an attitude can change an attitude - Social comparison- we compare ourselves with others around us o Do attitudes always predict behavior? Under what circumstances do attitudes predict behavior? - Correspondence- level of specificity- attitude can predict behavior better if they are at the same level of specificity o General attitudes can predict an average of behaviors very well but not specific behavior very well o If you wanted to predict whether teenagers will begin to smoke in the next two years, how should you measure attitudes? (In other words, how do you make sure that the attitude will predict the behavior?)- o What is cognitive dissonance? What are the three types of dissonance that we discussed in class? - Discrepancies between attitude and behavior that produces an aversive arousal o People are motivated to reduce the aversive arousal o Justifying attitude o Justifying effort o Justifying difficult decisions o How can dissonance be reduced? Be able to provide examples. - Change in attitude- smoking is not really unhealthy - Change in behavior- quit smoking - Add consonant cognitions- makes me thinner - Minimize importance of conflict- we are all going to die anyways - Reduce perceived choice- I had to smoke cause everyone else was doing it o Describe the first cognitive dissonance experiment (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959). How did this experiment demonstrate that people experience cognitive dissonance? - Participants performed a dull task o After some just left and were done with experiment o Asked to lie for $20- enough justification o Asked to lie for $1- they actually believed the task was fun because $1 was not enough to justify why they lied- so they lied to themselves o How does the idea of sufficient vs insufficient justification relate to the theory of cognitive dissonance? How does punishment relate to cognitive dissonance? - The greater the reward the less likely our attitude will change- we don’t feel cognitive dissonance as much or it doesn’t matter because we like the reward - If not enough then we will experience cognitive dissonance so we will try to fix it - Kids were mildly or severely threatened to not play with a toyo Kids who were mildly threatened still wanted to play with the toy because threat wasn’t “sufficient” for them to stop thinking about not playing with it o From a cognitive dissonance perspective, why do we come to like what we suffer for? - In order to justify why they went through the suffering in the first place so they convince themselves that they liked it o From a cognitive dissonance perspective, why do difficult decisions seem like obvious ones after the decision is made? - They again try to convince themselves that they made the right decision so they will focus on all the good of the product they chose and the bad parts of the product they did not chose o What are the four components that are necessary to experience cognitive dissonance? Why is each one necessary? - 1- behavior must produce a negative consequence - 2- feeling a personal responsibility- the consequences were foreseeable and chose it anyway - 3- physiological arousal - 4- attribution to arousal to own behavior- no external causes o How does self-perception theory explain the results of cognitive dissonance experiments? What are the basic differences between cognitive dissonance theory and self perception theory? - Asking what your attitude is towards something- think about how you behave in the past and come to a logical conclusion- no arousal - Cognitive dis.- rationalization coming to a conclusion- feel arousal - o Under what circumstances is each of these theories applicable? - When discrepancy between behavior and attitude is large, people feel cognitive dissonance - When discrepancy between behavior and attitude is small, people infer their behavior through self-perception