SPCH 1311: Midterm Study Guide – Chapters 1 through 4
I. Chapter One: Communication – What and Why
A. Define Communication
B. List the characteristics of communication:
C. Models of Communication Key Terms: Match the key term with its correct definition:
___ 1. Both the physical setting in which communication occurs and the personal perspectives of the parties involved.
___ 2. A characterization of communication as a one-way event in which a message flows from sender to receiver. If you want to learn more check out What is intentional discrimination?
___ 3. A characterization of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages is an ongoing, irreversible process.
___ 4. The discernible response of a receiver to a sender’s message. ___ 5. Comes from the meaning of words used.
___ 6. A sender’s planned and unplanned words and nonverbal behaviours.
___ 7. Medium through which a message passes from sender to receiver.
___ 8. One who notices and attends to a message. Don't forget about the age old question of What indicates a weak acid?
___ 9. The process in which a receiver attaches meaning to a message.
___ 10. Distractions that interfere with the accurate transmission and reception of a message. Don't forget about the age old question of What two domains are prokaryotes divided into?
___ 11. Day dreaming or internal preoccupation.
___ 12. Includes factors that make hearing difficult for listener. ___ 13. The originator of a message.
___ 14. Involves biological factors in the receiver or sender that interfere with accurate reception.
___ 15. The process of putting thoughts into symbols, most
___ 16. Exists within the mind of the receiver.
___ 17. Messages sent to one person or to many via a medium such as a telephone, email, or instant messaging.
a. Linear Communication Model
d. Message If you want to learn more check out How did oxygen affect evolution?
h. Mediated Communication
j. External Noise
k. Physiological Noise
l. Internal Noise
m. Psychological Noise
n. Semantic Noise
p. Transactional Communication Model
D. Contexts of Communication Key Terms: Match the key term with its correct definition:
___ 1. Communication related to a specific culture(s).
___ 2. Occurs when a group becomes too large for all members to contribute. Characterized by an unequal amount of speaking and by limited verbal feedback.
___ 3. A two-person unit.
___ 4. Occurs within a structured collection of people in order to meet a need or pursue a goal.
___ 5. The transmission of messages to large, usually widespread audiences via broadcast, print, multimedia, online, and other forms of media such as recordings and movies.
___ 6. Occurs in which the parties consider one another as unique individuals rather than as objects.
___ 7. Occurs within a single person.
___ 8. Two-person communication.
___ 9. Occurs within a group that is small enough for every member to participate actively with all other members.
a. Intrapersonal communication
c. Dyadic communication If you want to learn more check out What are three ways to reduce health care costs?
d. Interpersonal communication
e. Small group communication
f. Organizational communication If you want to learn more check out What do hox genes determine?
g. Public communication
h. Mass communication
i. Intercultural communication
E. Communication Competence
1. List the characteristics of competent communication: a.
2. List the characteristics of competent communicators: a.
F. Communication Competence with Social Media
1. Define Web 2.0
2. List effective techniques for social media communication competence
G. Correcting Misconceptions about Communication
1. True or False: Communication always requires complete understanding.
2. True or False: Communication can solve all problems.
3. True or False: Communication isn’t always a bad thing.
4. True or False: Meanings are in people, not in words.
5. True or False: Communication is not simple.
6. True or False: More communication is always better.
II. Chapter Two: The Self, Perception and Communication A. The Self-Concept Defined
1. What is the difference between self-concept and self-esteem? 2. Define Reflected Appraisal
3. How can a significant other’s opinion affect one’s self-concept? 4. List the three culture influences of self-concept
5. True or False: Self-concept influences communication with others.
6. Five three examples of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
B. Perceiving Others Effectively
1. How can one correct their own sex and gender misconceptions? a.
2. List the behaviour attributions that can be corrected.
C. Empathy and Perception Challenges
1. What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? 2. Define Perception Checking
D. Identity Management
1. What is the difference between perceived self and presenting self?
2. True or False: The word “face” is used to describe the presenting self and “facework” is used to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image and the image of others.
3. True or False: We only have one identity.
4. True or False: Managing your identity always makes you dishonest.
III. Chapter Three: Communication and Culture
A. Culture Defined
1. List what we can share and learn from culture.
2. What is the difference between in-groups and out-groups? 3. Define Salience
B. Cocultures and Communication
1. What are some cocultures included in today’s society? a.
2. True or False: Social class does not have any major impact on how people communicate.
C. Culture Values and Norms That Shape Communication 1. Define Individualistic Cultures
2. Define Collective Cultures
3. What are some ways where individualistic cultures differ from collective cultures?
4. What is the difference between high and low context cultures? 5. True or False: The term uncertainty avoidance is used to reflect the degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how they try to avoid them. 6. Define Power Distance
7. List three competitive cultures.
8. List three cooperative cultures.
D. Developing Intercultural Communication Competence 1. List behaviours that develop intercultural communication competence
2. Define Ethnocentrism.
3. What is the difference between prejudice and stereotyping? 4. True or False: The three strategies for moving toward a more mindful, competent style of intercultural communication are passive observation, active strategies and self-disclosure.
IV. Chapter Four: Language
A. The Nature of Language: Match the key term with its definition ___ 1. A collection of symbols, governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals.
___ 2. Arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts.
___ 3. Linguistic rules governing how sounds are combined to form words.
___ 4. Rules that govern the ways in which symbols can be arranged as opposed to the meanings of those symbols.
___ 5. Rules that govern the meaning of language as opposed to its structure.
___ 6. Rules that govern how people use language in everyday interaction.
a. Phonological Rules
c. Semantic Rules
d. Pragmatic Rules
e. Syntactic Rules
B. The Power of Language
1. What are the values, attitudes and beliefs that can be shaped by language?
2. What attitudes can be reflected by language?
3. What is the difference between convergence and divergence? C. Troublesome Language: Match the key term with its definition ___ 1. Language with more than one likely interpretation
___ 2. Words that gain their meaning by comparison.
___ 3. Language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar coculture or another group.
___ 4. The specialized vocabulary that is used as a kind of shorthand by people with common backgrounds and experiences.
___ 5. A statement that can be verified as being true or false. ___ 6. A statement based on the speaker’s beliefs.
___ 7. Conclusion arrived at from an interpretation of evidence. ___ 8. Language that conveys the sender’s attitude rather than simply offering an objective description.
___ 9. A pleasant-sounding term used in place of a more direct but less pleasant one.
___ 10. A vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way.
a. Emotive Language
c. Opinion Statement
e. Equivocal Words
f. Inferential Statement
h. Factual Statement
j. Relative Words
D. Gender and Language
1. Describe ways that male and female speech patterns can differ. 2. Describe ways that male and female speech patterns can be alike.
3. True or False: The relationship between gender and language is simple.